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Fifth Ed 


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SWITZERLAND , and the adjacent Parts of ITALY, 

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January 1875. 





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With 7 Maps and 8 Plans. 

Fifth Edition, Revised and Augmented. 


'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



The object of the present Handbook is to supply the 
traveller with information which will render him as nearly 
as possible independent of the services of guides , valets-de- 
place, and others of the same class ; to afford him some 
idea of the progress of civilisation and art among the people 
with whom he is about to become acquainted; and thus 
to enable him to realise to the fullest extent the enjoyment 
and instruction to be derived from a tour in Italy. 

The Handbook is, moreover, intended to guide the 
traveller to the places and objects most deserving of notice 
with the greatest possible economy of time, money, and, it 
may be added , temper ; for in no country is the patience 
more severely tried than in some parts of Italy. The Edi- 
tor will endeavour to accompany the enlightened traveller 
through the streets of the Italian towns , and to all the prin- 
cipal edifices and works of art ; and to pilot his steps 
amidst the exquisite scenery in which Italy so richly abounds. 

The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ex- 
perience of the places described ; but, as changes of various 
kinds are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate 
any bond fide information with which travellers may favour 
him. That already received, which in many instances has 
been most serviceable , he gratefully acknowledges. 

The present edition of Southern Italy and Sicily has 
been revised and corrected down to the end of 1874, and 
the information regarding Naples and its environs in parti- 
cular has been carefully tested and amplified. The insertion 
of excursions to the Lipari Islands, Malta, Sardinia, Tunis 
(Carthage), and Athens does not add materially to the bulk 


of the volume, and will be acceptable to many travellers. 
The new article on Ancient Art by Prof. R. KehuU of 
Bonn has been adapted for the use of English travellers 
with the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. Croive , author of a 
'New History of Painting in Italy', and will be found sug- 
gestive by the traveller when visiting the museum of Naples 
or the ruins of Pompeii. 

The Maps and Plans , on which special care has been 
bestowed, will suffice for the use of all ordinary travellers. 
Those who desire a more intimate acquaintance with the 
country than the Handbook will enable them to attain should 
purchase the supplementary sheets of (1. Mayr's Atlas of 
the Alps ( for Central and Southern Italy) , which are most 
easily procured in Germany (price , mounted , 2 dollars 
each). For Naples the map of the Heal Officio Topor/rafico 
(Naples, 1835) will be found useful. 

Heights are given in English feet. 

Distances are generally given in English miles. The 
Italian 'miglio' varies. Approximately it may be stated 
that 1 Engl. M. = 4 /s Neap. migl. = 1 1 / 15 Sicil. miglio. 

Time-Tables. The most trustworthy are contained in 
the 'Indieatore Vfficiale chile Simile Ferrate , etc. (with small 
map, price 1 fr.), published monthly. 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary so much as in Italy, 
and attempts at extortion are probably nowhere so out- 
rageous. The asterisks indicate those hotels which the 
Editor believes to be the most respectable , clean , and 
reasonable. The charges in the most frequented places 
have a constant tendency to rise, but those of the last few 
years, stated in the Handbook, will enable the traveller to 
form an approximate estimate! of the demands which ran be 
justly made. 


Introduction. p , 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xm 

III. Language xiv 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage .... xiv 
V. Public Safety. Begging xv 

VI. Intercourse with Italians xvi 

VII. Conveyances xyiii 

VIII. Hotels xxn 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, etc xxiv 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc xxvi 

XI. Reckoning of Time xxvu 

XII. Postal Arrangements xxvn 

XIII. Climate. Mode of Life xxvm 

XIV. Dates of Recent Events , . . xxix 

XV. History of Ancient Art by Prof. R. Kekule . . xx\ 

Route RouteS - 

1. From Rome to Naples. Railway by Velletri, Sun Gerniano, 

and Capua 1 

1. Alatri. Grotto of Collepardo 3 

2. Monte Casino 5 

3. From Cancello to Bcnevcnto 10 

2. From Rome to Naples. P»y the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, 
Gaeta, and Capua II 

1. Sezza. Piperno ... 13 

2. Promontorio Circeo 13 

3. Sperlonga 16 

3. From Leghorn (Rome) to Naples (by Sea") 20 

4. Naples 21 

I. Side towards the Sea 3S 

Castello delT Ovo. S. Lucia. S. Francesco di Paola. Palazzo 
Reale. Teatro San Carlo. Municipio. S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli. 
Fontana Medina. Castel Nuovo. Porto Militare. Porto Grande. 
Light-house. ::: S. Maria del Carmine. 

II. Toledo. Capodimonte 45 

Piazza de 1 Martiri. Toledo. Catacombs. Palazzo di Capodi- 
monte. Villa Regina Isabella. Observatory. 

III. The Old Town ' 49 

"L'Incoronata. Palazzo Fondi. S. Maria la Nuova. Post Office. 
:: 'S. Anna de 1 Lombardi. "Sta. Chiara. S. Domcnico. La 
Cappella di S. Severo. S. Angelo a Nilo. University. S. Se- 
verino e Susio. Palazzo Santangelo. Castel Capuano. Ceme- 
teries. 'S. Giovanni a Carhonara. "Cathedral. Sta. Restituta. 
S. Filippo Neri. S. Paolo Alaggiore. S. Lorenzo. S. Pietro 
a Maiella. Conservatory of Music. 


Route Page 

IV. The Museum 62 

V. The Posilipo 76 

* Villa Nazionale. "Aquarium. Mergellina. Chiesa del Sannazaro. 
Grotta di Seiano. Nisida. Grotta di Posilipo. Virgil's Tomb. 
Lago d'Agnano. Astroni. Corso Vittorio Emanuele. ~'S. Martino. 
Castel S. Elmo. Strada deir Infrascata, "Camaldoli. 

5. Pozzuoli, Baiae, Misenurn, Cuius 86 

6. Procida and Ischia 98 

7. Mount Vesuvius 103 

Herculaneum 110 

8. Pompeii 113 

9. Castellamare, Sorrento, and Capri 138 

10. From Naples to Salerno, Pactum, and Amalfl . . 149 

1. Corpo di Cava 151 

2. Ravello 159 

3. From Amalfl to Sorrento 160 

4. From Scaricatojo to Sorrento 160 

5. From Positano to Sorrento 160 

6. From Amalfl to Castellamare by the Little S. Angelo . 160 

11. From Ancona to Brindisi and the Apulian Peninsula . 161 

1. Fermo 162 

2. Ascoli 163 

3. Teramo. Gran Sasso. Atri 163 

4. From Termoli to Maddaloni. Campobasso .... 165 

5. Lucera. Manfredonia 166 

6. Canosa. Andria. Ruvo 168 

7. Gallipoli 173 

8. Promontory of Leuca 174 

1'2. From Ancona to Naples by Foggia 174 

1. From Foggia to Candela ... 174 

13. From Naples to Nola and Avellino 177 

14. From Ancona to Naples by Pescara, Popoli, Solmona. 

and through the Abruzzi 179 

15. From Terni to Naples by Aquila, and through the Abruzzi 182 

1. Leonessa. Cascia. Norcia 183 

2. S. Vittorino 185 

16. From Ancona to Naples by Avezzano. Lago di Fucino 

and Valley of the Liris 185 

1. Tagliacozzo 188 

2. Arpino i 90 

17. From Naples to the Coast of the Adriatic by Eboli, 
Poten/.a, Melfi, and Venosa 190 

1. From Potenza to Acerenza ... 192 

2. From Melfi to Venosa .... 193 

18. From Bari to Taranto . 193 

19. From Taranto to Reggio 197 

1. Cassano igg 

20. From Naples to Reggio 201 

1 Valley of Marsieo. Viggiano. Moliterno 202 

2. Nicastro 204 

3. S. Stefano del Eosco 205 

4. The Aspromonte ... 207 


Route Sicily. Pagc 

General Remarks .... . 208 
Geography and Statistics ... .211 

Historical Notice ... 213 

1. Political History .513 

2. History of Civilisation and Art ... . . '.217 

21 . From Naples to Sicily 222 

A. To Messina 222 

B. To Palermo 224 

22. Palermo 225 

23. Environs of Palermo 234 

a. Monreale. La Cuba. La Zisa. S. Martino . . 234 

b. Monte Pellegrino. The Favorita 237 

c. The Bagaria. Solanto 238 

d. S. Maria di Gesfi 239 

1. Tstica ... ... .240 

24. From Palermo to Segesta, Castelvetrano, and Selinunto 240 

25. From Palermo to Segesta, Trapani, Marsala, and Castel- 
vetrano .' 245 

1. S. Pantaleo. Motya 249 

26. From Castelvetrano (Selimmto) to Girgenti .... 250 

27. From Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, Terra nuova, 
Modica (Val d'Jspicn), and Palazzolo 257 

1. From Vittoria to Modica by Scoglieti 259 

2. From Modica to Syracuse liy Koto 262 

28. From Palermo to Girgenti 262 

1. From Palermo to Sciacca liy Corleone ... . 264 

29. Inland Route from Palermo to Catania ... 265 

1. From Castrogiovanni to Catania by Caltagirone . . 270 

2. From Girgenti to Castrogiovanni and Catania by C'alla- 

nisetta 271 

30. From Palermo along the Coast to Messina . . 272 

1. Tyndaris 276 

2. From Termini to Leonforte . 278 

31. Messina 278 

1. Excursions from Messina. F'aro . . ... 283 

32. The Lipari Islands 285 

33. From Messina to Catania 288 

a. Railway via Taormina, Giarre, and Aci-Reale . 288 

b. By Taormina, Piedimonte, and AdernO .... 294 

34. Catania 296 

35. Mount ^Etna 300 

36. From Catania to Syracuse 306 

37. Syracuse 308 


Route Page 

38. Excursion to Malta 319 

39. Sardinia 322 

a. Cagliari. Pula. Iglesias 327 

b. From Cagliari to Sassari 329 

c. Sassari. Porto Torres 332 

d. From Cagliari to Nuoro, with excursions into the 

Mountains of La Barbagia 333 

40. Excursion to Tunis (Carthage) 335 

41. Excursion to Athens 342 

a. From Naples to the Pirceus 343 

b. From Brindisi to the Pi r« us by Corfu and the Isthmus 

of Corinth 345 

Excursions from Athens. Eleusis. Cepliissia. Penteli. Pliyle. 

Kivsariani. Pira'us ....... 377 


1. Map of Italy, facing title-page. 

2. Map of the Environs op Naples, between pp. 86 and 87. 

3. Map of Sicily, at the end of the book. 

4. Map of the Environs of Palermo (and those of Trapani), 
between pp. 234 and 235. 

5. Map of jEtna, between pp. 300 and 301. 

15. Map of Sardinia, between pp. 322 and 323. 

7. Map of the Environs of Athens, between pp. 376 and 377. 


1. Plan of Naples, between pp. 22 and 23. 

2. Plan of the Museo Nazionale, between pp. 62 and 63. 

3. Plan of Pompeii, between pp. 114 and 115. 

4. Plan of Palermo, between pp. 224 and 225. 

5. Plan of Girgenti, between pp. 252 and 253. 

6. Plan of Messina, between pp. 278 and 279. 

7. Plan of Syracuse and Environs, between pp. 308 and 309. 

8. Plan of Athens, between pp. 348 and 349. 


N. S. E. W. = north , northern, northwards; south, etc.; 
east, etc. ; west, etc. 

M. = Engl. mile. It. = bedroom. B. = breakfast. 

1). = dinner. W. = wine. S. = supper. L. = light. 
A. = attendance. 

r. = right. 1. = left. hr. = hour. min. = minute. 


are used as marks of commendation. 


"Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes 1 fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced." 


From the earliest ages down t to the present time Italy has 
possessed powerful attractions for the denizens of more northern 
lands, and a journey thither has often been the fondly cherished 
wish of many an aspiring traveller. At the present day that wish 
may be gratified with comparative facility. Prior to 1860 the 
peninsula possessed but few railways, and these were of insigni- 
ficant extent, and exclusively of local importance ; but Northern 
Italy is now connected by a direct railway with the southern 
part of the peninsula , including Naples and Brindisi , and the 
approaching completion of a great network of other lines will soon 
enable the traveller to penetrate into the interior of provinces 
hitherto untrodden by the ordinary tourist. Nor is rapidity of 
locomotion the only advantage which has been attained since that 
period. A uniform monetary system has superseded the numerous 
and perplexing varieties of coinage formerly in use ; the passport 
and custom-house annoyances with which the traveller was assailed 
at every frontier, and even in many an insignificant town, have 
been greatly mitigated ; an,d energetic measures have been adopted 
in order to put an end to the extortions of vetturini, facchini, 
and other members of this irritating class. Whilst persons in 
search of adventure and excitement will miss many of the charac- 
teristic elements of former Italian travel, those who desire the 
more rational enjoyments derived from scenery , art , or science 
will not fail to rejoice in the altered state of the country. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on 
the traveller's means and habits. Generally it may be stated that his 
expenses need not exceed those incurred in the more frequented 
parts of the continent. The average expenditure of a single tra- 
veller may be estimated at 2f) — 30 francs per day, or about half 
that sum when a prolonged stay is made at one place, while those 


who are acquainted with the language and habits of the country 
may succeed in reducing their expenses to still narrower limits. 
Persons travelling as members of a party also effect a consid- 
erable saving by sharing the expense of guides, carriages, and 
other items. When, however, ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are always unavoidably greater ; not merely because the 
better hotels, and the more comfortable modes of travelling are se- 
lected, but because the Italians assume the traveller in this case 
to be wealthier, and therefore a more fitting object for extortion. 

Money. The French monetary system is now used troughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 
centesimi ; 1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark = 50 Austrian 
kreuzer. The silver coins in common circulation are Italian 
pieces of l fe, 1, and 2 fr., and Italian or French 5 fr. pieces. 
The commonest gold coins are Italian and French 10 and 20 fr. 
pieces (those of 5 and 40 fr. rare). In bronze (bronzo or rame) 
there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. A piece of 5 c. 
is called a soldo or sou, and as the lower classes often keep their 
accounts in soldi , the traveller may find it useful to familiarise 
himself with this mode of reckoning. See also the Money Table, 
opposite the title-page. 

Banknotes. Since the introduction of a paper currency during 
the war of 1866 , at a compulsory rate of exchange, gold and 
silver coins have almost entirely disappeared from ordinary cir- 
culation, and bulky bundles of small notes have taken their 
place. For these the purses used in most other countries are 
of course unsuitable, but one adapted for the purpose may be 
purchased in Italy for II/2 — 2 fr. ; in addition to which a 
strong pouch for copper will be found useful. In accordance 
with a law to regulate the paper currency , which came into 
operation on 1st Jan. 1875, government has begun to issue new 
notes ; but in Lower Italy the notes of the Banca di Napoli and 
the Banca Nazionale, and in Sicily those of the Banca di Sicilia 
are still generally current. The numerous private banks which 
have hitherto deluged the country with notes of every kind, 
down to as little as 25 centimes each , have by the new law 
been prohibited to issue them as long as the compulsory value 
of government banknotes prevails. 

Exchange. Gold and silver are worth considerably more than 
Italian banknotes of nominally the same value. In 1874 the 
gain in exchanging the precious metals or English banknotes or 
circular notes for Italian paper was 12 — 15 per cent, while con- 
versely the loss was 15 — 18 per cent. A napoleon, for example, 
realised 221/2—23 fr., and a sovereign 28— 283/ 4 fr. If the trav- 
eller makes a payment in gold he is of course entitled to de- 
cline receiving banknotes in exchange, unless the difference in 
value be taken into account. In exchanging gold or English 


notes for Italian paper at a money-changer's ('cambia valuta'), 
notes of convenient amount and of the district about to he vi- 
sited should be stipulated for. Those money-changers who pub- 
licly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange are the 
most satisfactory. 

Old Currencies. In S. Italy the lower classes still occasionally 
use the old Neapolitan money : 1 piastra (pezza) =' 12 carlini = 
5 fr. 10 c. ; 1 ducato (a sum, not now a coin) = 4 fr. 25 c. ; 
2 carlini = 85 c. ; 1 carlino = 10 grani = 42'/ 2 c. ; 1 grano = 
•i'/'-i c. — Piastres, half-piastres, two-carlini, and carlino pieces 
are still current , but are not very often met with. The trav- 
eller is cautioned against taking two-carlini pieces for francs, or 
carlinos for half-francs. With regard to Sicily, coinp. p. 210. 
An acquaintance with these old coins and modes of reckoning is 
chiefly useful in the more remote districts. 

Best Money for the Tour. Before entering Italy , the trav- 
eller should obtain a moderate supply of French Gold (one Na- 
poleon = 22 — 23 fr. in paper), which is procured in England, 
France , or Germany on more advantageous terms than in Italy, 
and is current in every part of Italy. Sovereigns and Bank of 
England notes (one pound = 27^2 — ^S'/o fr. in paper) are re- 
ceived at their full value by most of the hotel - keepers , as 
well as by the money-changers in the principal towns and resorts 
of travellers, but not- in remote districts. The Circular Notes 
issued by the English banks are very convenient for the transport 
of large sums, and always realise the full current exchange. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 

Season. The season selected must of course depend on the 
traveller himself, but the colder months are usually preferred. 
Most travellers hound for the South cross the Alps in Sep- 
tember or October, and arrive in Rome about the beginning of 
November. Rome is the favourite winter-residence of strangers 
till the Carnival, but at the beginning of Lent the beautiful 
scenery of Naples becomes the chief attraction , while the ma- 
jority prepare to leave the country before the beginning of sum- 
mer. In this vast and ever-varying influx' of travellers the 
English element is always greatly predominant. No month in 
the year can be pronounced absolutely unsuitable for travelling 
in Italy, but the seasons recommended are the late autumn (15th 
Sept. to loth Nov.), and the months of April and May. The 
rainy winter season is most profitably spent in one of the larger 
cities , of which Rome is unquestionably the most interesting. 
June , July , and August are hardly suitable for a tour. The 
scenery indeed is then in perfection , and the long days are 
hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller ; but he will 
soon experience the enervating effects of exposure to the fierce 


rays of an Italian sun. These effects are produced, not so much by 
the intensity, as by the protracted duration of the heat, the sky 
being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of rain falling for several 
months in succession , until the first showers of autumn again 
refresh the parched atmosphere about the end of August. 

Plan. The plan of a tour in Italy must of course be framed 
in accordance with the object which the traveller has in view. 
Florence, Rome, and Naples are the principal centres of attrac- 
tion ; but the less frequented parts of the interior also present 
inexhaustible sources of interest, and the scenery is nowhere so 
beautiful as in S. Italy and Sicily. The traveller who desires 
more than a superficial acquaintance with Italy must not devote 
his attention to the larger towns exclusively. The farther he 
diverges from the beaten track , the better insight he will 
obtain into the characteristics of this fascinating country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on 
the study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds 
on his journey. It is quite possible to travel through Italy 
without a knowledge of Italian or French, but in this case the 
traveller cannot conveniently deviate from the beaten track, and 
is moreover invariably made to pay '■alia Inglese, by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. A 
knowledge of French is very useful , as the Italians are very 
partial to that language , and speak it on every available op- 
portunity, but for those who desire to confine their expenditure 
within reasonable limits, a slight acquaintance with the language - }- 
of the country is indispensable. 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage. 

Passports. Passports are not required in Italy, but it is un- 
wise not to be provided with one of these documents, as it may 
occasionally prove useful. Registered letters, for example, are not 
delivered to strangers unless they exhibit a passport as a gua- 
rantee of their identity. In the remote districts, too, where the 
public safety still cfemands rigorous supervision, especially in the 
southern provinces , the traveller who cannot show his creden- 

+ 'Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in four Languages (English, 
French, German, and Jlalian), with Vocabulary, etc.'' (19th Edit.) will 
be found serviceable for this purpose. With the addition of a pocket-dic- 
tionary, the traveller may safely encounter the difficulties of the situation. 
— In addressing persons of the educated classes 'lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'hf 
by those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the commonest 
mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is generally regarded 
as inelegant or uncourteous. 


tials is liable to detention. — The Italian police authorities will 
be found uniformly civil and obliging. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is usually very lenient. Tobacco and cigars are 
the articles most sought for. Each traveller, however, is allowed 
a hundred cigars free of duty. The 'dazio consumo' , or mu- 
nicipal tax levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, 
seldom of course requires to be paid by ordinary travellers. An 
assurance that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty gen- 
erally suffices to prevent detention. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods' train, and then only through the medium of a trustworthy 
goods' agent, to whom the keys must be forwarded. As a rule 
the traveller will find it advisable, and less expensive, never to 
part from his luggage , and to superintend the custom-house 
examination in person. 

V. Public Safety. Begging. 

Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of Fra Diavolo's 
and Rinaldo Rinaldini's , an impression fostered by tales of 
travellers and sensational letters to newspapers ; but the fact 
is, that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly attend- 
ed with greater hazard than in any of the northern European 
countries , while Southern Italy cannot now be regarded as unsafe 
exsept in its most remote recesses. The traveller may, however, 
be reminded of the danger of seeking quarters for the night in 
inferior or little frequented inns in large towns. Rome and 
Naples, for example, are notorious for inns of doubtful reputation. 
Even in the most secure districts temporary associations of free- 
booters are occasionally formed for some predatory enterprise, but 
the attacks of such bands are generally directed against wealthy 
inhabitants of the country , who are known to be travelling 
with large sums of money , and seldom against strangers , with 
whose movements and finances such marauders are not likely to be 
acquainted. Travellers, however, especially when accompanied 
by ladies , should not neglect the ordinary precaution of ask- 
ing for information as to the safety of the roads from the 
gensdarmes ('carabinieri' , generally respectable and trustworthy) 
and other authorities. 

The Brigantaggio, properly so called, is a local evil, which 
it is always easy to avoid. Owing to the revolution of 1860 it 
had increased in the Neapolitan provinces to an alarming extent. 
The Italian Government has done its utmost to remove this 
national scourge, and its efforts have in a great measure been 
successful ; but the evil still resembles the smouldering of an 
imperfectly extinguished conflagration, which from time to time 
bursts forth anew. The demoralisation of the inhabitants of 
the southern provinces is still HoT>i ora foiy great, and the brigan- 


dage there is not only fostered by popular discontent and a 
pretended sympathy for the Bourbons, but is actually caTried on 
as a speculation by landed proprietors. These 'gentry' frequently 
equip and harbour gangs of banditti, with whom they share the 
spoil ; or they at least aid and abet them, on condition that 
their own property is respected. The evil is moreover favoured 
by the mountainous character of the country , into the remote 
recesses of which troops cannot easily penetrate. The only no- 
toriously bad districts are now some parts of Calabria and Latium. 
Sicily has also of late years been much infested by brigands, 
especially the provinces of Palermo and Girgenti ; but even in 
the most dangerous localities those who adopt the ordinary pre- 
cautions may travel with tolerable safety. Weapons cannot legally 
be carried without a licence. For the ordinary traveller they 
are a mere burden, and in the case of a reneontre with brigands 
they only serve greatly to increase the danger. 

Begging. Mendicancy, which was countenanced and encou- 
raged by the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be 
one of those national nuisances to which the traveller must habit- 
uate himself. Begging in Italy is a trade rather than a genuine 
demand for alms. The best mode of getting rid of importunate 
applicants is to bestow a small donation, a supply of the smallest 
coin of the realm being kept ready for the purpose , or else to 
decline giving with — 'non o'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. 
A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with a donation 
of 2 c. and thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was 
on another presented with 50 c. ; but this act of liberality, instead 
of being gratefully accepted , only called forth the remark in a 
half-offended tone: 'ma signore e molto poco !' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

Travelling in Italy, and particularly in the southern pro- 
vinces, differs essentially in some respects from that in France. 
Germany, and Switzerland, chiefly owing to the almost invariable 
practice of bargaining. The system of fixed prices is, however, 
being gradually introduced. 

The traveller is regarded by landlords, waiters, drivers, por- 
ters, and others of a similar class, as their natural and legitimate 
prey. Deception and imposition are considered very venial of- 
fences by Italians of the lower class , who regard success in 
these arts as a proof of superior sagacity. The traveller who com- 
placently submits to extortion is therefore less respected than 
he who stoutly resists barefaced attempts upon his credulity. 
Among the Swiss Mountains the judicious traveller knows well 
when to share the contents of his cigar-case or spirit-flask with his 
guide; but in this country such amiable manifestations are only 
calculated to awaken greater cupidity and discontent. 


On the principal routes, and especially in Naples, the insolence 
of this mercenary fraternity has attained to such an unexampled 
pitch, that the traveller is often tempted to doubt whether such 
a thing as honesty is known in Italy; but a more intimate acquain- 
tance with the people and their habits will satisfy him that his 
misgivings apply to the above classes only, and not to the com- 
munity generally. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted is universal ; but a knowledge 
of the custom , which is based upon the presumed ignorance of 
one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the evil. 
Where tarilfs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases where an average price is established by 
custom, the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect 
to the service to be rendered, and never rely on the equity of 
the other party. The preliminaries of a bargain once adjusted, 
the traveller will often find the people with whom he has to 
deal more trustworthy than he anticipated. 

Individuals who appeal to he generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty , or who , as rarely happens, are offended by 
manifestations of distrust, may well be answered in the words of 
the proverb , 'patti chiari, amicizia lung a . In the following 
pages the average prices of hotel accommodation and other items 
are stated with all possible accuracy , and although liable to 
fluctuation , will often prove a safeguard against gross extortion. 
The equanimity of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist 
him if involved in a dispute or bargain , and he should pay no 
attention whatever to vehement gesticulations or an offensive 
demeanour. The slighter his knowledge of the Italian language 
is, the more careful should he be not to involve himself in a war 
of words, in which he must necessarily be at great disadvantage. 

It need hardly be observed that the representations of drivers, 
guides, and others of a similar class, with whom even the in- 
habitants of the place often appear to act in concert, are unworthy 
of the slightest reliance. Thus in Naples the charge for a single 
drive is 60 c, and yet the driver would find no difficulty in 
producing twenty individuals to corroborate his assertion that 
the proper fare was 5 fr. In such cases the traveller may ge- 
nerally rely on the data in the Handbook. Where farther in- 
formation is required, it should be sought from printed tariffs, from 
fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, respectably dressed persons present, 
occasionally from landlords , but seldom or never from waiters. 

TKe traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are incessantly in demand. Drivers, guides, porters, and donkey- 
attendants invariably expect , and often demand as a right , a 

baedeker. Italy III. 5th Edition b 


gratuity (buona mano, mancia, da here, bottiylia, caff'e, fumata), 
varying according to circumstances from 2 — 3 sous to a franc or 
more, in addition to their hire. The traveller need not scruple 
to limit his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
is often a fruitful source of annoyance and embarrassment. The 
bestowal of half-a-franc when two sous would have sufficed may 
be fraught with disagreeable results to the injudicious donor ; 
the fact speedily becomes known, and he is besieged by a host 
of other applicants whose demands it becomes utterly impossible 
to satisfy. It may be laid down as a general rule, that the 
exercise of a certain degree of parsimony, however repugnant to 
the feelings of the traveller , will greatly conduce to his comfort 
and enjoyment. 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives should be 
somewhat modified in accordance with their various local charac- 
teristics. The Italians of the north resemble the inhabitants of 
the south of France, and those of Italian Switzerland. The 
character of the Tuscans is more effeminate, their language and 
manners more refined. The bearing of the Roman is grave and 
proud. With these, however, there is no difficulty in associating ; 
and acts of civility or kindness will not be misplaced, even 
when conferred on persons of the lower ranks ; but with the 
class of Neapolitans with whom the traveller generally comes in 
contact the case is entirely different, and one is tempted to be- 
lieve that they designedly conspire to embitter one's enjoyment 
of their delightful country. It is to be hoped, however, that a 
more auspicious era is dawning under the present regime, and 
that the 'policy' of honesty will at length begin to penetrate the 
Italian mind. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Railways. The principal lines with their respective rami- 
fications are four in number : Ferrovie dell' Alta Italia, Romane, 
Meridionali, and Calabro-Sicule, each of which belongs to a diffe- 
rent company. The speed of the trains is always very mode- 
rate. The first-class carriages are seldom better than the second 
in Germany. For a coupe seat, in addition to first-class faro, 
1 1 /. f r is charged for a distance not exceeding 100 kilom. (about 
62V 2 Engl. MO ; 2 fr. 85 c. for 200 kilom. ; 5 fr. 65 c. for 400 
kilom. ; 8 fr. 50 c. for 600 kilom. ; 11 fr. 30 c. for greater dis- 
tances. '<Si cambio convoglio 1 means 'change carriages'. 

In the larger towns railway-tickets may be obtained at the 
agent's office before going to the station. By a law passed on 1st 
Oct. 1866, a tax of 5 c. is imposed on each railway-ticket. It 
is a good plan to be provided with the exact fare before taking 


The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his 
luggage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to 
guard against imposition. Except to holders of through-tickets 
from foreign countries (see below), no luggage is allowed free, 
but what is taken by the passenger into his carriage, which must 
not exceed 20 kilogrammes (about 44 lbs. Engl.) in weight. 
Travellers will therefore find it desirable to limit their 'im- 
pedimenta', if possible, so as to be able to avail themselves 
of this permission. Porters who convey luggage to and from 
the carriages are sufficiently rewarded with a few sous where 
there is no fixed tariff. 

The most trustworthy time-tables are those given by the 
'Indicatore Ufficiale delle Strode Ferrate ', published at Turin 
(1 fr.), and by the 'Outdo, Orarlo Ufficiale', published at Milan 
(' li fr.), with one of which the traveller should provide himself. 
The local time-tables of the Tuscan , Roman , and Neapolitan 
lines , which may be procured at the railway-stations for a few 
sous, will also be found useful. 

Through-tickets and excursion-tickets at considerably reduced 
rates are issued at many of the principal towns in Germany and 
Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, and each 
passenger is allowed 55 lbs. of luggage free. Excursion-tickets 
to the principal towns in Italy and back, available sometimes 
for 50 days, are issued in Italy at a reduction of 45 per cent. 
Farther particulars will be found in the time-tables, or at the 
'agenzia', or office of the railway. Tickets from Italy to Switzer- 
land, Germany, etc. must be partly paid for in gold. Travellers 
about to cross the frontier in either direction are strongly re- 
commended to superintend the custom-house examination of 
luggage in person. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
almost inseparable from a tour in Italy and Sicily, apart from 
the fact that the latter can be reached by water only. If the 
vessel plies near the coast , the voyage is often entertaining ; 
and if the open sea is traversed, the magnificent Italian sunsets, 
lighting up the deep blue water with their crimson rays, present 
a scene not easily forgotten. Rough weather is not very often 
to be apprehended in summer. 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the 
office of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's 
name and destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of 
departure. Fares, duration of voyage, etc. are stated in each in- 
stance in the following pages. First and second class family- 
tickets, for not fewer than three persons , are issued by all the 
companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the passage-money, 
but not on the cost of food. A child of 2 — 10 years pays half- 
fare, but in this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two 



children are entitled to a berth for themselves. The tickets of 
the Messageries Maritimes are available for four months, and the 
voyage may be broken at the passenger's discretion. It may here 
be remarked that the rival French companies Fraissinet and Va- 
le'ry sometimes reduce their fares from 20 to 30 per cent, accord- 
ing to bargain, but as their vessels usually stop to discharge their 
cargoes during the day, and proceed on their voyage at night, 
their progress is often very slow. 

The saloons and berths of the first class are comfortably and 
elegantly fitted up, those of the second tolerably. Passengers 
of the second class have free access, like those of the first, to 
every part of the deck. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 100 kilogrammes 
['220 lbs. Engl. J, second-class 60 kilogr. (132 lbs.), but articles 
not intended for personal use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is included in the 
first and second-class fares (except in the vessels of the Florio 
Co.), the difference between that provided for first and for 
second-class passengers being inconsiderable. Dejeuner a la four- 
chette , served at 10, consists of 3 — 4 courses, tolerable table 
wine, and coffee. Dinner is a similar repast between 5 and 6 
o'clock. At 7 p. m. tea is served in the first, but not in the 
second class. Passengers who are too ill to partake of these 
repasts are furnished with lemonade, etc., gratuitously. Refresh- 
ments may of course be procured at other hours on payment. 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12 — 24 hrs., 
but more if the passenger has made unusual demands upon him. 

Embarkation. Passengers should be on board an hour be- 
fore the advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance 
to the steamboat (usually 1 fr. for each person with luggage) are 
fixed by tariff at all the sea-ports, and will be found in the 
Handbook. Passengers should therefore avoid all discussions on 
the subject with the boatmen, and simply direct them to row 'al 
Vaticano', 'alia Bella Venezia', or whatever th ename of the vessel 
may be. On the way, the boatmen often make demands extra- 
vagantly in excess of the tariff, such as, 'Signore, sono cinque 
lire!' — to which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti!' On 
arriving at the vessel, payment should not be made until the 
traveller with all his luggage is deposited on deck. The wild 
gesticulations of the boatman, who has perhaps calculated upon 
the credulity of his passenger , but receives no more than his 
due (which is ample remuneration) , may be enjoyed with 
serenity from the deck, as on that ' terra sacra ' disputes are 
strictly prohibited. 

The passenger gives up his ticket on board, receives the 
number of his berth, superintends the stowing away of his lug- 


gage, and Anally repairs to the deck to observe the progress of 
the vessel as it quits the harbour, of which a flue view is gene- 
rally obtained. 

Diligences. Corrieri are the swifter conveyances which carry 
the mails, and accommodate two or three passengers only at 
high fares. Diligenze, the ordinary stage-coaches, convey tra- 
vellers with tolerable rapidity, and generally for the same fares 
as similar vehicles on other parts of the continent. They are in 
the hands of private speculators, and where several run in com- 
petition the more expensive are to be preferred. When ladies 
are of the party the coupe (one-third dearer) should if possible 
be secured. The drivers and ostlers generally expect a trifling 
fee (a few soldi) at the end of each stage. 

Vetturini. The communication between many Italian towns 
is maintained by Vetturini, who convey travellers neither very 
comfortably nor rapidly , but at moderate cost. The ordinary 
tourist, however, will rarely have occasion to avail himself of a 
mode of conveyance now rapidly becoming obsolete. Inside places 
are somewhat dearer than those in the cabriolet. The driver 
receives a trifling fee , the ostler 1 soldo , and for removing or 
replacing the luggage 2 soldi. The vetturini are generally trust- 
worthy, and show no less zeal for the comfort and safety of their 
passengers than for the condition of their cattle. With three 
horses and a vehicle to accommodate six passengers 35 — 40 M. 
are accomplished daily. At midday a halt of several hours is 
made. The vetturini also engage to provide the traveller with 
hotel accommodation , which , when thus contracted for , is con- 
siderably less costly than when the traveller caters for himself. 
Where such a bargain is made , it is advisable to draw up a 
carefully worded contract, to which the vetturino affixes his 
signature or mark. This should also be made to include the 
gratuity (tutto compreso) 5 and, if satisfaction is given , an ad- 
ditional fee may be bestowed at the termination of the journey. 
The whole vehicle , or the interior only , may be engaged. It 
should be distinctly arranged before starting, where the night is 
to be passed, and where breakfast and dinner are to be taken. 
The agreement concluded, the vetturino gives the traveller a 
small sum as earnest-money (caparra), by which both parties are 

A single traveller may also bargain with a vetturino for one 
seat, the charge for which varies. The back-seats, 'i primi 
posti', are generally secured by the first comers, who are 
first consulted with regard to the arrangement of the journey. 
For a single traveller a written contract is hardly necessary. A 
previous understanding should, however, be made with regard 
to the gratuity ; and a separate room (stanza separata) at the 


inns should be stipulated for, otherwise the traveller will run 
the risk of being compelled to share the apartment of his tra- 
velling companions. 

Besides the above-mentioned conveyances, carriages may be 
hired everywhere (with one horse about 65 c. per Engl. M.) 

Walking. An Italian never walks if he can possibly drive ; 
to him it is an inscrutable mystery how walking can afford plea- 
sure. The remark has been frequently made to the Editor, Hei 
e signore e vn n piedi?!' In the more frequented districts, 
such as the environs of Rome , the inhabitants are accustomed 
to this mania of strangers, who wander in the Campagna, and 
among the Sabine and Alban Mts. , without exciting much sur- 
prise. Walking excursions in other parts of Italy also possess 
their peculiar attractions , and among other advantages that of 
procuring for the pedestrian the enviable reputation of being a 
pittore, or needy individual from whom little is to be extorted. 

Prolonged walking-tours and fatiguing excursions, such as are 
undertaken in more northern climates, will be found wholly 
impracticable in Italy. Cool and clear weather should if possible 
be selected, and the sirocco studiously avoided. The height of 
summer is totally unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro ; Neapol. ciucio; Sicil. 
vettura, applied to both animals), between which the difference 
of expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant and cheap mode 
of travelling, especially in mountainous districts, where the attend- 
ant (pedone) also acts as a servant for the time being. A bargain 
should be made previously , tutto compreso , a gratuity being 
added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VIII. Hotels. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, 
dirt being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by 
the brilliancy of their southern climate. The traveller will rarely 
suffer from this shortcoming in hotels and lodgings of the best 
class ; but those who quit the beaten track must be prepared for 
privations. In the villages the pig (animale nero) appears as a 
domestic animal and privileged inmate of the houses, to which 
the poultry also have free access. Iron bedsteads should if possible 
be selected, as affording less accommodation to the enemies of 
repose. Insect-powder (jpolvere di Persia, or Keating's) or camphor 
somewhat repels their advances. The zanzare, or mosquitoes, are 
a source of great annoyance, and even of suffering, during the 
autumn months. Windows should always be carefully closed 
before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin curt- 
ains (zanzariera) round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves 
are employed to ward of the tacks of these pertinacious intruders. 


At all the more frequented places there are good hotels of 
the first class, the landlords of which are often Swiss or Ger- 
mans. Rooms 2'/ 2 — 5 fr., bougie 75 c — 1 fr., attendance 1 fr., 
table d'hote 4 — 5 fr., and so on. Charges have risen in some 
respects since the introduction of the compulsory rate of ex- 
change in 1866. Families, for whose reception the hotels are 
often specially fitted up, should make an agreement with the 
landlord with regard to pension (10 — 12 fr. per day for each per- 
son). Strangers are expected to dine at the table d'h6te, other- 
wise the price of their rooms is raised , or the inmates are given 
to understand that their apartments are engaged by other travellers. 
French is spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture of French and 
Italian. Hotel-keepers sometimes demand payment of their bills 
in gold , but no one can be compelled to accede to this, the 
Italian banknotes being in all cases a legal tender, and stipula- 
tion for payment in coin being restricted by law to the case of 
bills of exchange. 

The second-class inns are thoroughly Italian, and rarely very 
clean or comfortable ; charges about one-half the above ; no table 
d'hote, but a trattoria (p. xxiv) is generally connected with the 
house, where refreshments a la carte may be procured at any hour. 
These establishments will often be found convenient and econo- 
mical by the 'voyageur en garcon', but are of course less suitable 
for ladies. 

In hotels of the Italian type, especially in the smaller towns, 
it is advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. 
If exorbitant demands be made, they may generally be reduced 
without difficulty to reasonable limits. An extortionate bill may 
even be reduced although no previous agreement has been 
made, but this is never effected without long and vehement 

The best hotels have fixed charges ; and attendance , exclus- 
ive of boots and commissionaire , is charged in the bill. In the 
smaller inns attendance is usually included in the charge for 
rooms; but if not, 1 fr. per day may be divided between the 
waiter and the facchino , or less for a prolonged stay. Copper 
coins are never despised by such recipients. 

Hotels Oarnis are recommended to persons whose stay at a 
place extends to 10—14 days and upwards , as affording greater 
quiet and independence than the public hotels, and being moreover 
considerably less expensive. Attendance about l /i fr. per day. 

Lodgings of various degrees of comfort and accommodation 
may also be procured where a prolonged residence is contemplated. 
A distinct agreement as to the rent should be entered into 
beforehand. Where a whole suite of apartments is hired , a 
written contract should be drawn up with the aid of some one 
acquainted with the language and customs of the place (e. g. 



a banker"). For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard 
to attendance, linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle 
for coal, etc., will generally suffice. 

A few hints may here be added for the benefit of the less experienced : 

If a prolonged stay is made at a hotel the bill should be demanded 
every three or four days , in order that errors , whether accidental or 
designed, may more 'easily be detected. When the traveller intends 
starting early in the morning , the bill should be obtained over night, 
but not paid* until the moment of departure. It is a favourite practice to 
withhold the bill till the last moment, when the hurry and confusion render 
overcharges less liable to discovery. 

The mental arithmetic of waiters is apt to be exceedingly faulty, 
though rarely in favour of the traveller. A written enumeration of the 
items charged for should therefore be required, and accounts rejected in 
which, as not unfrequently happens, l colazione, pranzo, vino, etc. 1 figure 
in the aggregate. 

Information obtained from waiters, and others of a similar class can 
rarely be relied upon. Enquiries should be addressed to the landlords, and 
even their statements received with caution. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, etc. 

Restaurants (trattorie) are chiefly frequented by Italians, 
and travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtained 
a la carte at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., for l 1 / 2 — 5 fr. ; 
and there is sometimes dinner 'a prezzo fisso', for 2—5 fr. 
The waiters expect a gratuity of 2 — 4 soldi, or about 1 soldo 
for each franc of the bill. The diner who desires to confine 
his expenses within reasonable limits should refrain from ordering 
dishes not included in the bill of fare. 

The following list comprises most of the commoner Italian 
dishes: — 

Minestra, or Zuppa, soup. 
Consume, broth or bouillon. 
Zuppa alia Sante , soup with 

green vegetables and bread. 
Gnocehi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with 

Risotto, a kind of rice pudding 

Maccaroni al burro, with butter ; 

al pomidoro, with tomatas. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritti, fried meat. 
Arrosti, roasted meat. 
Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscietto, loin. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 

Braecioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Costoletta alia minuta, veal-cutlet 

with calfs ears and truffles. 
Patate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lhdola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Principi alia tavola, or piattini, 

hot relishes. 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too 

Presciutto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 
Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
(jallotta, turkey. 
Vmidi, meat with sauce. 
Stufatino, ragout. 
Erbe, vegetables. 
Carciofi, artichokes. 


Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fare, beans. 

Fagiuolini, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Frutta , or Oiardinetto , fruit- 

Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind 
of pastry. 

Fragole, strawberries. 

Pera, pear. 

Persiche, peaches. 

Uva, bunch of grapes. 

Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or Portogallo, orange. 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Pane francese, bread made with 

yeast (the Italian is made 

Formaggio, cheese. 
Vino nero, red wine ; bianco, 

white ; asciutto, dry ; dolce, 

sweet ; nostrale, table-wine. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch , and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. Cafe noir {Caffe nero) 
is most commonly drunk (15 — 20 c. per cup). Caffe latte is coffee 
mixed with milk before served (20 — 30 c.) ; or caffe e latte, i. e. 
with the milk served separately, may be preferred (30 — 40 c). 
Misehio is a mixture of coffee and chocolate (15 — 20 c), considered 
wholesome and nutritious. The usual viands for lunch are ham, 
sausages, cutlets, and eggs (uova da here, soft; toste, hard; uova 
al piatto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto, or gelato) of every conceivable variety are 
supplied at the cafes, at 30 — 90 c. per portion; or half a portion 
(mezzo) may be ordered. Oranita, or half-frozen ice (limonata, 
of lemons ; aranciata of oranges), is chiefly in vogue in the 
forenoon. The waiter (cameriere or bottega), who expects a sou 
or more , according to the amount of the payment , occasionally 
makes mistakes in giving change if not watched. 

"Wine-hotjsbs (osterie), the resort of the lower classes , are 
dirty and uninviting, but the wine is sometimes good. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the 
larger cafes, the English rarely. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5 fr. 
per day, the employer distinctly specifying the services to be 
rendered. They are generally trustworthy and respectable , but 
implicit reliance should not be placed on their statements re- 
garding the places most worthy of a visit, which the traveller 
should ascertain from the guide-book or other source. Their ser- 
vices may always be dispensed with, unless time is very limited. 
Travellers are cautioned against employing the sensali, or commis- 
sionaires of an inferior class, who pester the stranger with offers 
of every description. 


X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open till noon, and usually again from 4 to 7 
p. m. ; some of the most important, the -whole day. Visitors 
may inspect the works of art even during the hours of divine 
service, provided they move about noiselessly, and keep aloof 
from the altar where the clergy are officiating. The verger (sa- 
grestano, or nonzolo) receives a fee of 1 /'2 tr - or upwards, if his 
services are required. 

Theatres. The performances in the large theatres begin at 
8, 8. 30, or 9, and terminate at midnight or later. Operas and 
ballets are exclusively performed ; the first act of an opera being 
usually succeeded by a ballet of three or more acts. Verdi is 
the most popular composer. The pit (platea), to which holders 
of the ordinary biglietto d'ingresso are admitted , is the usual 
resort of the men. For the reserved seats (scanni chiusi, sedie 
clause , poltrone , posti distinti) and boxes (palco) additional 
tickets must be taken. Ladies of course engage a box, or at 
least reserved seats. The former must always be secured in 
advance. — A visit to the smaller theatres, where dramas and 
comedies are acted, is recommended for the sake of familiarising 
the ear with the language. Performances in summer take place 
in the open air , when smoking is allowed. — The theatre is 
the usual evening resort of the Italians , by whom profound 
silence is never observed during the performance of the music. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price demanded should be offered. The same rule 
applies to artizans, drivers, and others. 'iVbn volete?' (then you will 
notVJ is a remark which generally has the effect of bringing the 
matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should never be made 
by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de-place. These 
individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the 
purchase-money, which of course comes out of the pocket of the 

Cigars in Italy (Sicily excepted) are a monopoly of Govern- 
ment, and bad; those under 3 — 4 soldi scarcely smokable. The 
Sicilian cigars are cheaper, but not better. The same remark 
applies to the Maltese cigars. Good imported Havannahs cost 
40—60 c. each. 

Writing Materials. 
Calamaio, inkstand. 
Carta da lettere, letter-paper. 
Carta da serivere, writing-paper. 
Carta lucida, tissue-paper. 
Cera di Spayna, Mealing- wax. 
Eweloppe, envelope. 
Inchiostro, ink. 

Lapis, pencil. 
Penna, pen. 
Pennello, brush. 
Portafoglio, pocket-book. 
Scarto, refuse (photographs). 
Tablette, drawing-board. 
Temperino, pen-knife. 



XI. Reckoning of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused 
in all the larger towns, except by the lower classes, but is still 
almost universally employed in the country, especially in Sicily. 
The ordinary reckoning of other nations is termed ora francese. 

The moment of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 
'half past 23 o'clock' ; the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after 
which it is '24 o'clock', or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' 
is rung. The following hours are usually called 'un ora di notte', 
'due ore di notte', etc. This troublesome mode of calculation 
would necessitate a daily alteration of every time-piece in the 
kingdom, but it is thought sufficiently accurate to alter the 
hour of Ave Maria by a quarter of an hour about once a fort- 
night. The following table shows the Italian compared with the 
ordinary hours. 

By Ital. time 

S3 ^ 

'E, a s. 

By Ital. time 

^ — ■ 

5 = 3 

So 3 



«^; = 



«-* =' 





<d<m * 












July 1—12. 





183| 4 



' 13—31. 

16'/ 1 





18'( 2 

6>| 2 

5>| 2 

Aug. 1—15. 


i'| 2 

7i| 2 







43| 4 











1— 5. 




Sept. 1— 5. 











63| 4 


17'| 2 

5'| 2 

6'| 2 


17'| 2 

5>| 2 

6'| 2 


17i| 4 




173| 4 








Oct. 1—10. 


53| 4 











163| 4 






53| 4 



16i( 2 

4'| 2 


Nov. 1—15. 

18'| 2 

6'| 2 

5>J 2 


16' 4 


7 3 |4 




5' i4 






Dee. 1—31. 




XII. Postal Arrangements. 

The address of letters, whether poste restante (Ital. ferma in 
posta], or to the traveller's hotel, should in all cases be simple 
and distinctly legible, all superfluous titles being omitted. In 
asking for letters it is a good plan to show one's visiting card, 
and to see that a proper search is made among the poste 
restante letters. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at all the 

Letter of 15 grammes (i/ 2 oz., weight of about 3 soldi") to 
N. America 55c, Austria or Holland 40 c, Germany 30 c, Russia 
70 c. , Sweden and Norway 60 c. , Denmark 50 c. ; letter of 10 
grammes C/3 oz.J to France or Belgium 40 c, Switzerland 30 c, 
Spain 50 c. , Greece 60 c. ; of 7'/^ grammes (V4 oz.) to Great 


Britain and its colonies 60 c. — Registration fee to Switzerland, 
Germany, or Austria, 40 c. ; America, France, or the Netherlands 
50 c. ; Great Britain 60 c. 

Letters by town-post 5 c. ; throughout the kingdom of Italy 
20 c. prepaid, 30 c. unpaid. Post -cards (cartoline postale) for 
inland use 10 c. Registration fee 30 c. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 9 a. m. 
to 10 p. m. (on Sundays and holidays also). 

Telegkam of 20 words to Great Britain 10 (London 9) fr., 
France 4, Germany 5, Switzerland 3, Austria 3 or 4, Belgium 5, 
Denmark 71/,, Russia 11, Norway 8V2 ? Sweden 8 fr. — To 
America 10 words 50 fr. 

In Italy, 15 words 1 fr.; with special haste 5 fr. ; each addi- 
tional word 10 or 50 c. — Registered telegrams may be sent at 
double charges. 

XIII. Climate. Mode of Life. 

Climate. Travellers from the north must in some degree 
alter their mode of living whilst in Italy, without, however, 
altogether adopting the Italian style. Strangers generally become 
unusually susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not 
omit to be well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. 
Carpets and stoves, to the comforts of which the Italians gener- 
ally appear indifferent, are indispensable in winter. A southern 
aspect is an absolute essential for the delicate, and highly desir- 
able for the robust. Colds are most easily caught after sunset and 
in rainy weather. Even in summer it is a wise precaution never 
to wear very light clothing. Flannel is strongly recommended. 

Exposure to the summer sun should be avoided as much as 
possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and foreigners 
(Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, and spectacles of coloured glass (grey concave glasses to 
protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage 
when a walk in the sun is unavoidable. Repose during the hot- 
test hours is advisable, and a siesta of moderate length refresh- 
ing. Windows should be closed at night to exclude malarious air. 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met 
with in the larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not 
enjoy a very high reputation in the rest of Europe. English and 
German chemists, where available, are also recommended in pre- 
ference to the Italian. It may, however, sometimes be prudent, 
in the case of maladies arising from local causes , to employ 
native skill. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea in Italy, 
which is generally occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice and 
rice are two of the commonest remedies. The homoeopathic 
tincture of camphor may also be mentioned. In such cases 
however, thorough repose is the chief desideratum. 

















































































XIV. Dates of Recent Events. 

Accession of Pius IX. 

Insurrection at Milan. 

Charles Albert declares war. 

Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. 

Radetzky's victory at Curtatone. 

Radetzky's defeat at Goito. Capitulation of Peschiera. 

Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

Radetzky's victory at Milan. 


Assassination of Count Rossi at Rome. 

Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

Republic at Rome. 

Charles Albert proclaims an armistice (ten days 1 cam- 

Radetzky's victory at Novara. 

Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto, 16th July). 
Victor Emmanuel II. 

Haynau takes Brescia. 

Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 

Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 

Capitulation of Rome. 

Conclusion of peace between Austria and Sardinia. 

Capitulation of Venice. 

Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

Sardinia takes part in the Crimean war. 

Congress of Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

Skirmish at Montebello. 

Battle of Magenta. 

Battle of Solferino. 

Meeting of the Emperors at Villafranca. 

Peace of Zurich. 

Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Uoinagua). 

Annexation of Tuscany. 

Cession of Savoy and Nice to France. 

Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

Taking of Palermo. 

Battle of Milazzo. 

Garibaldi enters Naples. 

Battle of Castelfldardo. 

Ancona capitulates. 

Battle of the Volturno. 

Plebiscite at Naples. 

Gaeta capitulates after a siege of four months. 

Victor Emmanuel proclaimed King of Italy. 

Convention between France and Italy. 

Battle of Custozza. 

Cession of Venice. 

Naval Battle of Lissa. 

Battle of Mentana. 

States of the Church occupied by Italian troops. 

Rome taken and shortly afterwards proclaimed the 
Capital of Italy. 


from the Gorman of 

Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

We store 

The sculptured relics of the Past 

And deplore 

The beautiful as lost at last. 

The traveller whose attention is directed to the treasures of 
the National Museum at Naples, to the relics of antiquity scattered 
throughout Southern Italy and Sicily, and who, possibly setting 
foot on the soil of Attica, finds himself, if favoured by fortune, in 
the presence of her glorious ruins — has in all probability had 
his appetite whetted in Rome and there collected such data as he 
will readily apply to all that presents itself as new to his obser- 
vation. But even he who turns himself at once to the contemplation 
of an heritage of antiquity such as that comprised in the favoured 
regions of Campania and Sicily has the promise of a rich and ab- 
undant harvest, if he but know how to prize its fruits. 

The National Museum partakes in many of its departments of 
the same character as the Vatican with its Statue world , and in- 
cludes many works in marble which have indeed been brought 
thither from Rome, notably those formerly belonging to the Farnese 
family. By the careful observer many of the statues will be re- 
cognised as repetitions of those already seen in Rome. They belong 
to the numerous class of copies made from renowned masterpieces, 
which in the old Roman time were indispensable adjuncts to 
a display of wealth and refinement. Many of these marbles betray, 
owing to a certain redundancy and pliancy of outline, a taste 
peculiar to people of these coasts upon which Nature has lavished 
her choicest gifts. The exquisite Greek coins remind us that we are 
in a land that was once the thriving and envied seat of Greek cul- 
ture : innumerable tripods, candelabra, lamps, braziers, jars, jugs, 
caskets, bracelets, needles, house and kitchen utensils of all kinds, 
weapons of warriors and gladiators, the numerous figures in bronze, 
above all a stately array of some hundreds of wall paintings, unique 
in the world , indicate with sufficient clearness that here are col- 


lected the results of excavations which present as in a mirror a 
complete and charming picture of ancient life, § and that we are in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Pompeii , Herculaneum, and 
Stabiie, long buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

The first impression of purely Greek art the Northern traveller 
in Italy receives at Paestum. The drive through a lonely, insecure 
country ; the picturesque beauty of the ruins and landscape with 
the glittering sea in apparently close proximity ; the melancholy re- 
flection that these proud temples before their decay looked upon 
a thriving Hellenic city amid the smiles of nature, instead of a 
fever-stricken pestilential wilderness : all this serves so to excite 
the susceptibility of the beholder, that he will find the impression 
produced by these ruins , conspicuously that of the Temple of 
Jupiter , almost more overpowering than even the spectacle of the 
Roman forum. There the scale , the solidity and splendour of the 
edifices , as well as the surpassing wealth of form and sculptured 
ornament, are imposing. Here the architecture appears externally 
poor in merely superficial decoration : poorer than it had originally 
been. The coating of stucco , so line and firmly set that it gave to 
the porous limestone a surface smooth as marble , is shattered and 
weather-stained , the forms themselves have extensively suffered ; 
wind and weather have obliterated the coloured leaves which de- 
corated the heavy collars of the capitals together with all that gay 
adornment bestowed according to Greek custom. But precisely in 
this absence of adornment, in a simplicity which brings to view 
only what is indispensable and essential, does this stern Doric 
temple with its dense array of mighty columns, with its lofty and 
ponderous entablature and far reaching projection of cornice, in 
the clear and simple disposal of the masses, in solemnity and 
strength of proportion, in beauty and distinctness of outline, pre- 
sent itself as a revelation of the spirit of Greek architecture, which 
so fills us with amazement that we are apt to overlook the very 
slight expenditure of material space employed to produce this in- 
comparable impression of grandeur and sublimity. One who has 
seen the ruins of Paestum will have the more pleasure in examin- 
ing less impressive mementos of the Greek ages from the city dedi- 
cated to Poseidon — the fine monumental paintings from Psestum 
in the National Museum of Naples : Warriors departing for the 
combat whence they are never to return. 

The Temple of Poseidon at Paestum is ascribed to the close of 
the 6th century B.C. From a far remoter past, however, dates 
the fragment of art-history which we are enabled to trace in Seli- 
nunto, although it cannot of course be deciphered on the spot from 
its ruins alone. The imagination is less severely taxed to supply 
all that is lost to the beauteous ruins in Segesta and Girgenti. In 
Selinunto the effects of earthquake have been so destructive that a 
clear conception of the temples can only be attained by reference 


to the architects' plans and drawings. The sculptures belonging to 
these temples, brought to light by recent excavations, are to be found 
in the Museum of Palermo. The oldest temple, usually distinguish- 
ed by the letter C, is that on the Acropolis. This was probably de- 
dicated to Apollo as god of succour, and was erected immediately 
subsequent to the foundation of the city, an event assigned variously 
to 65i B.C. and 628 B.C. The neighbouring and most northerly 
temple of the Acropolis, Z>, presumably sacred to Athena, is scarcely 
more recent. In the three metope reliefs which belong to the first 
named temple C, scarcely a trace of Grecian beauty is discernible ; 
indeed they are almost ludicrously primitive and rude. And yet 
they afford an instructive insight into the rudimentary Sculpture of 
the Greeks. Possibly, in the place for which they were designed, 
aloft between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze, and set in a frame- 
work of strong and clearly denned architectural lines , the reliefs 
may have had a less repulsive effect. But it is curious to ob- 
serve how the same stage in art which had in architecture attained 
to an essentially coherent system , primitive perhaps in its severity 
and unwieldiness , yet conveying the impression of harmony in its 
completeness, should in the rendering of such figures as would con- 
tribute to its architectural ornamentation be beset -by a childish 
restraint and uncertainty of aim ; how the same eye that watched 
over the ordered arrangement of each part and proportion as 
well as the delicate rendering of each line and ornament of the 
building, could be content to give representations of mythical 
events, which, as it appears to us, must have exhibited an aimless 
and startling conspicuousness and a grotesque vivacity, entailing 
the disfigurement of the human form and the entire sacrifice of 
natural proportion. And yet in these characteristics lies the germ 
of a mighty future, in the religious enthusiasm which anim- 
ated the artist as he strove to give intelligible expression to 
the sacred history which he had to relate, in the independence 
and directness with which he embodied its purport in sculp- 
tured forms. Not that we can suppose such scenes to have been 
altogether new to him. He might have seen them in other 
places and in earlier times. But he had to mould them anew 
and from his own individual resources, without available pattern, 
and without that readiness in execution which the hand can only 
acquire by frequent exercise. The head of Medusa alone, this 
earliest figurative expression of destruction and horror, is clearly 
and unfailingly pourtrayed. To the artist as well as his contem- 
poraries this poverty in execution was not apparent. Their suces- 
sors were not slow to make far different pretensions. If a kind 
fate had preserved the single statue of the youthful god that stood 
in the sanctuary, or at some future time should discover it to us. 
we should probably be overwhelmed with astonishment at the con- 
trast presented by the statue to the reliefs. At a time when such 


reliefs as these were possible, Greek art had already possessed itself 
of a definite type for the statue of Apollo , and for the youthful 
form generally, in archaic stiffness , but conformable with the law 
of nature in shape ami proportion; while by constant comparison 
with nature it continued to gain in purity and truthfulness. 

By the same process representation in relief is gradually en- 
nobled. Offences against proportion and drawing are more easily 
overlooked in relief than in a lifesize work in the round ; the sus- 
ceptibility of the eye moreover is more readily forgotten in the in- 
terest excited by the pictorial narration. The monuments of Seli- 
nunto are preeminent in the opportunity they afford for observing 
on the spot what has sprung from these beginnigs. Of the group on 
the Eastern hill the Temple F in point of time is next to those of 
the Paean Apollo and of Athena. Then come Temple O, likewise 
dedicated to Apollo, one to Juno E, and lastly Temple A, occupy- 
ing the Acropolis. Temple F still belongs to the 6th century B.C., 
a period when the building of the Apollo Temple 6 had begun, to 
be completed at a later period. The Heraeum (_Temple of Juno) E 
and the temple A date from the middle of the 5th century B.C. 
or not much later. Two halves of metope slabs have been 
brought to light which adorned the temple F (a god and goddess 
contending with giants), and four similar slabs from the Heraeum 
are so far preserved that they furnish a sufficiently intelligible 
representation of Zeus and Hera , Artemis and Actaeon , Hera- 
cles and the Amazons, and Athena contending with the Giants. 

In both metopes from F extraordinary clearness and animation 
again arrest the attention. The impetuous rush of the victorious 
goddess, the dying agonies of the fallen giant, his head convulsive- 
ly thrown back , his mouth open and grinning , his utter helpless- 
ness, are rendered with a turbulence , and with an expenditure of 
means, which appear to us very much in excess of what is needed 
for clear expression, and which simply outrage instead of satisfying 
one's sense of the beautiful. The two art stages to which these 
reliefs, and the quaint rudeness of those of the Apollo Temple on 
the Acropolis belong, offer a certain analogy. In both cases all 
available means aTe applied with recklessness and in excess. Those, 
however, at the disposal of the later artist were infinitely richer 
and more perfect. While his predecessor had not altogether mastered 
the forms of art, he had acquired a certain familiarity with them, 
though at the cost of much toil and trouble ; but his power was so 
new and unwonted that he could not refrain from abusing it. The 
Metopae from the Herceum on the otheT hand, which mark the maturity 
archaic art, show a command of expression ennobled by a fine 
perception of the beautiful. These qualities declare themselves most 
felicitously in the two compositions which represent the meeting 
of Zeus and Hera on Mount Ida and Artemis punishing Actteon. 
B^edekee. Italy III. 5th Edition. C 


The expression of godlike serenity and joy which pervades the ilrst 
scene transcends all similar efforts whether of earlier or later art : 
while the second is scarcely less admirable from the way in which 
the unmistakable wildness of the subject is subdued to something 
like softness by modulation of movement and occupation of allotted 
space. The technical method employed in the more recent metopes 
is peculiar. In the antique vases with black figures on a red ground 
the men are usually black and the women , as far as the body itself 
is visible, white. Here the indication of the lighter and darker flesh 
colour of the two sexes has superficially supplied a necessary char- 
acteristic. But the perfected art also resorted to this distinction in 
rendering flesh colour. In the paintings of Pompeii the bronzed, 
sunburnt bodies of the men form an effective contrast to the deli- 
cate and fairer forms of the women. Something of the same kind 
is found in the metopes of the Herseum. As the entire temple is of 
tufa, they too are of the same material. Owing to the rugged and 
faulty nature of the material the architect resorted to a coating of 
stucco upon which he displayed his gaudy decoration. In the reliefs 
on the other hand the nude forms of the women are given in white 
marble. The harmony of the different portions of the reliefs, 
multiform as they were , was restored by a profuse application of 
colour, which the purely architectural accessories also required. 

These beautiful reliefs, which may appear somewhat primitive 
in our eyes, are contemporaneous with, or perhaps even more recent 
than the building and plastic decoration of the Parthenon in Athens. 
Compared with the works of Attica they exhibit a distinctly dif- 
ferent order of art, a Doric fashion of sculpture which we again 
meet with in the older metopes from Selinunto. At a time when 
Greek art was' in the zenith of its splendour, the Western Hellenes, 
who like the Greeks of Asia Minor had been once in advance of the 
mother country, lost their advantage. Magna Grsecia and Sicily can 
boast of no name comparable with those of Phidias and Polycletus. 
The reliefs of Selinunto have more in common with the works of 
Polycletus, than with those of the Attic school. In the National 
Museum at Naples there is a fine reproduction of the Doryphorus of 
Polycletus, from which we learn what Doric Peloponnbsian sculp- 
ture was at its best ; in like manner the Famese Head of Juno 
(p. 66), surpassing all similar conceptions of the goddess in majestic 
severity and repressed energy, fitly affords an idea of the master- 
piece of Polycletus. In a well known passage in his history of art, 
Winckelmann describes perfect beauty as twofold, as having a double 
grace : the one as winning, — 'she descends from her eminence, 
revealing herself to the observant eye with a suavity devoid of 
self abasement: she is not over anxious to please, but would 
not be overlooked'. The other is self satisfied and would be sought 
rather thaii court attention , — 'she holds converse only with the 
wise, appearing to the populace inimical and morose, she locks 


within her breast the soul's vibrations and nearly attains to the 
blessed repose of the divine nature: and thus according to ancient 
writers the greatest artists sought to pourtray her'. To those who 
know how to observe will be revealed beneath the morose solemnity 
of this Farnese Juno an impressive picture of godlike repose and 

The Old Attic School is represented in Naples by the group 
of the tyrant slayers Harmodius and Aristogitonf-p. 66), a copy of that 
work of Anterior which stood in the market-place at Athens. The 
two Athenians rush to the attack, the sword of the younger being 
raised to strike; the older of the two (the head of this figure does 
not belong to it, the original was bearded) is at hand to protect his 
brave comrade, as soon as the time comes for him to interfere ; and 
here the words of the great authority already quoted, in reference to 
the attributes of a severe style, are applicable: 'The drawing was 
impressive but hard , powerful but devoid of grace. The force of 
expression detracts from the beauty' . . . 'Art was hard and severe as 
the justice of the time which punished the most trifling offence with 
death'. Those who can retain in the eye a correct impress of forms 
may compare the two metopes of Temple P with this Attic group 
of the murder of Hippias. The same violence of action and render- 
ing of form are observable in both. But the reliefs appear wild, 
almost disordered and devoid of beauty beside the symmetrical ac- 
curacy and precision , the concentrated power, the beautiful flow of 
lines in the group of statues. Farther, a comparison of the finest 
metopes from the Hera temple with this and other Attic works will 
give an insight into the various phases of subtlety and grace which 
find a place in the collective Greek character. Above all, such a 
comparison will direct attention to the widely differing conditions 
requisite for the execution of reliefs intended for architectural de- 
coration from those imposed upon the author of a self contained 
work in the round on the grandest scale. This distinction must 
neither be overlooked nor too lightly estimated. 

Though in the National Museiun there may not be found any 
very pure or important example of the Attic school of Phidias' time, 
a succeeding school is most happily illustrated by the Orpheus Relief 
(p. 69). Orpheus is permitted to bring his consort Eurydice out of 
Hades and to restore her once more to the light of the sun on con- 
dition that he shall not look upon her during the passage. He has 
failed to fulfil this condition. Hermes, the conductor of departed 
souls, with gentle measured gesture takes the hand of Eurydice to 
consign her anew to the realm of shades. In contemplating this com- 
position, beautiful in its simplicity as it is, hope and dismay altern- 
ately possess us. The advance of the train, Orpheus in the act of 
casting the fatal glance , the confiding communion of man and wife 
are quite unmistakable , as well as the interruption of their pro- 
gress and the subsequent return of Eurydice. And here we m*y 


pause to wonder how antique art could present powerful effect 
clothed in persuasive beauty, or, if subdued, yet with striking ex- 
pression: and with what a modest expenditure of means she could 
assert 'this noble simplicity and grandeur of repose'. Even in its 
own time this work must have enjoyed a considerable reputation, 
as replicas are still to be seen in the Villa Albani at Rome and in 
the Louvre at Paris. The Neapolitan example is the most beauti- 
ful, and the severest too, of those extant. It may be remarked, by 
the way, that the inscriptions introduced, though they may be cor- 
rect in the explanation they give , must be of doubtf ul antiquity. 
— By far the greater number of sculptures in Naples belong like 
those in Rome to a more recent period of Greek art. The prostrate 
Amazon stretched out in death, a Dead Persian, a Dead Giant, and 
the Wounded Gaul , which will be readily recognised from its re- 
semblance to a master-piece of the Pergamenian school, the Dying 
Gaul in the Museum of the Capitol (the so-called dying gladiator), 
are parts of a votive offering of King Attalus of Pergamum at Athens, 
of which single figures are to be seen in Venice and in Rome. 

The colossal group of the so-called Farnese Bull (p. 65), which 
brilliantly represents the Rhodean School, is more likely to arrest 
attention. This group will produce a powerful impression upon 
most beholders, and this not by force of its material bulk alone. 
The effect would have been even more impressive, had the work of 
restoration been successful, particularly in the standing female 
figure. It will be worth our while to analyse the nature of this 
effect, as well as the forces which contribute to it. An occurrence 
full of horror is presented to our view. Two powerful youths are 
engaged in binding on the back of a furious bull the helpless form 
of a woman. The mighty beast is plunging violently, and in another 
moment will be away, hurrying the burden he is made to bear to 
the terrible doom of a martyr. As soon as we have attained to an 
accurate conception of what is passing before us, horror and dismay 
rather than pity take possession of us. What impels the youths 
to the deed? How is it that they are allowed to effect their purpose 
undisturbed? The answer is to be found outside the work itself. 
Antiope, expelled by her father, has given birth to Amphion and 
Zethus and abandoned them. The sons grow up under the care 
of an old shepherd. Antiope has yet other sufferings to endure at 
the hands of her relation Dirce who maltreated her. Dirce wander- 
ing on Mount Cythaeron in bacchanalian revel would slay the 
victim of her persecutions. She bids two young shepherds bind 
Antiope to a bull that she may thus be dragged to her death. The 
youths recognise their mother before it is too late : they consign 
Dirce to the doom prepared for Antiope. The ancient Greeks were 
familiarised with this myth by a celebrated tragedy of Euripides' 
the subordinate work on the base, the mountain god Cythieron 
decked with Bacchic ivy, and the Bacchic Cista on the ground 


would help to recall all the minor incidents of the story. A doom 
pronounced by the gods is executed ; the fateDirce had prepared for 
another recoils upon herself. But all this, or at least as much as 
will suffice for a satisfactory understanding of the work of art as 
such, cannot be gathered from the work itself. In the Orpheus 
relief we recognise without extraneous aid the separation of two 
lovers calmly resigned to their fate, their severance by the conductor 
of souls. An acquaintance with the exquisite legend will merely 
serve to enhance trie thrilling emotions evoked by the sculptured 
forms. The Bull will excite our abhorrence if the story be not 
known to us ; while the knowledge itself and such reflections as it 
would suggest could scarcely reconcile us to the cruelty of the 
deed, nor help us to endure without something akin to petrifaction 
these moments of horror. But when our thoughts are sufficiently 
collected to allow of our realising the event, we are again lost in 
admiring wonder at the aspiring courage, at the command of all 
artistical and technical resources possessed by the author of this 
sculpture which uprears itself with such unfaltering power. The 
base is adorned with suggestions of landscape and appropriate 
animal life more elaborately than was then usual in works of this 
kind, although analogies are not wholly wanting. But the landscape, 
the figure of the mountain god Cythaeron, together with all minor 
accessories, are far surpassed in interest by the principal figures 
and their action. The lovely feminine form of Dirce vainly im- 
ploring the powerful youths whose utmost exertions scarcely suf- 
fice to restrain the infuriated beast, the vivid reality of the whole 
scene , the artistic refinement in the execution have scarcely yet 
been sufficiently admired. We readily concede to one like Welcker, 
who brought the finest perceptions to bear on the exposition of 
antique art, 'that it is impossible to attain to the highest excellence 
in any particular direction without at the same time postponing 
one or other consideration of value'. That which was esteemed as 
the highest excellence , the goal which must be reached at the cost 
of all other considerations has varied with successive epochs of 
Greek art. In the present case repose and concentration are sacri- 
ficed to the overwhelming effect of a momentary scene. Even at 
a time when restoration could not have interfered with the original 
design , the impression of a certain confusedness must have been 
conveyed to the spectator, at least at the first glance. It is emin- 
ently characteristic of this group 'that it powerfully arrests the 
attention at a point where an almost wild defiance of rule declares 
itself. The contrast presented in the scene — the terribly rapid 
and unceasing movement as the inevitable result of a momentary 
pause, which the artist with consummate boldness and subtlety has 
known how to induce and improve, give life and energy to the 
picture in a wonderful degree'. But Welcker himself, from whom 
these words are borrowed, reminds us how this group first arrests 


attention 'by the uncommon character of its appearance'. The 
group of the Bull assuredly displays excellences which belonged 
to the antique of every epoch , especially the intuitive perception 
that truth in the sphere of art is not identical with an illusory 
realism. The conception of this group proceeds from a complete 
apprehension of the subject to be embodied. But this fulness of 
apprehension is derived from the Tragedy. From the very beginning- 
plastic art and poetry have been as twin streams springing from 
one source and flowing separately, yet side by side. Often indeed 
their waters have met and mingled. But it was long e'er the tide 
of poetry seeking a separate channel helped to feed the sister 
stream. The scene presented to us by this Farnese group was 
illustrated by Euripides long before its embodiment by plastic art 
in his tragedy, where Dirce's death is related by the messenger. The 
artist found material for his inventiveness at hand, which his fancy, 
passionately stimulated, presently endowed with plastic form and 
life at a moment which promised 'an uncommon appearance', a 
majestic and overpowering effect which should command astonish- 
ment and admiration. We have already attributed the Farnese group 
to the Rhodean School in speaking of the origin and development 
of art. It was the work of two sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus 
of Tralles in Asia Minor ; for, according to the Roman author Pliny, 
the group is identical with one by these artists which was brought 
to Rome from Rhodes, and in all probability found its way thence 
to Naples. — The colossal group of a man who bears away the dead 
body of a boy on his shoulders is usually ascribed to the Rhodean 
School. It has been described as Hector with the body of Troilus. 
But the corpse of a beloved brother saved from the battle-field 
would hardly be seized in such fashion. It would rather appear 
to be that of a victim borne away in triumph by a ruthless victor. 

In Naples we have a number of instructive examples of the 
two styles which are frequently designated as an antique Renais- 
sance, the New-Attic School, and the School op Pasitkles ; of 
the latter in the bronze figure of Apollo playing the Lyre from Pom- 
peii, and in the archaic simplicity of the affecting group of Orestes 
and Eleotra ; of the former in the Vase of Salpion, or better still in 
the Aphrodite from Capua, the so-called Psyche, and similar works. 
In Naples abundant opportunity will be found for continuing the 
study begun in Rome of the heroes of an ideal world, of portraits, 
sarcophagus reliefs, or whatever else may especially engage the at- 
tention. Probably, however, curiosity and interest will be most 
excited by the appearance of antique paintings from Pompeii and 
the neighbouring cities of Campania buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

The history of Greek Painting presents a problem difficult 
of solution. Happily we have outlived the superstition that the 
people amongst whom the Parthenon arose, and who gave birth to 
a sculptor such as Phidias, should have contributed in painting 


nothing worthy of record. What we most desire, however, is still 
wanting. We are not in possession of any work by a master of the 
art ; but only of the products of a subordinate and mechanical art, 
and these only from a single and comparatively recent period. 

The greatest painter of the older time — and probably one of 
the greatest artists of all times — was Polygnotus , a native of 
Thasos. He lived for the most part in Athens, where he was pre- 
sented with the rights of citizenship, and was, though a contemporary 
of Phidias, his senior. As Phidias was a favourite of Pericles and 
employed by him, it would appear that Polygnotus was a prote"ge of 
Oimon. Pausanias, the Greek author of travels (in the time of 
Antoninus), had seen two large paintings by Polygnotus covering 
the wall in Delphi, and has minutely described them. In the one 
the fall of Troy was represented, in the other scenes from the nether 
world. In the first the Trojan Cassandra is the centre figure. Ajax 
has offered violence to her: she sits on the ground, in her hand the 
image of the insulted Athena; around her the Greek heroes are 
sitting in judgment upon Ajax. In the background is the citadel 
of Troy, the head of the wooden horse reaches above its wall, which 
Epeios, the builder of the horse, is about to demolish. Eight and 
left of the central group are scenes of destruction ; heaps of the 
slain, the savage Neoptolemus still persisting in his work of 
slaughter, captive women, and terrified children ; nor were more 
inviting scenes wanting. Close to the captive Trojan women Aethra 
was seen, the liberated slave of Helen , and farther back the tent 
of Menelaus is taken down and his ship equipped for departure. 
On the other side of the picture was recognised the house of An- 
tenor, which the Greeks had spared, while he himself and his 
family make ready to quit their desolated home and depart for 
foreign lands. Thus the entire centre of the composition has refer- 
ence to the crime committed after the conquest, which called aloud 
for punishment by the gods ; these scenes of death and horror were 
enclosed at the extremities by more peaceful incidents — the 
horror of the lower world whose shades envelope Tenowned heroes 
and heroines ; Odysseus compelled to descend to the abode of the 
departed — all this Polygnotus combined in one grand picture, 
skilfully alternating peace and the torments of hell, prodigious 
ghastliness and tender grace. Polygnotus has not only embodied in 
these pictures the mythical matter with which religious rites, epic 
poem, vulgar tradition and humour, as well as the earlier works of 
plastic art, could furnish him; not only had he animated this 
material with captivating motives strongly appealing to the be- 
holder's imagination; but he had, as may still be recognised, while 
painting, asserted his power as a poet and supplied much that was 
original in the realm of fancy. The technical means at the disposal 
of Polygnotus were so limited, so simple and antiquated, that in 
the Roman times admiration of his pictures was ridiculed as a con- 


ceit of dilettantism — just as at one time it was customary to scoff 
at the admirer of Giotto. Nevertheless with these simple means, 
Polygnotus could express himself with so much clearness, so nobly 
and sublimely, that Aristotle boasted of him that his forms were 
more noble and grander than were commonly seen in life , while 
the painter Pauson presented men worse than they really were, and 
Dionysius was true to nature. Having regard to these separate qua- 
lifications he suggested that the youthful eye should receive its im- 
pressions from Polygnotus and not from Pauson. In later times the 
beauty of Polygnotus' pictures continued to charm : in the second 
century A.D. his Cassandra supplied an author of refinement and 
penetration, like Lucian, with the material for a description of fe- 
minine beauty. 

While the fame of Polygnotus and his contemporaries rested 
principally on wall paintings , later critics would maintain that 
those of his successors who first produced artistic effect in portable 
pictures were the only true painters. As the first painter in this 
sense the Athenian Apollodoeus may be named. The work which 
he began was completed by Zeuxis of Heraclea and Parrhasius of 
Ephesus. We still possess a description by Lucian of the Centaur 
'amily by Zeuxis. The female Centaur reclines on the grass, the 
human upper part of the body being raised and supported by the 
elbow. One of her two infants she holds in her arms giving it 
nourishment in human fashion ; the other sucks as a foal her teats. 
The male Centaur looks down from above. He holds in his right 
hand a lion cub which he swings over his shoulder as if jokingly 
to frighten his young ones. 'The further excellences of the picture,' 
modestly continues Lucian, though evidently an accomplished 
connoisseur , 'which to us laymen are but partially revealed, 
which nevertheless comprise the whole of art's resources, correct 
drawing, an admirable manipulation and mingling of colour, man- 
agement of light and shade, a happy choice of dimension, as 
well as just relative proportion of parts to the whole ; the combined 
movement of the composition — these are qualities to be extolled 
by one of art's disciples who has mastered the subject in its detail'. 
This eloquent description by Lucian has been made the subject of 
a spirited drawing by Genelli. Unfortunately no such record of 
Parrhasius' works remains. The credit of having first applied 
symmetry, i. e. probably the systematic regard for the proportion 
recognised by later leaders in art , to painting, is claimed for Par- 
rhasius, as well as delicacy and grace in the artistic rendering of the 
countenance and hair. He is said, too, to have been supreme in 
the management of contour. But in later times Parrhasius was 
esteemed simple as a colorist compared with Apelles. 

The authors to whom are ascribed most of the notices of painters 
that we possess, distinguish different schools. The Heliadic 
School included the painters of Athens and those of the mother 


country of Greece along with those of Sicyon. But owing to the 
preeminence achieved for Sicyon by the painter Eupompus, the 
Helladic school was again subdivided under the title of Sicyonic 
and Attic or Attic- Theban, after certain artists of these schools. 
To this, or these schools rather, was opposed the Asiatic (Ionic). 
Pausias, whose name is known to us by Goethe's exquisite poem, 
was one of the Sicyonian School, and, so it appears, was that spirited 
painter Timanthes, His best known work is his Iphigenia. She 
stood at the altar ready to be sacrificed , surrounded by the heroes 
of the Grecian c'amp, in whose persons, according to the character 
of each and with due regard to appropriateness, was pourtrayed 
every degree of mental anguish. Agamemnon himself veiled his 
head. Nicomachus, Aristides, Euphranor, likewise renowned as 
sculptor and master of heroic representation , and Nicias the friend 
of Praxiteles belong to the Theban-Attic school. Amongst the pic- 
tures of Aristides was one of a woman wounded during the siege. 
She is dying while her infant still clings to her breast. In the ex- 
pression of the mother's countenance could, it was thought, be read 
the fear lest her blood should be mingled with the milk the child 
was sucking. — The most brilliant master of the Ionic school — 
though he had had the advantage of studying his art in Sicyon — 
the most renowned indeed of the painters of antiquity, was Apblles, 
the contemporary of Alexander the Great, and incomparable in his 
power of expressing grace in all its forms. As yet we are not in pos- 
session of any distinct clue to the character of his most esteemed 
works, of Artemis, with her band of attendant Nymphs clustering 
around her, hurrying to the chase, nor of Aphrodite rising from the 
sea. We are more fortunate in the instance of two younger painters, 
Aetion and Timomachus. Of the nuptials of Alexander by Aetion 
we have again a masterly description by Lucian, with which all are 
acquainted who have seen the beautiful Eaffaelesque composition in 
the Palazzo Borghese at Rome. The Medea of Timomachus is to 
be traced in a series of imitations or reminiscences, on monuments 
of different kinds, but most remarkably in a mutilated picture from 
Herculaneum, and again in another perfectly preserved from 

The services thus rendered us by the Campanian towns in 
bringing to light the works of Timomachus encourage us to hope 
that they may be repeated in the case of other Greek celebrities. 
It is in fact concluded with a considerable show of probability that 
in the Pompeian representations of the liberation of Andromeda by 
Perseus are to be recognised influences of a picture by Nicias. It 
has frequently been attempted with much pains, and with aid of 
more or less audacious assumptions and combinations, to contrive 
copies of these renowned Greek masters, and when after all it has 
been found that such efforts are for the most part vain and futile, 
it has been urged in explanation of the failure that our acquain- 


tance with celebrated cabinet pictures is too limited. We must, 
then, however unwillingly, accept the conclusion that anything more 
than a very qualified belief in Pompeian pictures is impossible. 
They are invaluable as a clue to many qualities which were com- 
mon to the painting of antiquity ; invaluable , too , because they 
assuredly possess , in obedience to the unvarying traditions of an- 
tique art — which having taken a theme in hand would work it out 
to the last possible variation — a wealth of imagery and redundance 
of lineament which connect them more or less closely with the works 
of the great masters. But it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
authenticity of copies from celebrated cabinet pictures of the best 
period should be so rarely established, or weaT even the appearance 
of probability ; it were a wondeT indeed if so much could be accom- 

Demosthenes reminds his countrymen in scathing words how 
in the palmy days of Athens the noblest edifices were erected in 
honour of the gods, while the dwellings of the most distinguished 
Athenians were simple and inconspicuous as those of their neighbours. 
Even at the time these words were spoken a change had come over 
Greek life. For the stern sublimity of the creations of an earliertime, 
Art had substituted a milder and more effeminate type of divinity, 
nor did she now disdain to enter the abodes of men. The splendour 
which had been reserved for the gods, now found its way into pri- 
vate dwellings. What at first had been a bold innovation and an 
exception , presently grew into a universal requirement. From the 
epoch of culture inaugurated by Alexander onwards , sculptor and 
painter alike contributed to the artistical beauty and sumptuous 
adornment of dwelling-houses. Inventiveness, displayed in the 
designing and ornamentation of household furniture of every kind, 
followed as a matter of course , and though in Athens and Hellas 
expenditure in this way remained moderate, in other great cities, as 
Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria , artist and handicrafts- 
man alike vied with the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants, not 
only in beautifying the cities externally, but in lavishing upon the 
dwelling-houses of the rich the utmost attainable splendour. Plans 
were extended and adapted to the employments and highest enjoy- 
ment of life ; floors, walls, and ceilings were arranged and decorated 
in ever new and varying style. Then decoration in stucco and 
painting was supplemented by mosaic work which enlivened the 
floors with an effect as charming as that of painting ; nor was it 
long restricted to the floors. Along with other elements of culture 
the Roman world had borrowed from the Greek the beautifying of 
their houses , and as movement is never absolutely suspended, this 
taste received in Roman times a farther impetus in its original 
direction. We may safely assume, however, reasoning from analogy, 
that it departed farther and farther from the purity and harmony of 
the Greek pattern. 


In the picture which Pompeii presents as a whole we see the 
last trace of that combined art and beauty which with the later 
Greeks permeated life in every vein and in all its phases : a feeble 
and faded picture it must remain, however active the fancy may 
be investing it with attributes belonging to Hellenic art in the 
zenith of its splendour. From an earlier period, when the influence 
of the Greek was more directly felt, we have not received much from 
Pompeii that is instructive. The general impression is derived 
from the restorations consequent on the earthquake of the year 63 
A.D. The great mass of decorations is the work of the sixteen 
years intervening between A.D. 63 and the town's final destruction 
in A.D. 79, and was in the newest fashion then prevailing in Rome, 
but necessarily on a scale commensurate with the resources of a pro- 
vincial town. As the Roman senate had ordered the rebuilding of the 
town, the pay of handicraftsmen would doubtlessly be attractive 
enough. The houses were made habitable with the utmost de- 
spatch and received their decorations with the same haste. It is im- 
possible but to believe that the greater number of houses were thus 
completed by a comparatively small number of masters with their 
staffs of workmen. They had their pattern books for the decoration 
of entire rooms and walls, as well as for simple pictures, and they 
resorted to these pattern books more or less according to their need 
or fancy. The favourite motives and forms were so familiar to 
them that they had them literally at their fingers' ends : with incre- 
dibly certain and facile hand, and without concerning themselves 
about means or method, they fling their gaud and glitter over the 
naked walls. And very captivating is this stirring picture-pattern 
world which moved obedient to their will. Vistas of airy fantastical 
forms architecturally disposed and decked with wreaths and gar- 
lands delusively mask the narrow limits of the allotted space ; 
while, by way of completing the illusory effect of this mock archi- 
tecture, graceful figures move in the midst, or from the open window 
look in upon the chamber. Arabesques, sprays and borders of 
foliage and flowers, and garlands gracefully enliven and divide the 
walls ; while in the midst of the enclosed spaces, from a dark back- 
ground, figures single or in pairs stand out in dazzling relief, and 
whether winged or otherwise are always lightly and surely poised. 
Here and there lovely maidens are seen dancing in mid air; Eros 
tinkles on the strings of the lyre which Psyche holds ; Satyrs and 
Nymphs, Centaurs and Bacchantes, female figures with candelabra, 
flowers and fruits people this airy realm of fancy. Separate pic- 
tures at intervals engage the attention. They tell the story of the 
handsome but unsusceptible Narcissus, of Adonis the favorite of 
Aphrodite, whose early loss the goddess bewails with Eros, of Phae- 
dra's shameless passion for Hippolytus; the loves of Apollo and 
Daphne, of Ares and Aphrodite , Artemis and Aotaeon , Ariadne 
abandoned by Theseus, the story of Leda, the life and pursuits of 


Bacchus and his followers, of the god finding the forsaken Ariadne, 
and of Satyrs pursuing Nymphs. Scenes of terror, too, there are : 
Dirce bound to the Bull, Medea meditating the murder of her 
children, the sacrifice of Iphigenia — hut even these are rendered 
with an effect of sensuous beauty so entrancing that they are lost 
in the gladsome world of exuberant life about them. Mere tragedy, 
mere convulsive effort, acquired no enduring power over the senses: 
they are rather beguiled by the remembrance of some captivating 
legend, some transient impulse, a throb of compassion, which infuse 
a wholesome element into pictures abounding with expressions of 
rapturous delight. Where passion exerts itself it is but for the 
moment — the power of love for good or evil , the beauty of the 
human form, moments of bliss whether of mortals or the immor- 
tals — such is the material for an ever recurring theme. Bits of 
landscape , houses with trees, rocks, or a grotto on the strand are 
suggestive of idyllic delights. And around these more conspicuous 
figures are grouped an accompaniment of small friezes with pic- 
torial accessories grave and gay, still life, animals and incidents of 
the chase, pygmies, masks, fresh fruit, and household vessels. 

The liveliest impression is made by the best examples of 
figures separately poised on the walls. Curiosity is most excited 
by the separate pictures ; they are the last remnant of the historical 
painting of the old world. They cannot, however, enable us to 
form a just estimate of the works of the greatest ancient masters. 
If genuine and adequate copies of celebrated cabinet pictures from 
the best period were to be found amongst Pompeian decorations it 
would be by an accident altogether exceptional and capricious. 
The artist-bands who subsequently to the earthquake of A.D. 63 
pushed their work so easily and so rapidly had neither these ca- 
binet pictures nor the genuine and adequate copies to guide them, 
but simply the drawings of their pattern books. -J- Thoroughly trained 
as they were mechanically to the work , they turned their sketches 
to the best possible account, transferred them on the required scale, 
making additions or omissions as the case might be, varying, modi- 

f There have been long standing differences of opinion about the me- 
chanism of painting practised in Pompeii. A solution of the problem is 
the result of researches conducted by the painter O. Donner (in a work 
published by Helbig , entitled 'Wall paintings of the cities of Campania 
destroyed by Vesuvius', Leipsic 1869). According to this authority it is' 
certain that the greater number of the pictures as well as wall decora- 
tions were painted in fresco , i. e. upon a newly prepared £ nd moistened 
surface — and only in exceptional cases and as a makeshift upon a dry 
ground. Conclusive evidence of this is afforded by the presence to which 
Donner refers of so-called Fresco-edges , i. e. of spots where the newly 
prepared surface came in contact with what was already dry. 

The surface intended for the reception of colour was prepared by the 
painters of antiquity with such care that it retained the moisture much 
longer than in recent times has been found attainable. They were thus 
enabled to cover large wall spaces without interruption and in this respect 
had a considerable advantage over us moderns. 


fying and curtailing, as necessity, fancy, and the measure of their 
capacity might prescribe. The enclosed pictures which in graceful 
inventiveness and execution often enough surpassed the forms oc- 
cupying the open spaces, cannot be considered apart from the 
general decoration with which in manner and method they are 
identical. They betray moreover in spite of all that is beautiful 
and admirable about them, symptoms of degeneracy; just as the 
wall decorations of Pompeii descending from elegance to the 
rrivialities of mock architecture exhibit a degeneracy which must 
not, however, be regarded as in herent in the art of which we see 
here but a feeble reflection. Thus we learn that the way from the 
great painters of Greece to the wall pictures of Pompeii is neither 
near nor straight, but long and too often hard to find. Many of 
the forms and groups so gracefully poised in the open wall spaces 
may in their origin have reached back so far as to the happiest 
period of Greek art ; it is also possible, that, when framed pictures 
were for the first time painted on the walls of houses in the epoch 
of Alexander, or at whatever other period this style of decoration 
came into vogue, celebrated easel-pictures were copied or laid 
under contribution. The designers of the pattern books may have 
betaken themselves to a variety of sources , they may have ap- 
propriated and combined , as old and new patterns , entire de- 
corations together with separate figures and finished pictures. Like 
the pattern books for the sarcophagus reliefs they must have been 
full of ideas and motives derived from an earlier and nobler art. 
And as wall painting is more akin to high art we may encourage 
the hope that patient research will often be rewarded by discovering 
— as hitherto amidst a tanglement of conflicting evidence — not 
the works themselves of the great masters, but those traces of their 
workwhich we so eagerly seek. In Pompeii, however, we learn the 
necessity of caution, for we there find examples of a much earlier 
style of decoration than the 'Pompeian'. 

No one could overlook the solemn dignity of aspect which make 
the Casa del Fauno conspicuous amidst the mass of habitations in 
Pompeii. Here beauty reveals itself in column and capital, cornice 
and panelling, favorably contrasting with the gaudy frippery of a 
fantastical mock architecture with its pictorial accompaniments. 
The wealthy family which occupied this mansion may have rejoiced 
in the possession of many a costly cabinet picture. But at the 
time the house was built it was not yet the custom, or it was not the 
owner's pleasure to follow the newest fashion. In their place a 
complete series of the finest mosaics formed a part of the general 
decoration of the house. These are still partially preserved and to 
be seen on the spot. Here the celebrated Battle of Alexander was 
found, grand in composition, and a genuine example of high art, in 
which we recognise once more the magic touch of Greek genius : 
how with the simplest possible means the loftiest excellence was 


achieved ; here, too, we gain an insight into the method pursued by 
the great painters in their works. A very different and far grander 
art declares itself in these mosaics than in the wall paintings. The 
other mosaics found in this mansion also rank high in point of 
beauty as well as in precision and purity of drawing , and owing to 
the difficulties of reproduction in mosaic consequent on the nature 
of the material the fact becomes doubly suggestive that in effectual 
and complete mastery of drawing there is nothing in the whole 
range of Pompeian pictures to surpass the border of masks, garlands, 
foliage and fruits of the Casa del Fauno or the mosaics attributed 
to the artist Dioscorides. But we may well delight in the air of 
cheerful airy grace pervading these pictorial decorations of Pom- 
peii , in this precious heritage of Grecian — and in part old Gre- 
cian — life and beauty which a licentious posterity has scattered 
over its dazzling walls. 

Whoever has had eye and sense alike familiarised with the 
wonders of antique art will be richly repaid by a visit to Athens, 
the venerable city of Pericles and Phidias. Here , in spite of the 
ravages of time, he will find the fulfilment of his cherished desire. 
For he is in the home of all that is most noble and precious, of 
what Rome and Naples had afforded him but a glimpse and a 
foretaste. There is not a fragment, whether bearing inscription or 
relief, to be picked up on the Acropolis of Athens that does not 
tell how religion , art, and civic life were constantly interwoven ; 
how deeply they were rooted in their native soil. And on the 
loftiest summit of this castle rock, towering above all surround- 
ing objects, there yet stands the most strikingly impressive and 
splendid record of this composite life, a witness of the time 
when the Attic people were at the height of their prosperity and 
their greatness — the Parthenon of Pericles , having an import in 
its ruins which elevates and engrosses the soul. 

The Doric structure is in its general scope very much what we 
see in Paestum, only of finer material, purer form, and more uni- 
form completeness. Thought and feeling are distinctly traceable 
in the simple and beautiful proportions of the Poseidon Temple, 
though in a guise somewhat primitive and harsh. We are im- 
pressed by the dense array of stout columns, and never doubt their 
power to sustain with their broad capitals the weight of ponderous 
entablature and roof imposed upon them. In the Parthenon a 
forest of pillars rear themselves above the majestic flight of marble 
steps which separate and lift the building from the eaTth 'which 
slender, but stalwart seem to defy the impending burden' ; 'and 
this burden itself, the entablature and roof, is so richly elaborated, 
so forcibly projected, is so harmoniously adjusted in its proportions 
to the structure beneath, that the conflict between burden and 
beareT which in earlier times was so apparent is here no longer 


recognised as conflict. The more intently we gaze, the more are we 
impressed as with the glories of Nature ; above all in the structure 
as a whole we behold not only the enchantment, but the entire 
solemnity of beauty, and as we endeavour to analyse this effect, it 
resolves itself into wonder that the mind which controlled the shap- 
ing of each part should yet have failed to endow the mighty unit 
with the talisman of life'. We may not indeed recognise the hand 
of Iotinus in the building ; but by a comparison with the temple 
now known as that of Theseus , intrinsically beautiful as it is, we 
see plainly enough with what good reason the work of this master 
was highly prized ; we can participate , too , in the admiration for 
Mnbsicles, the architect of the Propylaea. The genius of Phidias 
was associated with that of Ictinus. The creations of his hand are 
to be seen in pediment , metopes and interior frieze — wherever 
sculpture would be admissible or could be called into requisition. 
In Athens herself, too, enough remains to convince us of the force 
and richness of these sculptures. But instead of the goddess herself 
who stood in her shrine, colossal in size and wrought in gold and 
ivory, we have an unfinished statuette only, probably once rejected 
as a failure , which at best can but convey in the vaguest pos- 
sible manner an idea of the mere material characteristics of the 
original statue without affording a glimpse of its amazing beauty 
and richness. 

Besides the works of the great masters, besides Propylaa, 
Parthenon, Erechtheum and Temple of Victory, besides the Theseum 
and the elegant Lysicrates Monument, the Sepulchral Beliefs which 
form so large a part of the Athenian collections, and which by the 
Dipylon afford a distinct picture of an Athenian street of tombs or 
Attic cemetery, claim our attention. They perhaps show most 
clearly how every class of the Athenian community was possessed 
with a sense of the beautiful ; how the obscurest handicraftsman, 
though he might not soar on the wings of genius, still might in 
time come to share his acquisitions. Amongst these sepulchral 
reliefs are single examples of considerable antiquity, such as the 
stele of Aristion which bears his portrait, attired as warrior in full 
armour. The majority belong to the 4th century B.C. and a time 
shortly enuring. Amongst other particulars the sepulchral relief 
records the manner of the deceased's death. Thus the youthful 
Dexileus, win fell in glorious battle at Corinth in B.C. 394, is 
represented fighting on horseback. The most prevalent style, 
however, is that of the so-called family-scenes. They are indeed 
family pictures, but not of everyday or indifferent moments. 
Separation and sorrow are expressed in gentle and temperate, but 
unmistakable manner. Husband and wife , father and mother, 
parent and children and relations offer the hand in parting ; and 
when on the grave of a matron or maiden a festive scene is intro-« 
duced, a reference to death was never very remote. 


But just as in Athens we are made sensible that classic art is 
not a mere historical phenomenon like hundreds of others , but has 
a definite retrospective value which cannot be ignored, there it is 
that our regrets for all that is lost or destroyed must be most pro- 
found. Even now we are linked by a thousand invisible chains 
to the inspired achievements of the foremost Greeks. Travel and 
life in these southern lands will tend not a little to awaken and 
foster the conviction that we should do ill to sever these bonds. 
He to whom this conviction remains, even though it be the solitary 
fruit of his travel, will have little occasion for regret. 

1. From Rome to Naples. 
Railway by Velletri, San Germano, and Capua. 

Two main roads lead from Rome to Naples : one along the coast by 
Terracina (K.. 2), the ancient Via Appia; the other through the valley of 
the Sacco and Gavigliano, the Via Lalina; hoth uniting near Capua. 

The Railway, completed in 1862 (162 31. in length), is now the most 
important means of communication between Central and Southern Italy. 
Duration of journey l l \\ — 9^2 hrs. ; fares bv the through trains (two daily) : 
1st cl. 33 fr. 35 c. , 2nd cl. 22 fr. 85 c. ;" by the ordinary trains: 28 fr., 
19 fr. 40, 13 fr. 65 c. — Return-tickets from Rome to Naples, available 
for ten days: 40 fr. 5, 27 fr. 50, and 16 fr. 40 c. — During the height 
of the travelling season , especially about Easter, those who have luggage 
should be at the station at least 1 |a hr. before the train starts. — The 
finest views are generally to the left. 

On leaving the city, the train passes S. Maria Maggiore, and 
diverges from the Civita Vecchia line; to the 1. is the Porta S. 
Lorenzo; to the r. the arches of the Acqua Felice and the ancient 
Aqua Marcia, beyond them the tombs of the Via Appia. The Sabine 
and Alban mountains rise on the 1. ; at the base of the latter 
stands Frascati. Beyond stat. Ciarnpino, where the line to Frascati 
diverges to the 1., the Alban Mts. are approached. Stat. Marino 
lies on a chain of hills to the 1.; above it, on the mountain, is Rocca 
di Papa, to the r. of which rises the Monte Cavn with the white 
walls of the monastery. The train now passes through a cutting, 
beyond which, to the 1., on an olive-planted eminence, Oastel 
Orandolfo becomes visible; immediately afterwards Albano and 
Ariccia are seen in the distance to the 1., connected by a via- 
duct, 400 ft. in length. Stat. Albano is 2 M. from the town. 
(Excursion to the Alban Mts. see Baedeker's Central Italy.) To 
the r. a glimpse of Monte Circello (1771 ft.) (p. 13), rising ab- 
ruptly from the sea ; nearer are the Volscian Mts. Next stat. 
Civita Lavinia, the ancient Lanavium; then — 

26 M. Velletri (*Locanda Campana, *Gallo , each with a Trat- 
toria), which stands on the height to the 1., whilst the line passes 
between Monte Artenisio and Ariano (Alban Mts.) on the 1., and 
Monte Santanyelo and Lupino( Volscian Mts.) on the r., and turns E. 
towards the valley of Monte Fortino. In this valley lies stat. Val- 
montone, a small town situated on an isolated volcanic eminence, 
and possessing a handsome chateau of the Doria Famuli family. 
Baedekek. Italy HI. 5th Edition. 1 

2 Route I. ANAGN1. From Rome 

The train now enters the valley of the Sacco, the ancient 
Trerus or Tolero, and skirts its left bank, running parallel with 
the Via Latina. The well-cultivated valley, bounded on both sides 
by mountains upwards of 4000 ft. high, was anciently the terri- 
tory of the llernici (see below). To the r. Monte Fortino, pictu- 
resquely situated on the slope of the mountain; farther on, to 
the r. on the heights, the venerable Segni, the Siynia of the Ro- 
mans, founded by the last Tarquin for the purpose of keeping the 
Volsci arid Hemici in check , with huge remnants of the ancient 
walls and gateways. The station is about 7 M. from the town. 

On the height to the 1., farther on, 6 M. from its station, lies 
Anagni (*Locanda d'ltalia), once a flourishing town, and in the 
middle ages frequently a papal residence (omnibus 1 fr.). Here, 
on 7th Sept., 1303, Pope Boniface VIII., then considerably ad- 
vanced in years , was taken prisoner by the French knight 
Guillaume de Nogaret, acting in concert with the Golonnas, by 
order of King Philippe le Bel, but was set at liberty by the 
people three days afterwards. The *Cattedrale di S. Maria, of the 
11th cent., with a crypt, and a mosaic pavement by Cosmas, is in 
a pure style of architecture and in good preservation. The treasury 
contains, among other relics, vestments of Innocent III. and Boni- 
face VIII. Anagni is best visited from the next stat. Sgurgola, 
from which it is 4^2 M. distant. The next towns, with the im- 
posing ruins of their ancient polygonal walls, are also situated 
on the hills at a considerable distance from the line. This is 
the territory of the llernici, with the towns of Anagnia, Ale- 
trium, Ferentinum, and Verulne, for a long period allied with 
Rome and Latium , but subjugated by the Romans after an in- 
surrection, B. C. 306. The environs of these towns are extremely 
picturesque , but the state of the country is unfortunately still 
somewhat unsettled. 

The village of Sgurgola, from which the station takes its 
name, lies on the hill to the r., above the Sacco; still higher 
is Carpinelo. Next stat. Ferentino; the town lies on the hill 
(1450 ft.) to the 1., 3 M. from the line. 

Ferentino (Hotel des Etrangers), the ancient Ferentinum, a 
town of the Volsci, afterwards of the Hernici, destroyed in the 
2nd Punic war, and afterwards a Roman colony, has now about 
9000 inhab. The ancient polygonal town-wall is still traceable 
throughout nearly its whole circuit; a gateway on the W. side 
especially deserves notice. The castle, whose walls now form the 
foundation of the episcopal palace, occupies the highest ground 
within the town. The cathedral is paved with remains of an- 
cient marbles and mosaics. The font in the small church of 
N. Giovanni Erangeliata is ancient. Interesting antiquities and 
inscriptions will also be observed in other parts of the town. 

to Naples. CEPRANO. 1 . Route. 3 

same H dl 1 S ^ncrf'Z; g P the - mOUnt , ainS V 9l ' 4M - fr0m Ferentino, and about the 
Alatri theanHen m ,f r , oslnone ^ e below) and Anagni, lies the town of 
presenting an ad,n Ifh ™' P ict " res< l«^y "tuated on an eminence, and 
cTent r?v Th ' ' ,T pre / e " ed ^ecimen of the fortifications of a '„ an- 
cient city. The walls of the castle, constructed of huge polveonal 
blocks are still entire; the gateway attracts special attention on" S 
of the stupendous dimensions of the stones of which it is composed The 
town with its gates occupies the exact site of the ancient t wn Below it 
the direction of the walls may be traced. The town and casUe were pro 
vided with an aqueduct, recently discovered, and about to be res o^d T 
work testifies to the skill in hydrodynamics attained in ancient times fir 
of e 330'ft r mU upwards from the valley from a depth 

At a distance of 3 M is the celebrated "Grotta di Collepardo, extending 
upwards of 2000 ft into the limestone rock, with beautiful .stalactite" 
One mile farther, at the base of the mountain-range which formerlv bounded 
the papal dominions, is observed an extensive depression in the soil called 
■L" : i° t A " m l°i 'I'M. in circumference and 200 ft. in depth, overgrown 
with bushes and underwood. 5 

About 6 M. from Alatri, towards the Neapolitan frontier, is situated 
Veroli, the ancient Verulae, on a beautiful hill. A road leads thence to 
Isola and Sora (see E. 16). 

60i/ 4 M. Stat. Frosinone. The town (Locanda de Matteis) 
situated on the hill, 2y 2 M. from the railway, with 9234 inhab.,' 
is identical with the ancient Volscian Frusino , conquered by the 
Romans B. C. 304. The relics of walls and other antiquities are 
scanty, but the situation is very beautiful. 

Stat. Ceccano. The village is most picturesquely situated on the 
mountain slope, on the r. bank of the Sacco, the valley of which 
now contracts. At the base of the mountain, to the 1. of the 
river, once lay the ancient Fabrateria Vetus, numerous inscriptions 
from which are built into the walls of the church by the bridge. 
A road leads from Ceccano over the mountains to Piperno and 
Terracina (p. 14). 

Stat. Castro Pofi; then (76 M.) Ceprano, formerly the frontier 
station (Refreshment-room, D. 4 fr. for those trains that halt long 
enough). Outside the station a pleasing glimpse is obtained of 
the valleys of the Litis and the Tolero. The town of Ceprano 
(Locanda Nuova) is 2^2 M. from the station. 

The train now crosses the Lids, which descends from the N., 
from the region of the Lager Fucino (P.. 16), forming the old 
boundary of the States of the Church. The small village on the 
r. is Isoletta. In the vicinity, on the r. bank of the Liris, towards 
8. Giovanni in Carico, once lay the ancient Freyellae, a Roman 
colony founded B. C. 328, a point of great military importance, 
as it commanded the passage of the river. It was destroyed by 
the Romans B. C. 125, in consequence of an insurrection, and 
Fabrateria Nova was founded in its stead. A number of antiquities 
may be seen in the Oiardino Cairo, at the village of S. (liovanni 
in Carico, 3'/ 2 M- from the station. 

The line now traverses the broad and fertile valley of the 
Liris, or Garigliano, as it is called after its union with the 


4 Route 1 . AQUINO. From Rome 

Saceo. Stat. Rocca Secca. Diligence hence to the valley of the 
Liris and the Lago Fucino, see R. 16. The picturesque town on 
the hills to the 1., the birthplace of Thomas Aquinas, is (stat.) 
Aquino, the Aquinum of the ancients, also celebrated as the 
birthplace of the satirist Juvenal (under Domitian). The illustrious 
1 dn.-tor angelicus", son of Count Landulf, was born in 1224 in 
the neighbouring castle of Rocca Secca, and educated in the 
monastery of Monte Casino (p. 5). The Emperor Pescennius Niger 
was also a native of Aquinum. 

The now insignificant town is situated on a mountain stream, 
in a beautiful and salubrious district. By the side of the Via 
Latina may be distinguished the relics of the ancient Roman town : 
inconsiderable fragments of walls, a gateway (Porta S. Lorenzo), 
a theatre, remains of temples of Ceres (S. Pietro) and Diana 
(S. Maria Maddalena), and a triumphal arch. Near the stream are 
the ruins of 8. Marin Liber/:, a basilica of the 11th cent., commonly 
called II Vescovado, occupying the site of an ancient temple, and 
consisting of handsome nave and aisles. Above the portal is a well- 
preserved Madonna in mosaic. — On the Garigliano, about 3 M. 
to the >S., is situated Pontecorvo, formerly an 'enclave' of the 
States of the Church, conferred by Napoleon on General Berna- 
dotte in 1806. 

Beyond Aquino, on a bleak mountain -ridge to the 1., the 
i-elebrated monastery of Monte Casino (p. 5) becomes visible. At 
iu base, 3 / 4 M. from the railway (earr. i/ 2 fr. ), is situated — 

93 M. San Germano, or Cassino , as it is now usually called 
(Villa Rnpido, indifferent; *Trattori.a Casino, on the way to the 
amphitheatre ; near it, hoc. dti Giurati, very unpretending, but 
clean), on the site of the ancient ('asinuui. 

A visit to the latter, as well as to the neighbouring monastery (p. 5) 
may easily be accomplished within a stay of 24 hrs. (Luggage may either 
be forwarded direct from Rome to Maple's, or left at S. Germano station.) 
An excursion to Monte Casino may now be pronounced safe. On arriving 
by the train the traveller, having taken the precaution to procure some 
refreshment in the town, may either first explore, the ruins of Casinum 
(for which, however, he would have time on the following day), or 
proceed at once to the monastery of Monte Casino (l l /-> hr. ; donkey 
l'l- 2 fr.). The excursion should be so arranged that, the" traveller mav 
return to the town a considerable time before sunset; at the same time it 
must be borne in mind that visitors are strictly excluded from 12 to 3. 
31) o'clock. The monastery is justly noted for its hospitality, and affords 
good quarters for the night (ladies of course are admitted to the church 
only), although the fare is sometimes of a very frugal description. No 
payment is demanded, but the traveller will of course give a handsome 
gratuity. (For a lengthened stay persons of moderate requirements are 
accommodated 'en pension'.) French and German are spoken by some of 
the brothers. Early in the morning on Sundays and holidays the church 
and courts of the monastery ;ne crowded with country-people from the 
neighbouring districts, whose characteristic physiognomies and costumes 
will be scanned with interest by the traveller. Those who return to S. Ger- 
mano to pass the night should allow 5 hrs. for the whole excursion. 

to Naples. MONTE CASINO. 1 . Route. 5 

San (iermano, picturesquely situated in the plain on the small 
river Rapido (Lat. Vinius), and commanded by a ruined castle, 
occupies nearly the same site as the ancient Ca.vnum, colonised 
by the Romans B. C. 312, and afterwards a flourishing provincial 
town. On its ruins sprang up San Germane during the middle 
ages. Pillars of great antiquity are still to be seen in the chur- 
ches. Various courts have been held here by popes and emperors, 
and in 1230 Gregory IX. was reconciled here with Frederick II. 
The foggy character of the climate is alluded to by the ancients. 
After traversing the somewhat uninteresting town , we turn to 
the 1. and follow the road which approaches from the N. and 
coincides with the Via Latina. About 1 /-2 M\ farther, to the r. 
are situated the colossal remains of an * Amphitheatre, which, 
according to an inscription preserved at Monte Casino, was erected 
at her own expense by Ummidia Quadratilla, mentioned by Pliny 
in his letters (vii, 24) as a lady of great wealth, who up to a 
very advanced age was an ardent admirer of theatrical per- 
formances ('Ummidia C. F. Quadratilla amphitheatrum et templum 
Casinatibus sua pecunia fecit'). Farther on, and in a higher si- 
tuation, stands a massive square monument, with four niches, and 
surmounted by a dome, now converted into the church * del 
Crocefisso (custodian 3 — 4 soldi). On the opposite bank of 
the Rapido lay the villa of M. Terentius Varro, where, as we 
are informed by Cicero (Phil, ii, 40 ), M. Antony afterwards in- 
dulged in his wild orgies. The path leading back to the town 
from Crocefisso is probably the ancient Via Latina, and traces of 
ancient pavement are occasionally observed. From this path, by 
keeping to the high ground to the left, we may proceed to 
M. Casino without returning to the town. 

The monastery of *Monte Casino, situated on a lofty moun- 
tain to the W. of the town, is reached in Vj., hr. The path, 
which cannot be mistaken, affords exquisite views of the valley 
of the Garigliano and the surrounding mountains. The monastery 
was founded by St. Benedict (see below) in ")29, on the site of 
an ancient temple of Apollo, to which Dante alludes (Parad. 
xxii, 37), and from its magnificent situation alone would be 
entitled to a visit, were there no other inducements to the en- 
lightened traveller. Immediately on arriving, those who desire to 
remain for the night should apply to the padre forestieraio for 
permission (p. 4). Letters of introduction should if possible be 
procured previously. 

The extensive edifice, the interior of which resembles a castle rather 
than a monastery, is entered by a low passage through the rock, where 
St. Benedict is said to have had his cell. Several courts are connected hy 
arcades. The central one has a fountain of very good water, adorned with 
statues of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. On a square space 
higher up, enclosed by columns from the ancient temple of Apollo, stands 
the Church, erected in 1727 to replace the ancient and dilapidated edifice 
founded bv St. Benedict. The fortunes of the abbey are recorded in Latin 

6 Route 1 . MONTE CASINO. From Rome 

above the entrance of the hall. The principal door of the church is of 
bronze and is inscribed with a list, inlaid in silver, of all the possessions 
of the abbey in 1066. It was executed at Constantinople by order of the 
Abbot Desiderius, afterwards Pope Victor III. The interior is richly de- 
corated with marble, mosaics, and paintings. On each side of the high 
altar is a mausoleum ; one to the memory of Pietro de' Medici (p. 19), who 
was drowned in the Garigliano in 1503, executed by Francesco Sangallo by 
order of Clement VII. ; the other that of Guidone Fieramosca, last Prince 
of Mignano. Beneath the high altar, with its rich marble decorations, re- 
pose the remains of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. The sub- 
terranean chapel contains paintings by Marco da Siena and Mazzaroppi. 
The choir-stalls are adorned with admirable carving (by Coliccio, 1696), 
and the chapels adjoining the altar with costly mosaics. Above the doors 
and on the ceiling are frescoes by Luca Giordano (1677), representing the 
miracles of St. Benedict and the foundation of the church. The organ is 
one of the finest in Italy. In the refectory is the 'Miracle of the loaves'' 
by Bassano. 

At a very early period the Librarii was celebrated for its MSS. , the 
labours of the brethren. To the Abbot Desiderius of the 11th cent, we 
are probably indebted for the preservation of Varro, and perhaps of other 
authors. The handsome saloon at present contains a collection of about 
10,000 vols., among which are numerous rare editions published during the 
infancy of the printer's art. The MSS. and documents are preserved in the 
archives, in the passage leading to which a number of inscriptions are built 
into the wall, most of them rescued from the ruins of the ancient Casinum. 
Among the MSS. are : the commentary of Origen on the Epistle to the 
Romans, translated by Rufus, dating from the 6th cent. ; Dante with mar- 
ginal notes, of the 14th cent, (the archives contain an interesting portrait 
of the poet); the vision of the monk Alberic, which is said to have sug- 
gested the first idea on which Dante founded his work ; various classical 
authors, the original MSS. of l.eo of Ostia and Kiccardo di San Germane 
The : 'Archives comprise a still rarer collection : about 800 documents of 
emperors, kings, dukes, etc., the complete series of papal bulls which 
relate to Monte Casino, commencing with the 11th cent., many of them 
with admirable seals and impressions. 

Monte Casino has ever been conspicuous among the monasteries 
of Christendom for the admirable manner in which its inmates have 
discharged their higher duties. Hosts of travellers have partaken 
of their hospitality. They are the intelligent keepers of one of 
the most precious libraries in the world , and form the zealous 
chapter of their cathedral. The Abbot is virtually the bishop 
of an extensive diocese. They educate 250 students. In 1865, on 
the 600th anniversary of the foundation of the monastery, they 
edited and printed by their own unassisted labour a facsimile of 
their splendid manuscript of Dante, as an offering to their new 
metropolis. The Benedictines of Mte. Casino have for many years 
occupied a peculiar position in the ecclesiastico-political world. 
Long before the events of l! J .59, Monte Casino was the refuge 
of libera] and constitutional principles. Under the dark rule of 
the J'.ourbons , while the clergy of Naples generally acquiesced 
in their despotic rule, the Abbey of Monte Casino maintained a 
noble independence, incurring thereby both danger and annoyance 
from the existing government. Tosti, the historian of literature, 
the life and soul of the convent, is one of the most accomplished 
scholars in Italy, and one of the most enlightened and liberal 
of modern divines. 

to Naples. TEANO. 1 . Route. 7 

This monastery, though, like all the other monastic establish- 
ments in Italy, condemned to dissolution, will probably be per- 
mitted to survive in the form of an educational establishment. 

The monastery commands a magnificent prospect in all di- 
rections, which the visitor should not omit to enjoy from the 
different points of view. To the W. and S. extends the broad 
valley of the Garigliano with its numerous villages, separated from 
the Gulf of Gaeta by a range of hills, and the sea is occasionally 
distinguishable. To the E. is the valley of S. Germano, com- 
manded by the rocky summits of the Abruzzi. To the N. a wild 
mountainous district. Close to the monastery rises Monte Cairo, 
upwards of 5000 ft. in height, which may be ascended from this 
point in 3 — 4 hrs., an excursion, however, hardly to be recom- 
mended during the present unsettled state of the country. The 
view from the summit is considered one of the finest in Italy, 
extending from M. Cavo in the Alban range to Camaldoli near 

Continuation of Journey to Naples. To the 1., beyond 
S. Germano, we perceive the villages of Cervaro, S. Vittore, and 
8. Pietro in Fine. Stat. Rocca d'Evandro. The train quits the 
valley of the Garigliano, and enters a richly cultivated defile, 
beyond which the country towards the r. grows flatter , and 
stat. Mignano becomes visible. Beautiful views of the distant 

The line now runs towards the S. and intersects a barren, un- 
dulating tract, which separates the Garigliano from the Volturno. 
Stat. Presenzano (the village lies on the slope to the 1.); then 
Caianello Vairano, whence a high road leads through the Abruzzi 
to Pescara on the Gulf of Venice (R. 14), and to Aquila and Terni 
(R. 15). Stat. Riardo; the village, with an old castle, is situated 
to the 1. 

Stat. Teano (Locanda delf Italia); the town (5000 inhab.) lies 
at some distance. to the r., at the base of the lofty Rocca Mon- 
fina, an extinct volcano (3400 ft.). The very extensive, but 
dilapidated old castle was erected in the 15th cent, by the dukes 
of Sessa. Ancient columns in the cathedral, inscriptions, remains 
of a theatre, and other antiquities are now the sole vestiges of 
the venerable Teanum Sidicinum, once the capital of the Sidicini, 
conquered by the Samnites in the 4th cent. B. C, then subjugated 
by the Romans, and in Strabo's time the most flourishing inland 
city of Campania after Capua. 

From Teano the train turns to the r. towards stat. Sparanisi, 
a village whence a road leads to Gaeta (p. 17). On the hill, to 
the 1. of the station, is situated Ctrtvi, the ancient Cales, a Ro- 
man colony founded B. C. 332, the wine of which (vinum Ca- 
lenum) is praised by Horace. It now consists of a few houses 
only, but contains some interesting antiquities, a temple, and 

8 Route 1. CAPUA. From Rome 

a theatre (most conveniently visited from Capua; carr. tliere 
and hark 2 — 3 fr."). Stat. Pitjnataro. The train now traverses the 
plain of the Volturno, the principal river of S. Italy, 90 M. in 
length, and reaches — 

135 M. Capua (Locanda della Posta, tolerable; Cafe Italia). 
The town, of whose ramparts and churches a glimpse only is obtained 
in passing, lies on the 1. bank of the river, by which the greater 
part of it is surrounded. It was erected in the 9th cent., after 
the destruction of the ancient Capua, on the site of Casilinum, 
a town which was conquered by Hannibal after an obstinate re- 
sistance, and fell to decay in the time of the emperors. It now 
contains 10,000 inhab. , is an archiepiscopal residence , and 
strongly fortified. The * Cathedral possesses a handsome en- 
trance court with ancient columns. The interior is a basilica 
consisting of nave and aisles. A chapel on the 1. contains a 
Madonna della Rosa of the 13th cent. On the r. a Madonna 
with two saints by Silvestro de' Buoni. The Crypt , dating 
from the liomanesque period, contains mosaics from the former 
pulpit, a Roman sarcophagus with a representation of the Hunt 
of Meleager, and a Holy Sepulchre, attributed to Bernini. — A 
Museum in course of formation, by the church of S. Antonio, 
contains Campanian inscriptions and antiquities. — The modern 
town presents no attractions. 

The bridge across the Volturno, restored in 1756, is adorned 
with a statue of St. Nepomuc; beyond it is an inscription to the 
memory of the Emperor Frederick II. , the statue belonging to 
which has disappeared. The Torre Miynana within, and the 
Cappella de' Morti without the town commemorate the sanguin- 
ary attack made on Capua by Caesar Borgia in 1501, on which 
occasion 5000 lives were sacrificed. 

On the Volturno, near Capua, King Francis II. was defeated 
by the Piedmontese, 1st Oct., 1860, after which the fortress 
surrendered on 3rd Nov. 

About 3 M. beyond Capua the train reaches stat. Santa Maria 
di Capua Vetere, or Santa Maria Maggiore {Roma, a new hotel 
in the Piazza; Albergo di tiaetano Aran, in the principal street; 
Caffe di Mola), a prosperous town occupying the site of the 
celebrated ancient city of Capua. 

Capua, founded by (lie Etruscans and afterwards occupied by Sabellian 
tribes, entered into alliance with the Humans B. C. 343, for the sake of protec- 
tion against the attacks of the Samnites. Owing to the luxuriant fertility uf 
the district, the power and wealth of the city developed themselves at an 
early period, but it soon became noted for its effeminacy and degeneracy. 
When in the zenith of its prosperity it was the largest city in Italy after Rome 
and contained 300,000 inhabitants. In the 2nd Punic war, after the battle of 
Cannie (B. C. 216), it entered into an alliance with Hannibal, who took up his 
winter-quarters here. That his army had becume so enervated by their resi- 
dence at Capua as no longer to be a match for the Romans, is doubtless a mere 
hypothesis. Certain, however, it is, that the Romans soon regained their su- 

to Naple*. SANTA MARIA DI CAPUA. 1. Route. 9 

periority, and after along siege reduced the town, B.C. 211. Its punishment 
was a severe one, and the inhabitants were entirely deprived of all civic pri- 
vileges. It was rescued from its abject condition by Caesar, and under his suc- 
cessors regained its ancient splendour. It continued to prosper until the wars 
of the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards. In the 8th cent, it was destroyed by the 
Saracens, and the inhabitants emigrated to the modern Capua (p. 8). 

The most remarkable of the ruins is the *Amphitheatre (situ- 
ated outside the town, on the road to modern Capua ; gratuity 
'/ 2 fr. for 1 — 2 pers.J, constructed of travertine, reputed to be the 
most ancient in Italy, and said to have been capable of contain- 
ing 100,000 spectators. Three of its passages are tolerably well 
preserved, but two only of the 80 entrance arches. The key- 
stones are decorated with images of gods. The arena, with its 
substructions, passages, and dens for the wild beasts (to which 
a stair descends from the passage to the 1.), is, like that of 
Pozzuoli, better denned than that of the Colosseum at Rome. 
The passages contain remains of ancient decorations , fragments 
of columns, bas-reliefs, etc. To the r., near the entrance, the 
visitor may ascend to the upper portion of the structure, in order 
to obtain a survey of the ruins themselves, and of the broad 
surrounding plain. Extensive schools were once maintained at 
Capua for the training of gladiators, and it was here that the 
dangerous War of the Gladiators under Spartacus the Thracian 
broke out in B. C. 73, which was with difficulty quelled by 
Crassus two years later. — In the vicinity, on the road to the 
modern Capua (l l /2M- i carr. 1 fr.), are the ruins of a Triumphal 
Arch. — Above Capua rises Mons Tifata, once the site of a 
temple of Jupiter, now crowned by a chapel of 8. Nicola. At 
the foot of the hill , about 3'/-2 M. from S. Maria , stands the 
old church of S. Anyelo in Formis , with Byzantine frescoes of 
the 11th cent, (historically valuable), occupying the site of a 
celebrated temple of Diana, around which a village had established 

The high road from Capua to Maddaloni (p. 10) by S. Maria 
and Caserta presents a scene of brisk traffic; excursions by car- 
riage through this garden-like district are therefore preferable to 
those by railway. The road to Caserta (one-horse carr. in •'< 4 hr., 
l'/ 2 — 2 fr.) passes two handsome Roman tombs. Near Capua the 
vast plains of the ancient Campania (now Terra di Lavoro) begin 
to expand. Like the Campagna di Roma, they are of volcanic 
origin, but incomparably superior in fertility, and admirably culti- 
vated. The district, one of the most luxuriant in Europe, in 
addition to the produce of the dense plantations of fruit-trees, is 
capable of yielding two crops of grain and one of fodder in one 
season. The railway turns to the 1. to — 

141 1/ 2 M- Caserta (*Albergo Vittoria; Villa Reale, in the Via 
Vittoria,"near the post-office, well spoken of; Villa di Firenze ; 
Crocelle, well spoken of; * Stella d' Italia; Cafe d' Italia), the 

1 Route 1 . CASERTA. From Rome 

Versailles of Naples, is a clean and well built town (11,000 
inhab.), with several palaces and handsome barracks, and is the 
residence of the prefect of the Terra di Lavoro. It was founded 
in the 8th cent, by the Lombards on the slope of the mountain, 
but the modern town stands on lower ground. The station is 
opposite the palace, permission to visit which (9 — 4 o'clock, 
gardens open till sunset) should be obtained from the royal inten- 
dant at the Palazzo Reale (p. 40) at Naples, although not absolutely 
essential (attendant 1 fr. ; for the chapel 25 c). 

The * Royal Palace of Caserta was erected in 1752 by King 
Charles III., under the superintendence of Vanvitelli, in the 
richest Italian palatial style. It forms a rectangle. The S. side 
is 830 ft. long and 134 ft. high, with thirty-seven windows in each 
storey. The courts of the palace are traversed by a colonnade, from 
the centre of which the staircase ascends. The Chapel is lavishly 
decorated with marble, lapis lazuli, and gold. It contains a 
'Presentation in the Temple' by Mengs, five paintings by Conca, 
and an altar-piece by Bonito. The Theatre is adorned with 
sixteen Corinthian columns of African marble from the temple of 
Serapis at Pozzuoli, and contains forty boxes, besides that appro- 
priated to the royal family. The palace is at present unoccupied. 
The Garden contains magnificent fountains and cascades, and 
handsome statues. The grand terrace above the cascade affords 
beautiful points of view. The Casino Reale di 8. Leuci, in the 
park, about 2 M. to the N., commands a still finer prospect. 
— Caserta is a station on the Naples and Foggia line (R. 12). 

Stat. Muddaloni; the town (17,798 inhab.) lies to the 1., 
with an extensive deserted palace of the Caralfa family, and is 
commandtd by a ruined castle. On the Foggia line, 2'/-2 M. 
distant, is situated the Ponti della ] r alle, a celebrated aqueduct 
constructed by Vanvitelli to supply the gardens of Caserta with 
water (see p. 177), and usually visited from Maddaloni. 

149 M. Stat. Cancello , whence a branch line diverges to 
Nola anil San Severino (R. 13). 

From Cani f.i.t.o to Bknevf.nto 27 SI. (railway from Caserta to Be- 
nevento see K. 12). Since the opening of the railway the high road has been 
employed for the local traffic only. It skirts the base of the hills, passes 
through S. Felice, and enters the valley where the long village of Arienzo 
nestles amidst, gardens and groves of olives and oranges. It then leads through 
a narrow delile, considered by many to be identical with the Furculse Cau- 
dina-, which proved so disastrous to the fortunes of Rome, and ascends to 
the village of Arpaia (the ancient Caudium according to some); it next 
traverses a well-cultivated valley, and reaches the small town of Monte- 
sarrhio (pooi' locanda), with its extensive castle, once the residence of the 
d'Avalns family. This edifice has recently been used as a state prison, in 
which, among others, the well-known Poerio (d. 1867) was confined. To- 
wards the X. rises the lofty chain of Monte Talmruo (4094 ft.). From this 
point a path leads by the base of Monte Vergine to Avellino, a walk of 
A hrs. The traveller now crosses the Sarretella by a Koman bridge, 
approaches ISenevento through an avenue of poplras, and lastly crosses 
the Sabato, with field's and gardens on either side. Henerento, see p. 175. 

to Naples. ACERRA. 1 . Route. 1 1 

To the 1. Monte Somma becomes visible, concealing the cone 
of Vesuvius, which lies beyond. Stat. Acerra (11,717 inhab.) 
was the ancient Acerrae, to which the Roman citizenship was 
accorded as early as B. C. 332. The train next passes by the 
trenches of the Regi Lagni, destined to drain the marshes of 
Pantano dell Acerra, the ancient Clanius, now VAyno, and 
forming the boundary between the provinces of Terra di Lavoro 
and Naples. The last station before Naples is Casalnuovo ; to 
the 1. Vesuvius becomes visible. The station at Naples is at 
the S. E. extremity of the town. Arrival in Naples, see p. '21. 

2. From Rome to Naples. 

By the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, Gaeta, and Capua. 

This road, until recently the principal route between Central and 
Southern Italy, is the most ancient in the peninsula. During the Samnite 
war, B. C. 312, the Via Appia from Rome to Capua (p. 1) was constructed 
by the censor Ap. Claudius, and with it the present road is nearly iden- 
tical. It skirts the W. side of the Alban mountains , passes Albano, 
Genzano, and Velletri, intersects the plain on the coast, of which the 
Pontine Marshes form a portion, and reaches Terracina, on the old 
frontier of the States of the Church. It then turns inland and traverses the 
mountain chain of Itri, which bounds the Gulf of Gaeta on the N. \V. It 
reaches the gulf near Formia, skirts it for a short distance, and then 
again proceeds towards the interior by S. Agata, uniting at stat. Spa- 
ranisi (p. 7) with the preceding route , 5 M. above Capua. 

In consequence of the opening of the railway this road is now used 
for the local traffic only, but it is still strongly recommended to the notice of 
the traveller as one of the most beautiful in Italy, traversing a singularly at- 
tractive district. The journey by carriage from Rome to Naples is also pre- 
ferable to that by railway in this respect, that the transition from the one 
city to the other is thus rendered less abrupt. The lonely mountainous 
districts of the ex-papal dominions, and the hilly region above Gaeta were 
formerly favourite haunts of brigands, but since the annexation of the 
States of the Church to Italy their bands have been dispersed. No appre- 
hensions need therefore now be entertained, especially if the traveller 
takes the diligence, which still runs regularly. To Velletri (p. 1) by rail- 
way; thence daily (8 a. hi.) a diligence to Terracina in 8 hrs. (fare 7 fr.) ; 
from Terracina another diligence (5 a. m.) runs by Formia to stat. Sparanisi 
in 9i| 2 hrs. (fare 8 fr. 75 c). Thence to Naples by railway; fares 5 fr. 70, 
3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 5c — The whole journey occupies 3—4 days : — 1st. To 
Terracina (visit Theodoric's palace) ; 2nd.' To Formia (excursion to Gaeta) ; 
3rd. To Naples. — The hotels at. Terracina and Formia are tolerably com- 
fortable. The journey may also be accomplished by diligence as far as 
Velletri (office near the Teatro Argentina), but this requires an additional 
day, which might probably be better employed. The malaria which pre- 
vails in the marshy districts in summer is considered especially noxious 
during sleep. The diligence conductors regard tobacco smoke as the most 
effectual antidote to the poison of the atmosphere. — No risk need be 
apprehended during the colder seasons. 

The high road (Via Appia Nuova) issues from Rome by the Porta 
S. Giovanni, at first running parallel to the ancient Via Appia, and 
then uniting with it at the 11th migl., by the Osteria Le Fratocchie. 
beyond which it proceeds to Albano. Thence to Ariroia by the 

12 Route -J. PONTINE MARSH KS. From Rome 

great viaduct; the Chigi palace is passed on the 1. ; two more 
viaducts are crossed, and Genzano and Velletri reached. Here, 
31 M. from Home, the railway turns to the 1. towards the moun- 
tains, whilst the lush road descends to the plain to the r., and, 
l 1 /.) M. from Cisterna. again unites with the ancient Via Appia. 
The extensive oak forests here were once a notorious haunt of 
banditti. On the height to the 1. we perceive the villages of 
Cori and Norma, frequently visited from Velletri (by diligence, 
see Baedekers Central Italy). 

Further on, below Norma, stands Sermoneta on an emin- 
ence, with an ancient castle of the Gaetani family, who thence 
derive their ducal title. Towards the sea, to the r., rises the 
isolated Monte Cireello (p. 13). Cisterna (La Posta), 9 l / 2 M. 
from Velletri , is a small town with a castle of the Gaetani, 
situated on the last hill before the Pontine marshes are reached. 
It was called ('interna Neronis in the middle ages, and is be- 
lieved to occupy the site of the ancient Tres Tabernae. 

Torre tre Ponti , 21 M. from Velletri, a solitary post-house, 
where the diligence halts for an hour and changes horses, affords 
miserable accommodation. Terracina is 28 M. distant. Sermo- 
neta, 6 M. distant from Torre tre Ponti, may be visited thence. 
About '/2 M. farther the road crosses the Ninfa by an ancient 
bridge, restored, as the inscription records, by Trajan. 

Here begin the Pontine Marshes (Paludi Pontine), varying 
in breadth between the mountains and the sea from 6 to 12 M., 
ami from Nettuno to Terracina 3(5 M. in length. A very small 
portion only is cultivated. They, however, afford extensive 
pastures ; the most marshy parts being the favourite resort of the 
cattle. Towards the sea the district is clothed with forest (macchia). 
The malaria in summer is a dreadful scourge. According to Pliny 
(Hist. Nat. iii, ■)), it was anciently a fertile and well-cultivated 
plain, comprising twenty-four villages, but towards the close of 
the republic it gradually became a neglected marsh, owing to the 
decline of agriculture. A want of fall in the surface of the soil 
is the cause of the evil. The streams and canals are totally 
inadequate to carry off the excess of water which descends from 
the mountains during the rainy season, and its escape is further 
impeded by the luxuriant vegetation of the aquatic plants. At- 
tempts to drain the marshes have been successively made by the 
censor Ap. Claudius, IS. C. 312 (so tradition affirms), by the 
consul Cornelius Oethegus 130 years later, by C.csar, Augustus, 
Nrrva, Trajan, and finally by Theodoric, king of the Goths, all 
of which were of temporary benefit only. Similar operations were 
undertaken by the popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., 
and Pius VI. To the last is due the present admirably con- 
structed road across the marshes, the cost of which amounted to 
1,622,000 scudi. 

to Naples. PIPERNO. 2. Route. 13 

For some distance the road is coincident with the ancient Via 
Appia, skirting the Canal delle Bolte, constructed before the 
time of Augustus, and on -which Horace performed part of his 
journey to Brundisium (Sat. i, 5). 

About 41/2 M. from Torre tre Ponti lies Foro Appio, the 
ancient Forum Appii, described by Horace as 'differtum nautis 
cauponibus atque maliguis'. Here, and at Tres Tabernae, the 
Apostle Paul met his friends from Rome (Acts, 28). 

The road pursues a perfectly straight direction, shaded by a 
double or quadruple avenue of stately elms. Rut for the moun- 
tains to the 1., where Sezza has for some time been visible, the 
traveller might imagine himself transported to a scene in Holland. 

A conveyance in correspondence with the diligence from Yelletri runs 
from Foro Appio to Sezza, the ancient Yolscian Sella, which produced a 
favourite wine. It is situated above the marshes on a hill which the old 
road to Naples skirted. The fragments of the old walls and of a so-called 
Temple of Saturn are still to be seen. Before ascending the hill of Sezza, 
the road skirts its base and leads to — 

Fiperno (6 31.), the ancient Prirernmn of the Yolsci, which long with- 
stood the attacks of the Romans, and afterwards a Roman colony, the traces 
of which are seen 3 /i 31. to the N. in the plain, on the way to Frosinone. 
This plain is enclosed by lofty mountains, studded with ruined castles 
and villages : Rocca Gorga, Maenza, Iiocca Secra, Prossedi, etc. About 3 31. 
farther, in the valley of the Amaseno, is situated the Cistercian monastery 
of Fossa Ntiova, where Thomas Aquinas died in 1274, whilst on his way to 
the Council of Lyons. Somiino, 4 1 J2 31. distant, and San Lorenzo, in the 
valley of the Amaseno, about 9 31. distant, are both celebrated for the 
picturesqueness of the costume of the women , and notorious for the 
audacity of the beggars. 

The high road pursues a straight direction on a raised em- 
bankment, and leads to Bocca di Fiume and Mean. 

At the entrance of the post-house at Mesa are two ancient 
mile-stones of Trajan. In the vicinity are the ruins of a tomb 
on a square basement of massive blocks of limestone, obtained 
from the neighbouring Volscian mountains. 

Ponte Muggiore is the next post-station. Reyond it the road 
crosses the Amaseno, into which the llfente empties itself a little 
higher up. 

The locality is next reached which Horace mentions as the 
site of the grove and fountain of Feronia (Sat. i, 5, 23), but 
no traces of either are now visible (they were more probably in 
the vicinity of S. Martino). On the slope of the adjoining moun- 
tain is a beautiful olive plantation, the property of Count Autonelli. 
The new road now quits the Via Appia and approaches the 
mountains to the 1., where palms and pomegranates, interspersed 
with orange groves and aloes, apprise the traveller of his en- 
trance into Southern Italy. 

To the r., towards the sea, the Promontorio Circeo, or Cirrello (1771 ft.), 
visible even before Yelletri was reached, now becomes move conspicuous. 
This was the Cireeii of the ancients, the traditional site of the palace and grove 
of the enchantress Circe, daughter of the sun, described by Homer. It is an 
isolated limestone rock, and mav be reached in 3 hrs. from Terracma by a 
good path along the shore. On the summit, near S. Felice towards the h. 

M Routt :•. TERRACINA. From Rome 

and Torre di l'aola towards the W., some fragments are perceived of the 
ancient town of Circeii, captured by Coriolanus, and still existing in Cicero's 
time. Cicero and Atticus, Tiberius and Domitian frequently resorted to 
this spot, attracted doubtless by the beauty of the situation and the excel- 
lence of the oysters. The Grotta della Maga, a stalactite cavern, deserves a 
visit. In spring and autumn the rocks are frequented by innumerable birds 
of passage. 

Terracina (Urand Hotel Royal, at the S. entrance to the town, 
with a view of the sea at the back; Locanda Nazionale, in the 
Piazza, less expensive), situated conspicuously on a rocky emin- 
ence (Hor. Sat. i, 5, 26), the Anxur of the ancient Volsci, 
and the Tarracina of the Romans, was formerly on the confines 
of the papal dominions, and may still be regarded as the natural 
frontier town between Central and Southern Italy. It is an 
ancient episcopal residence, and, on account of its situation, one 
of the most attractive places in Italy. The high road intersects 
the extensive but thinly peopled quarter of the town which was 
founded by Pius VI., while the old town is built on the slope 
of the hill. Above the latter extend the ruins of the ancient city, 
crowned by the remains of the palace of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. 

The *Cnttedrale S. Pietro is believed to occupy the site of 
a temple of Jupiter Anxurus. The vestibule rests on ten ancient 
columns, at the bases of which are recumbent lions. To the r. 
a large antique sarcophagus, which, according to the inscription, 
was once used in torturing the persecuted early Christians. 
The beautiful fluted columns of the canopy in the interior once 
belonged to the ancient temple. The pulpit, with its ancient mo- 
saics, rests on columns with lions at their bases. The Clock 
Tower (ascended by 91 steps) commands an extensive prospect 
over the sea as far as the Ponza islands and Ischia; to the r. 
to Monte Circello, to the 1. over the marshes. 

The view is far more extensive and picturesque from the 
summit of the promontory, which may be attained directly from 
the new town in % nr i but more conveniently from the old, 
part of the way by an ancient road passing remains of tombs 
and ancient walls, and then leading to the r., through olive plan- 
tations. The whole excursion requires about 3 hrs.; guide un- 
necessary. The * Palace of Theodoric , afterwards converted into 
a castle , occupies the summit. A corridor of twelve arches 
opens towards the sea on the S. side. The purposes of the 
different parts of the structure cannot now be ascertained. The 
various points of view are worthy of notice. Towards the W. 
the view embraces the plain as far as the Alban Mts., then the 
Monte Circello; towards the S. are the Pontine or Ponza Islands, 
the N. W. group of which comprises Ponza (Tontiae, once a 
Roman colony), Palniarola (Palmaria), and Zannone, all of vol- 
canic origin, and the S. group Ventotene and S. Stefano ; between 
the groups lies the small island of La Botte. The islands are 
still employed, as in ancient times, as a place of detention for 

to Naples. FONDI. 2. Route. 15 

criminals. Ventotene is the Pandateria of melancholy celebrity, to 
which Augustus banished his abandoned daughter Julia, and Tibe- 
rius relegated Agrippina, the daughter of Julia, and where Nero is 
said to have caused his divorced wife Octavia to be put to death. 
Towards the B. the plain of Fondi is visible; the village on the 
sea is Sperlonga (p. 16); farther off is the promontory of Gaeta 
with the Torre d'Orlando (p. 18), and finally the island of Ischia. 

The Harbour of Terracina, still recognisable by the break- 
water, was of great importance during the Roman period, but 
is now entirely filled with sand. A new Molo affords indif- 
ferent shelter to coasting vessels. The galley-slaves at the bagno 
here are partly employed in the harbour works, and partly in 
the quarries. 

At the entrance to the town rises a picturesque mass of rock 
on the roadside, on which a hermit formerly dwelt. 

From Terracina the course of the Via Appia, flanked by 
remains of ancient tombs , is pursued , skirting the moun- 
tains, which approach so near the sea as occasionally to leave 
barely space for the road. This pass was the ancient Lautulae. 
Here, B. C. 315, the Romans fought a battle with the Sam- 
nites, and in the 2nd Punic war Fabius Maximus here kept 
Hannibal in check. On a hill about l / 2 M. to the 1. is situated 
the monastery of Retiro, on the site of the villa in which the 
emperor Galba was born. Then to the r. the Lake of Fondi, 
the Lacus Fundanus or Amyclanus of the ancients , so called 
from the town of Amyclae which is said to have been founded 
here by fugitive Laconians. The village towards the E. on the 
slope facing the sea is Sperlonga. 

The Roman frontier was formerly at Torre dell' Epitafta. The 
gate-way of the tower de' Confini, or La Portella, formerly 
the Neapolitan douane, 4'/ 2 M. from Terracina, is next reached. 
On a height to the 1. is the village of Monticelli; by the road-side 
are fragments of tombs. We now enter the Terra di Lavoro 
(p. 9), one of the most beautiful and fertile districts in the 
kingdom. The next place is (14 M. from Terracina) Fondi 
(5000 inhab.), the ancient Fundi, where Horace derides the 
pride of a civic official 'with broad purple border and censer' 
(Hor. Sat. i, 5, 34). Change of horses, and halt of '/« hr - 
(poor inn). The chateau , part of which adjoins the inn, is 
in a miserably dilapidated condition. Some of the window- 
frames and decorations in the most tasteful Renaissance style 
testify to its ancient splendour. In the 16th cent, it belon- 
ged to the Colonnas. In 1534 it was occupied by the beau- 
tiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga , who narrowly escaped being 
captured during the night by the daring pirate Haireddin 
Barbarossa, who purposed conveying her to the Sultan Soliman II, 

16 Route 2. ITRI. From Rome 

Exasperated by his failure, he wreaked his revenge on the 
town, as an inscription in the church records. The town was 
again destroyed by Turks in 1594. In the vicinity is the church 
of fl. Maria in the Italian Gothic style. The interior, sadly 
disfigured by whitewash, possesses an ancient pulpit adorned 
with mosaic, and on the r. a Madonna by Silvestro de' Buoni. 
A chapel is shown in the Dominican monastery in which Thomas 
Aquinas once taught theology. Considerable remains of the 
ancient town-walls are preserved. The principal street coin- 
cides with the ancient Via Appia. In other respects the town 
is dull and uninteresting, and like Itri (see below) was for 
centuries a haunt of brigands. 

Beyond Fondi the road traverses the plain for 3 M., after 
which it ascends Monte S. Andrea through mountain ravines, 
where additional horses are necessary. It then descends to the 
poor town of Itri, with a ruined castle, once notorious for the 
robberies committed there. It was here that the robber-chief 
Marco Sciarra promised a safe conduct and protection to the poet 
Tasso, and Fra Diavolo (whose real name was Michele Pezza) was 
also a native of Itri. He was at last captured by the French 
near Salerno and executed. Anecdotes are still related of this 
daring brigand, and Washington Irving's sketch ' The Inn of 
Terracina', the foundation of Auber's opera, has greatly contri- 
buted to maintain their interest. 

A mountainous path, to the r. of Itri, leads in 2 l \* hrs. to the fishing 
village of Sperloiiga, situated on a sandy promontory, and deriving its name 
from the grottoes (spehweae) in the neighbouring rocks. In one of these, 
as Tacitus informs us (An iv, 59: 'vescebantur in villa cui voeabulum 
Speluncce, mare Amyclseuin inter et Fundanos montes, nativo in specu'l, 
Sejanus saved the life of Tiberius, which was imperilled by a falling rock. 
On the way to the arotto Roman ruins are observed, and the grotto itself 
contains benches and stucco ornaments. The exclusion may best be made 
by boat from Gaeta, from which Sperlonga is about 9 M. distant. 

From Itri the road descends for some distance on galleries, 
and Anally between woods and vineyards towards the coast, re- 
vealing an exquisite view of the bay of Gaeta, with its glittering 
villas and other edifices; in the distance are lschia and Procida; 
still further off rise the mountains which enclose the bay of 
Naples, and the well-known outline of Mt. Vesuvius. 

Farther on, we perceive to the r., in the middle of a 
vineyard , on a square base, a massive round tower, believed 
to be Cicero's Tomb. It was in this neighbourhood, not far 
from his Formianum, that the proscribed orator, who sought 
to elude the pursuit of the triumvirs Octavian, Antony, and 
Lepidus, was murdered by the tribunes Herennius and Popilius 
Lienas, 7th Dec., B. C. 43, in the 64th year of his age. On a 
height above the road may be traced the foundations of a temple 
of Apollo, said to have been founded by Cicero. Numerous re- 
lics of ancient buildings are still extant on the whole bay, which, 
like the bay of Naples, was a favourite resort of the Roman nobles, 

to Naples. FORMIA. 2. Route. 17 

and was covered with the most sumptuous villas. Tradition lias 
assigned several of these to Cicero, but without the slightest 
historical foundation. The road now descends to — 

Formia (*Hotel de I' Europe, on the coast, It. f/2 fr., pre- 
ferable to the inns at Gaeta), the ancient Formiae. The town,, 
which contains about 8000 inhab. , was called Mola di (iaetu 
under the former regime. The beauty of its situation constitutes 
its sole attraction. The mountain-range on the N. side of the 
bay rises abruptly from the sea, the lower slopes being clothed 
with gardens of lemons, oranges, and pomegranates, and with 
vineyards and olive-plantations. One of the most delightful points 
is the so-called Villa of Cicero, or Villa Caposele, above the town, 
formerly the property and a favourite residence of the kings of 
Naples. It now belongs to Sign. Gaetano Rubino (permission to 
visit it obtained by leaving a card at his palazzo opposite the 
prefecture; boy to act as guide '/-2 f r 0- At the entrance are 
ancient inscriptions and statues. The lower part of the garden 
contains considerable remains of an ancient villa , supposed to 
have belonged to Cicero. Among the vaulted halls is one with 
eight columns and a semicircular apse, now converted into offices. 
During the siege of Gaeta General Cialdini established his head- 
quarters here. The upper terrace commands an uninterrupted 
survey of the charming bay, Gaeta, Ischia, the promontories 
of the Bay of Naples, and the mountain range to the S. of the 
Liris, which separates the latter from the region of the Volturno. 

Formia carries on a brisk traffic with Gaeta, 5 M. distant. 
Seat in public conveyance !/ 2 fr-> one-horse carr. there and 
back, according to tariff, 2 fr., or with a stay of some hours 

3 fr., a drive of 3 / t hr.; by boat somewhat longer, 3 — i fr. From 

4 to 5 hrs. should be devoted to the excursion. 

The road ascends through Formia, and beyond it descends 
to the coast, which it then skirts. Numerous remains of villas, 
which the Romans were in the habit of building out into the sea 
as far as possible, are passed. Among them a spot is pointed 
out as the scene of the assassination of Cicero (see above). Country 
attractive. Outside the town extends a long row of houses, called 
the Borgo. The road next passes the fortifications, which still 
bear traces of the bombardment of 1860. A whole street , de- 
stroyed by the explosion of a powder-magazine, is still in ruins. 
We are now set down in the Piazza. 

Gaeta (Albergo Italia: Gaeta; Caffe Nazionale), the ancient 
Portus Caieta, with 14,200 inhab., is an important fortress, but 
insignificant as a commercial town. The promontory of Gaeta 
resembles that of Misenum, presenting from a distance the appear- 
ance of a gigantic tumulus. Tradition has therefore pointed it 
out as the tomb of Caieta, the nurse of yEneas, and Munatius 
Plancus accordingly erected a conspicuous and imposing mouu- 
Baedkkkk. Italv III. 5th Edition. ') 

18 R, rule -J. GAETA. From Rome 

nient on its summit. From this eminence projects a lower rock 
which bears the citadel and the town. 

The strength of the place was first put to the test during the bar- 
barian immigrations. Gaeta successfully resisted the attacks of the Teutonic 
invaders, and with Anialfi and Naples constituted one of the last strong- 
holds of ancient culture. It afterwards became a free city, presided over 
by a dnge, and carried on a considerable trade with the Levant. It bade 
defiance to the assaults of the Lombards and Saracens, and preserved its 
freedom down to the 12th cent., when with the rest of Southern Italy it 
was compelled to succumb to the Normans. The fortress was extended and 
strengthened at various periods by the Arragonese, by Charles V., and 
especially by the last Bourbon monarchs. In 1501 it surrendered to the 
French, in 1504 to the Spaniards under Gonsalvo da Cordova, in 1734 to 
the .Spaniards again, and in 1798 to the French. In 1806 it was gallantly 
defended by the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal, who, aided by the Eng- 
lish fleet, held out for nearly six months against a powerful French army 
under Massena. In Nov., 1860, Francis II. of Naples, the last of the Bour- 
bon kings, sought refuge here, and his queen Mary, Duchess of Bavaria, 
took a prominent part in the defence of the fortress, but the town was at 
length compelled to capitulate by the Italian fleet on 23rd Feb., 1861. The 
king was conveyed to Rome by a French man-of-war. Pope Pius IX. when 
banished in Nov., 1848, also sought an asylum here, and remained at 
Gaeta until his return to Rome in April, 1850. 

The Cattedrale di 8. Erasmo possesses a remarkable campa- 
nile ; at the entrance are four ancient columns and relics of ancient 
sculptures. Interior modernised. At the back of the high altar 
(Covered) is the banner presented by Pope Pius V. to Don John 
of Austria, the hero of Lepanto, representing the Saviour with 
SS. Peter and Paul. Outside, opposite the principal portal, is 
a sculptured Gothic column resting on four lions. Among the 
antiquities may be mentioned the remains of an amphitheatre, 
a theatre, etc.; also a column bearing the names of the twelve 
winds in Greek and Latin. 

The chief object of interest, however, is the so-called *Torre 
d'Orlando, or tomb of Munatius Plancus, the contemporary of 
Augustus, and founder of Lyons (B. C. 43), situated on the 
summit of the promontory. We ascend from the Piazza to 
the Gothic church of S. Francesco , begun by Ferdinand II. in 
1849, seriously damaged in 18(30, and since completed; then 
turn to the 1. through an open garden gate , and reach the 
Torre by a good winding road in 25 min. The tomb consists 
of a huge circular structure of travertine blocks, resembling 
that of Cfecilia Metella at Rome. Round the top runs a frieze 
with warlike emblems. On the N. side is the inscription: L. 
Munntius L. f. L. n. L. pron. Plancus cos. cens. imp. iter. 
VII vir epulon. triump. ex Raetis, aedem Saturni fecit de mani- 
bis, ayros dirisit in Italia Beneventi, in Gallia colonias deduxit 
Luyudunum et Rauricam. A more magnificent site for such a 
monument cannot well be conceived. The **view towards the 
N'.W. embraces the coast as far as Mte. Circeio, to the W. the sea 
with the Ponza Islands, to the E. and 8. the bay of Gaeta, Ischia, 
J'rociila, Capri, and the mountains by Misennm. 

The road now turns into the plain of the Uarigliano, the 

to Naples. SESSA. 2. Route. 19 

Litis of the ancients (comp. p. 189), a river 85 M. in length, 
which falls into the Bay of Gaeta. To the 1., before reaching 
the bridge, we observe a long series of arches of the ancient 
aqueduct; then nearer the road, by the post-house, remains of 
the theatre and amphitheatre of the venerable city of Mintur- 
nae, on the ruins of which, on the hill to the 1., has sprung 
up the small town of Traetto. In the plain towards the Liris are 
situated the marshes where Marius once sought to elude the 
pursuit of the hirelings of Sulla. On the r. bank of the Gari- 
gliano, 27th Dec, 1503, Don Gonsalvo da Cordova fought the 
decisive battle with the French which placed Naples in his power. 
Pietro de' Medici, who, having been banished from Florence, 
had gone over to the French, endeavoured to escape to Gaeta in 
a boat with four field-pieces. The boat, however, sank, and all 
its crew were drowned. Pietro was buried at Monte Casino (p. 6). 
The suspension-bridge over the Garigliano (9'/2 M. from 
Formia), constructed in 1832, is the oldest in Italy. Before 
it is reached the present road quits the Via Appia, whi h is 
distinctly traceable on the r. bank as far as Mondragone, near 
the Sinuessa of Horace (destroyed by the Saracens in the 10th 
cent.), where to his great joy he was met on his journey (Sat. 
I. 5, 39) by his friends Plotius, Varius, and Virgil. Horace then 
crossed the Savo (Savone) by the Pons Campanus and proceeded 
to Capua. The present road, however, turns to the 1. towards 
the heights of Sant' Agata (change of horses, halt of 1/4 hr.), 
a busy post-station, where it is crossed by a road leading from 
Sessa to Mondragone. Here become visible the volcanic peaks 
of the Campagna Felice , among which the lofty Rocca Mon- 
fina is only 6 M. distant, and may be easily visited from this 
point. On the way thither, i/ 2 M. from Sant' Agata, on a volcanic 
eminence, lies Sessa, the ancient Suessa Aurunca, with interesting 
ruins of a bridge, amphitheatre, etc. Other relics are preserved 
in the ancient cathedral and the churches of S. Benedetto and 
S. Giovanni. In the principal street are memorial stones with 
inscriptions in honour of Charles V., above which is an old 
crucifix with a mosaic cross. From the hills of Sessa to Mondragone 
towards the S., extends Monte Massico, whose wines Horace and 
Virgil have immortalised. In the vicinity, towards the Volturnus, 
was the Ager Falernus, where excellent wine is still produced. 

On the road from Sant' Agata to Sparanisi the village of 
Cascano, celebrated for the beauty of its women, is passed. The 
same reputation might indeed be fairly extended to the whole 
district around the Bay of Gaeta. About 3</ 2 M. farther a path 
to the 1. leads to Teano (see p. 7). The road then crosses the 
Savone, in the vicinity of the picturesque castle of Francolisi, 
and (11/., M.) reaches the railway-station of Sparanisi (see p. 7), 
whence Naples is reached by railway via Capua in about 2 hrs. 



3. From Leghorn (Rome) to Naples (by sea). 

Steamboats. The communication along the W. coast of Italy is maintained 
by the vessels of the Italian Societa Peirano Danovaro e Comp. and the 
French firms of VaUry Freres et Co. and Marc Fraissinet Pere et Fits. 
Three Italian vessels, one of them only touching at Civita Vecchia, and 
three or four French steamers leave Leghorn for Naples weekly. The direct 
voyage occupies 26 — 28 hrs., that by Civita Vecchia about 10 hrs. more. 
The departure of the vessels is generally made known by placards at the 
hotels. Most of these vessels lie in the harbours for the purpose of loading 
and unloading during the day, and proceed on their way at night, so that 
much of the charm of the coast voyage is thus lost. When a French and 
an Italian vessel are advertised to start about the same hour, the com- 
petition generally enables the traveller to stipulate for about 20 per 
cent, reduction on the fare. Tickets should always be purchased by 
the traveller in person . and not through a commissionaire. Offices at 
Florence in the Piazza della Signoria ; that of the Societa Peirano in the 
Piazza S. Margherita, adjoining the Badia. At Rome the agent for Valery 
is Rosati, Via Condotti 6 ; for Fraissinet, Sebasti, Piazza Nicosia 43 ; for Pei- 
rano, near the Ponte S. Angelo. Offices at Leghorn and Civita Vecchia near 
the harbour. 

Fiacre at Leghorn from the station to the quay 1 fr. ; embarcation with 
luggage 1 fr., or if the steamer be in the outer harbour (porto nuovo) l'|;> fr. 
(comp. Baedekers X. Italy). From Rome U> Civita Vecchia 3 trains daily 
in 2—3 hrs.; express fares 12 fr., 8 fr. 0*c, ordinary 8 fr. 95, 6 fr. 30, 
4 fr. 50 c. One-horse can-, from the station to the quay 50, with luggage 
75 c. ; omnibus to the town 25 c; for each box carried into the town 40, 
thence to the quay 25 c; embarcation 50, box 50, travelling bag 25 c., 
according to tarilf. Lower rates may be bargained for by a party of several 

On emerging from the harbour the steamer affords a beautiful 
retrospect of the town. Towards the W. rises the island of 
Gorgona. The vessel steers towards the S. and soon comes in 
sight of the island of Capraja, while the dark outlines of Cor- 
sica are visible in the distance. The Italian coast continues 
visible on the E., and to the N. E. rise the Apennines. The 
steamer next proceeds between the island of Elba with the 
Potto Longone , the islands of Palmujola and Cerboli, and the 
Punta di Piombino, a beautiful passage, affording a fine survey 
of the small rocky islets, as well as of the coast, with its numer- 
ous promontories crowned with lighthouses. Farther on is the 
island of Pianosa; more towards the S. Uiglio, and the pictures- 
quely shaped Monte Argentario rising abruptly from the sea. 
Then the islet of Oiunnutri. 

The coast becomes flat, and Civita Vecchia, picturesquely 
situated at the foot of a hill, at length comes in sight. 

To the S. of Civita Vecchia the coast of the ex-papal domi- 
nions is somewhat monotonous; a few hills excepted, spacious 
plains extend as far as the horizon. In clear weather the dome 
of St. Peter's at Rome is said to be visible. In the bay to the 
S. of Capo Liiuiro lies S. Severn, and beyond it Palo with its 
palace. At the influx of the Tiber, Fiumicino and Ostia ; 
farther on Porto il'Anzio, in the background the Alban and 
Volscian mountains. The dreary aspect of the Pontine marshes is 

NAPLES, i. Route. 21 

relieved by the conspicuous Monte Circello or Circeo (p. 13), 
rising abruptly from the sea. To the S. W. the Ponza islands 
(p. 14), Ponza and Zannone. 

The steamer now stands out to sea, leaving the coast with 
the bays of Terracina and Gaeta to the E. The first land which 
again becomes visible is the island of Ischia (p. 100) to the S. — 
Entrance into the gulf and arrival at Naples, see below and p. 22. 

4. Naples. 

Arrival, a. By Railway. The station (Slaiioiie Cenlrale), the arrange- 
ments of which are far from satisfactory, is situated at the S. E. end 
of the town (PI. ft, 3). The formalities of the municipal douane are spee- 
dily terminated on the declaration of the traveller that his luggage contains 
no comestibles liable to duty. Hotel omnibuses l*|a fr. ; public omnibus 
20 c, each box 20 c. (not recommended). Cabs (those with two horses 
are nearest the entrance, those with one are farther distant), see p. 25. 
The facchini who bring the luggage to the cab are paid, according to tariff, 
10 c. for a travelling-bag or hat-box, 20 c. for heavier articles ; but a few 
soldi more are usually given. 

A trick frequently practised here, and which of course in the sequel 
affects the traveller's pocket, deserves exposure. One of the commissio- 
naires who haunt the station, and who are often well-dressed, mounts on 
the box of the traveller's cab, and on arriving at the hotel extorts money 
from the landlord on the representation that the traveller has selected the 
hotel by his advice. The best way to prevent this fraud, which is a kind 
of relic of the 'camorra' , is to protest emphatically against any unautho- 
rised person mounting the box , and to call in the aid of the police if 
necessary. Remonstrances at the hotel, after the money has been extorted, 
are unavailing. On arriving at the station the traveller should entirely 
disregard the representations and suggestions with which he is generally 
pestered. Let him drive at once to the hotel he has selected, and if it 
should happen to be full he will there ascertain without difficulty where 
good accommodation may be procured. He should also keep a watchful 
eye on his luggage, decline the services of officious bystanders, and beware 
of pickpockets. As tricks of the above description are too frequently practis- 
ed at Naples, the traveller should be on his guard throughout the whole 
period of his stay. In case of necessity assistance may be obtained from 
the nearest policeman (carabinieri, blue coat with three-cornered hat •, or the 
municipal guardia di pubblica sicure2za, dark uniform with military cap). 

b. By Steamboat. The steamers lay to outside the Porto Grande. 
As soon as permission to disembark is granted, a small boat (1 fr. for each 
person with or without luggage ; no attention should be paid to the ab- 
surdly extortionate demands usually made) conveys the passengers to the 
Dogana (PI. 24; F, 5), where luggage is examined. This done, one of the 
'facchini della dogana' places the luggage on the fiacre or other conveyance 
(40 c. for each box under 200 lbs., 10 c. for smaller articles). 

Arrival by Land. The drive from the station to a hotel 
on the Chiaia (p. 23) or at S. Lucia affords us an idea of 
the topography of the town (comp. the plan). Driving to- 
wards the harbour , the carriage soon turns to the r. into the 
cross-street del Carmine with the church of that name, where 
Conradin is interred, and enters the Piazza del Mercato. This 
is left to the r. ; the carriage drives past the church del Car- 
mine , crosses a small square, and by the Porta del Carmine 
reaches the harbour. A view is obtained here of the S. side of 
the bay, of M. Somma and Vesuvius, at the base of which lie 

22 Route 4. JNAFLES. Arrival. 

Portici, Resina, and Torre del Greco, so close together as almost 
to be united ; beyond is the peninsula of Sorrento with the 
lofty Monte Santangelo, which separates the bay from that of 
Salerno to the S. ; opposite the harbour lies the grotesquely 
shaped rocky island of Capri. Facing us extends the long 
line of buildings which border the harbour, bounded by the 
hill Posilipo and commanded by Fort S. Elmo. The carriage 
now proceeds along the Strada Nuova , on the gay and busy 
quay. Further on, diverging to the 1. and passing round the Porto 
Piccolo or small-boat harbour , we reach the Porto Grande, 
enclosed by breakwaters. Adjacent, and separated from it by 
a molo, is the naval harbour, with the arsenal and Castel Nuovo. 
Thence to the r., through the broad Strada del Molo, bounded 
on the 1. by the fort and on the r. by a number of theatres, 
booths, etc. The Piazza del Municipio (formerly Largo del Castello) 
is next traversed in its entire length. Adjoining it is the Strada 
S. Carlo, with the royal palace and garden in front of it, and 
farther on is the theatre of S. Carlo. The square in front of the 
latter is the focus of the traffic of the city : in a straight direc- 
tion from it runs the Strada della Chiaia, and to the r. the Toledo, 
the principal street, recently named the Strada Roma. To the 1. 
the large Piazza del Plebiscito (formerly Largo del Palazzo Reale) 
is entered ; to the 1. is the palace, to the r. the church of S. Fran- 
cesco di Paola surmounted by a dome and approached by a semicircu- 
lar portico; in front of it rise the equestrian statues of Charles III. 
and Ferdinand I. of Bourbon. Hence by the Strada del Qigante, 
below which to the 1. is the arsenal, the quay is again reached 
(to the 1. Hotel de Rome). We next traverse the picturesque 
Strada S. Lucia, above which towers the rocky height of Piz- 
zofalcone, leading to Chiatamone at the foot of Pizzofalcone, 
where to the 1. the Castello dell' Ovo projects into the sea. Thence 
to the Largo della Vittoria, near which is the entrance to the 
Villa Nazionale, the principal promenade of Naples, extending a 
considerable distance along the coast. The street parallel to the 
promenade is the Riviera di Chiaia , generally known as the 
Chiaia, the continuation of which, the Mergellina, leads to the 
Posilirio and beyond it to Pozzuoli. 

Arrival by Sea. The approach to Naples from the sea affords 
the advantage of at once revealing to the traveller the bay in all 
its beauty and grandeur. The scene on a fine summer day is 
one of unparallelled loveliness. Those, therefore, who have arrived 
by railway, which is the most convenient and least expensive 
conveyance from Rome , should not omit to make an excursion 
by boat, in order to see the bay to the best advantage, or in 
summer by one of the small steamers which ply between Naples 
and Ischia, Sorrento, and Capri. 

"The strait, which is bounded by the low island of Proeid; 

- gi - 1 } ejurtJta va 

ttoteis. NAF.LES.. 4. Route. 23 

on the r. and Capo Miseno on. the L,.is the channel by which 
the bay of Naples is entered in this direction, — the portal to 
what has been called a 'fragment of heaven to earth vouchsafed '. 
Capo Miseno is a rocky eminence, connected with the mainland 
by a long narrow isthmus ; a grey, deserted tower of weird aspect 
crowns the summit. The white houses of Procida, with their 
flat Toofs glittering in the sunshine, remind one of a troop of 
pilgrims toiling up the ascent." 

The author of the work from which the above extract is made 
strongly recommends travellers to approach Naples by sea. The 
impression, as he justly observes, which is produced by a rapid 
transition by land from majestic Rome to squalid Naples is inevi- 
tably disappointing, whilst the traveller arriving from the sea is 
at once introduced to all the fascinating charms of the beautiful bay. 

Hotels. Those patronised by strangers are chiefly situated in the Ri- 
viera di Chiaia, facing the sea and extending as far as S. Lucia. Naples 
is disagreeably noisy at night. The quietest situation is between S. Lucia 
and the beginning of the Chiaia. On the latter the rattling of carriages 
and the braying of donkeys hardly ever ceases, while at S. Lucia the other- 
wise not uninteresting merry-makings of the lower classes are often fatal 
to repose. Hotel charges are highest in spring, before and after Easter, when 
the influx of visitors is at its height. Families visiting the city at this 
season will do well to secure rooms by letter, some time before their 
arrival. In summer the principal hotels are comparatively empty , and 
therefore cheaper. 

'-Washington (PI. a), with garden towards the sea, adjoining the 
Castel dell' Ovo, recently erected on the site of a royal Casino. * Vittoria 
(PI. b) , D'AMfiKiQUE (PI. c) , "de Naples (PL d), all well situated in the 
Largo della Vittoria, opposite the Villa. "United States (PI. e), Chiata- 
mone 7 , with fine view. Adjoining it, 'Hotel des Etrangees (PI. f), 
Chiatamone 9. "Delle Crocelle (PI. g) , Chiatamone 32, view from the 
upper rooms only. On the Chiaia, opposite the Villa, with a view of the 
latter and of the sea, "Gran Bketagna (PI. h), No. 276, and d'Angleterrk 
(PI. i) 271, °du Louvre (PI. k) 253, and de la Ville (PI. 1) 127, the last 
somewhat remote (pension 8 — 10 fr.). These are hotels of the highest class, 
comfortably fitted up, and with correspondingly high charges : R. 4 — 6 fr., 
table d'hote 4—5 fr. , etc. Hotel Tramontano , Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
(p. 82), in an elevated and healthy situation, with fine view. — The 
following hotels at S. Lucia are less fashionably situated : Hotel de Rome 
(PI. m) , close to the sea, R. 4, D. 5 fr. ; "Hotel de Russie (PI. n), comfor- 
table, R. 3 — 4, A. 1 , D. 4 1 !* fr., L. 80 c. — In all these hotels visitors are 
expected to dine at the table d'hote ; otherwise the charge for rooms is 
raised. — The hotels of the second class, situated in the interior of the 
town, are chiefly frequented by men of business. Of these may be men- 
tioned: "Hotel de Geneve (PL o), in the Strada Medina, R. 3, E. 1J' 2 , 
D. 4 fr. ; Hotel Central (PI. p), a similar house; Hotel Cavour, Strada 
Fontana Medina 54, well spoken of; "Hotel Milano (PL q) , near the 
harbour; Hotel Montpellier (PI. r), Strada Roma, entr. in the Str. 
Nardones; Europa, Strada Nardones 118; Speranzella, in the street of 
that name, near the Toledo ; Nazionale, Piazza Medina 5; Hotel du Globe, 
near the Fontana Medina; Bella Venezia, -Vico S. Anna di ^Palazzo; 
Albergo dei Fiori, Largo Fiorentini. 

Hotels Garnis. For a stay of some duration the traveller will find the 
accommodation at a private hotel or pension less expensive , and in some 
respects more comfortable. Charges vary with the season , attaining their 
culminating point on unusual occasions, such as an eruption of Mt. Ve- 
suvius, which invariably attracts crowds of visitors. The rooms are ge- 
nerally large and fitted up for two persons: with one bed 2'|i — 4, with 

24 Route 4. NAPLES. Restaurants. 

two ben's 4 — 6 fr. per diem. The number of days for which the room is 
engaged should be expressly stated, otherwise the visitor may be required 
t" leave unexpectedly. With respect to charges (e. g. : A. '|j fr., L. 30 c. 
per diem) a distinct understanding beforehand is the only means of pre- 
venting excessive extortion. Breakfast may usually be obtained in the house, 
but better at a cafe. A few of these establishments are enumerated here. In 
the Chiaia: No. 61, Pension Anglaise (7—10 fr.) ; then Nos. 114 and 118; 
No. 211, Anglo-American ; No. 36, Pension Sues. Also Nos. 84, 144, 155, 257, 
and 263. Near the Riviera di Chiaia , Mme. Stanford, Vico Carminello a 
Chiaia 49; Balboni, Strada Bisignano 2, pension 8 — 10 fr. ; Pension de V Eu- 
rope, Str. S. Teresa a Chiaia 10. Farther on, in the Mergellina, Villa Bar- 
bain, 23; Hotel a? Italia, P azza del Muuicipio 81. — In S. Lucia (inferior 
to those, on the Chiaia): No. 71, Bellevue ; 31 and 28, New York, formerly 
the well known Casa Combi, with different proprietors on the different 
floors. Then, Chiatamone 23, Pension Allemagna. All these afford a view 
of the sea and Vesuvius or Capri. 

For a longer residence suites of apartments in the town, or for the 
summer months in one of the surrounding villas, may be engaged 
through a house-agent. They are frequently advertised by means of bills 
posted at the corners of the streets. Host of the houses in the Chiaia 
have a S. aspect and enjoy the pure sea-air. The climate in summer as 
well as winter is more equable than that of Rome or Florence. February 
and March are generally very changeable. Invalids should consult an experi- 
enced medical man as to the period of their visit and the situation of their 
apartments. — S. Lucia is exposed in winter to the N.E. and E. winds. 
The air is often poisoned by the drains which flow into the sea here; 
the lower apartments should therefore be avoided. 

The water at Naples is bad , and if drunk without being iced is apt 
to cause diarrhoea. Change of air (an excursion of 1 — 2 days) and ice are 
the most effectual remedies for this malady. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie) very numerous. Italian cuisine. Dinners usually 
a la carte ; three dishes with fruit and wine 2 — 3*) 2 fr. ; iced water (acqua 
gelata) 5 c. ; good table-wine per bottle (caraffa) 50 c. ; bread, generally 
indifferent, 15 c. (pane francese of finer and better flour) ; gratuity 1 soldo 
for each franc of the bill. Smoking universal ; ladies, however, may visit 
the better of these establishments. Most of them are situated in the To- 
ledo (now Str. Roma), on the first-floor, entrance generally from a side- 
street. On the W. side: Gran Caffe del Pal. Beale, D. at 5 o'clock, a 
handsome and expensive establishment; Bestavrant du Cafe de V Europe, 
above the cafe of that name, at the corner of the Strada di Chiaia and 
the Toledo, dear; ~Du Nord in the next street, Nardones 118, spacious 
rooms, D. 3 — 5 fr. ; Bestavrant de Naples, Toledo 236, entrance in the Str. 
Sergente ; Bestavrant dn Louvre, entrance Vico Tre Re 60; Trattoria Cen- 
trale, Toledo 289, also a 'birraria'. — On the E. side of the Toledo : "Antica 
Trattoria dei Giardini di Torino, entrance Vico Campano 70, moderate. 
Then No. 198 (entrance S. Brigida 2), :: Villa di Napoli, an old-established trat- 
toria, visited by strangers as well as Neapolitans. Ercole, Toledo 143; Villa 
di Torino , Vico Fico a S. Brigida near the Q.uestura, viands good, rooms 
indifferent, one of the oldest trattorie in Naples, formerly the chief resort 
of strangers, "ffasler's German Bestavrant, Vico Baglivo Uries 38 (to the 
N. of S. Giacomo, between the Toledo and the Piazza del Municipio), mo- 
derate. Zepf -Weber, (also a cafe), Str. del Molo 2. "Armonia, Str. di Chiaia 
134. Trattoria di Gennaro, Str. Viltoria a Chiaia. The maccaroni of Naples 
is celebrated, but generally hard, and should therefore be ordered 'ben 
cfittr. It is usually flavoured with porni d"oro (tomatas), of which the Neapo- 
lilans are very fond. Sea-fish and ragnstra, a kind of lobster, excellent. 
Shell-fish-soup (-cuppa di rongole), a good but indigestible dish. Oysters 
(ostriche) are sold at the most reasonable prices at S. Lucia; the best are 
from the Lago Fusaro, 1 — 1'|2 fr. per dozen. — Good fish may also be pro- 
cured at the Trattorie di Campagna , by the Posilipo, close to the sea; 
e. g. the Trattoria della Schiava , Trattoria del Figlio di Pietro , in the 
Mergellina; then the "Antica Trattoria dello Scoglio di Frisio , much fre- 

Cafes. NAPLES. i. Route. 25 

cjuented, especially on summer evenings (high charges); above it the Trnl- 
toria al Pergolato dello Scoglio di Frisio. Boats arc generally in waiting 
lor the return -journey: to the Villa l'| 2 , to the town 2—3 fr. ; cab 1 fr. 
(bargain necessary). 

Wine. The wine of the environs is generally excellent, 50 — 60 c. per 
bottle (una caraffa), such as Gragnano , Vino di Procida, del Monte, di 
Posilipo (sweet), and Falerno, whereas Marsala, Capri, and Lacrimse Christi 
are generally adulterated. Wine-stores: Str. Pace 9; Str. di Chiaia 136, 
1 46; Vico Concezione a Toledo 42. 

Cafes. Smoking allowed everywhere. At the larger cafes a dejeuner a 
la fourchette is more expeditious than at the trattorie. On summer evenings 
the cafe's are crowded with ice-eaters ; in the morning rjraiiila only. The 
average charges are: cup of 'caffe nero' 15 — 20 c, 'caffe bianco' or 'caffe 
latte' 40, 'granita di caffe', or frozen coffee (refreshing in hot weather) 40, 
chocolate 80, bread or cake 15—50 c, 2 fried eggs (due uova al piatto) 
40 — 60 c. ; steak or cutlet 1 fr. to 1 fr. 20 c. The list of ices sometimes con- 
tains a great variety : granita 40 — 50 c, gelato 60 c. and upwards ; half- 
portions of the former may be obtained. Gratuity 10 c. or more. The Gran 
Cafe del Palazzo Rcale , in the Piazza del Plebiscite, opposite the palace, 
is the best and most frequented. Adjacent, in the Str. di Chiaia, ' Evropa, 
with restaurant. * Benvenvto , Str. di Chiaia 140, excellent ices. ''Cafe 
delV Italia Meridionale, Str. di Chiaia 84, moderate. Gran Cafe d' Italia, 
Str. Toledo 316, opposite S. Giacomo, and in the Villa. Testa cfOro, 344, 
and de Angelis, 70, both Str. Toledo. Gran Cafe Maffci, Str. Principessa 
Margherita a Marina. Covimercio , by the Fontana Medina. — Concerts 
in the evening at the Villa (Cafe 1 Rationale) and the Cafe du Grand Pa- 
vilion, on which occasions the charges for refreshments are slightly raised. 
Visitors to the museum will find a convenient cafe opposite to it, at the 
corner of the Piazza favour. — Beer generally dear and bad. The best at 
the "Birraria, Toledo 289 (35 c. per glass). Munich beer at Hasler's German 
Restaurant (see above). At other places the slightly effervescing beer of 
the country (50 c. per bottle) is usually drunk. — Confectioners: Cuflisch, 
Toledo 255; d'Albero, Toledo 218; Ferroni, S. Brigida 3. Boutangerie 
Francaise , Largo S. Ferdinando 51. 

Money Changers , employed by the bank for public convenience, 
are stationed at several of the most frequented parts of the streets. Small 
notes (5 — 10 fr.) may be exchanged here for copper, either gratuitously, or 
at a charge of 1 c. per 5 fr. ; the change should of course be counted. The 
traveller should always be well provided with small coin as well as the 
smallest notes of the country. Comp. Introd., i. 

Bankers. Iggulden and Son , at the entrance of the Villa Nazionale. 
W. J. Turner et Comp., S. Lucia 64. A. Levy et Co nip. . Toledo, Palazzo 
Cavalcante. Meuricoffre et Comp., Piazza del. Municipio 52. Sorvillo , Str. 
Montoliveto 37. Bills of exchange must be stamped on presentation for 
payment with a ''hollo straordinario.'' 

Consulates. American (M. Duncan), Via della Pace 15; Belgian, Str. 
Donn, Albina 56; British. (M. Calvert), Vico Colascione a Monte di Dio ; 
Danish and Swedish, Str. Piliero 16 ; French. (Limperani), Via Poerio 34 ; 
German , Str. Gnanti nuovi 69 ; Russian , Via Carlo Poerio 34 ; Spanish, 
Str. Pace 24; Siviss, Piazza del Municipio 52. 

Carriages. The distances in Naples are so great, carriage-fares are so 
moderate, and walking in the hot season is so fatiguing, that most tra- 
vellers will prefer driving to walking. A private two-horse carriage for 
excursions costs 20 — 25 fr. per day ; in the town 15 fr. and gratuity. They 
are to be hired at the hotels, at S. Lucia 31, etc. The ordinary cabs are 
of course the cheapest conveyances. 

a. Within the City, the limits of which are as follows: Along the 
Chiaia as far as the beginning of the Mergellina, and as far as Virgil's 
Tomb at the entrance to the grotto of Posilipo; towards the N. W., San 
Gennaro dei Poveri (catacombs), and the Tondo di Capodimonte with the 
stairs ; then S. Efremo Vecchio, the Albergo dei Poveri in the Strada 
Foria, and by the sea the Ponte della Maddalena which crosses the Sebeto. 

26 Route 4. NAFLES. Carriage*. 

An acquaintance with these boundaries will often enable the traveller to 
avoid disputes. 

With one horse ('carrozzella', hardly accom- By day Midnight 
modating more than one person comfor- to sunrise 

tably) : 

Per drive — 60 c. 1 fr. — 

By time (generally disadvantageous), first hour 1 fr. 40 c. 2 fr. — 

Each additional '|'j hr — 50 c. — 70 c. 

With two horses: per drive) 1 fr. 20 c. 2 fr. — 

First hour .....* 2 fr. — 3 fr. — 

Each additional >|2 hr — 70 c. 1 fr. — 

Each box from the station to the town 30 c, smaller articles free. In 
order to avoid imposition, the best course is to pay the exact fare, and not 
a single soldo more. Those who are disposed to pay liberally are sure to 
be victimised. In case of altercations , application should be made to the 
nearest policeman, or at the office of the Corso Pubblico on the first floor of 
the Municipio. 

b. Outside the City : — One-horse Two-horse 

Villaggio di Posilipo 1. 50 2. 25 

Villaggio di Fuorigrotta 1. 20 1. 75 

Bagnoli and Logo d'Agnano 2. — 3. — 

Vomero, Antignano, Arenella, Villaggio di 

Capodimonte 1. 50 2. 25 

Portici 1. 75 2. 50 

Resina 2. — 3. — 

Torre del Greco 2. 50 3. 75 

Barra 1. 75 2. 50 

These are the fares from the stands nearest to the respective points. Un- 
less a special bargain be made, the fares from other stands are 60 c. to 1 fr. 
20 c. in excess of the above. For longer excursions, an agreement should 
be made with the driver beforehand. On being informed of the distance 
and duration of the drive , he generally makes an extravagant demand. 
In answer, the hirer offers what he considers a fair sum, and if the driver 
remonstrates, quietly withdraws. This course seldom fails to prove satis- 
factory. On Sundays and holidays the fares are somewhat higher. 

Omnibuses afford a convenient opportunity, especially to a single tra- 
veller, of visiting the Museum, and of making short excursions in the en- 
virons. Principal lines : A. From the Pia zza del Plebiscita by the Pa- 
lazzo Reale (PI. E, 6; fare 15 c., after dusk 20 c): — 1. Every 10 min. by 
the Toledo to the Museum (PI. E, 3), and past it to the Albergo dei Poveri 
in the Strada Foria (PI. J, G, 1, 2). 2. By the Strada di Chiaia (PI. D, 
E, 6), to the Riviera di Chiaia and along the latter to the Mergellina 
(PI. A, 7). 3. By the Toledo, diverging by S. Pietro Majella (PI. 69; E, 4) 
to the Porta Capuana (PI. J, G, 3). — B. From the Largo Vittokia by the 
Villa Reale (PI. D, 6) every 20 min. (fare 15 c. or 20 c), by the Strada di 
Chiaia and Toledo to the Museum (PI. E, 3). — C. From the Piazza del 
Municipio (PI. E, 5) every i| 2 hr. : — 1. To the station (PI. G, 3 ; fare 20 c). 
2. To Portici by Ponte della Maddalena (PI. H, I, 4) and S. Giovanni to the 
Palace (fare 40 a). In the evening, and on the less frequented routes, the 
time of starting sometimes depends on the number of passengers who pre- 
sent themselves. 

Boats. Charges vary according to circumstances. A boat with 4 rowers 
about 15 fr. per diem. Excursion to Portici with 2 rowers 5 fr. A row in 
the harbour 1 — 1'|2 fr. for the first, 1 fr. for each additional hour. A previous 
agreement should invariably be made. Boats to the larger steamers, see 
p. 21. The charges for conveying passengers to and from the smaller steam- 
boats which ply in the bay only (to Sorrento , Ischia , etc.) is 6 soldi. 
Commissionaires charge 6 fr. a day , or for a single walk 1 fr. ; but 
travellers who intend making purchases had better dispense with their ser- 
vices. Some of the best guides are Swiss and Germans. Johann ffuber, 
Zum Stein , Staub , and others organise excursions in the environs. Thus 
Huber generally escorts a party weekly to Amalfi, Ravello, and Psestum, 

Baths. NAPLES. 4. Route. 27 

the excursion lasting from Monday morning to Tuesday evening, and the 
charge, including quarters for the night, being 50 fr. for each person. 
Trustworthy information may be obtained at Detken's book-shop (see below). 

Baths. Warm 1 fr. 10 c, gratuity 10 c, subscription-prices lower: 
"Strada della Pace , near Chiatamone ; by the Hotel de Rome at S. Lucia ; 
Vico Belle Donne a Chiaia 12; Calata S. Marco a Fontana Medina 6. — 
Sea-Bathing in summer. The most frequented place is beyond the Villa 
Reale, but as the drains of the town empty themselves in the vicinity, the 
water is not always clean. A better place is at the Posilipo near the Villa 
Monplaisir, immediately beyond the precincts of the city. Large cabinet 
(preferable) 1 fr. with towels, small cabinet 50 c. ; fee 5 c. — On entering 
the water, bathers should take care to observe the number of their ca- 
binet, and to avoid touching the stakes which are encrusted with very 
sharp shells. — The baths by S. Lucia and the Marinella cannot be recom- 
mended to strangers. — Lieux d^Aisance, 10 c, in the Villa, by the egress 
towards the sea ; also in the Str. Chiaia, on the first landing of the stair 
to Pizzofalcone. 

Physicians. Dr. Barringer, Str. Vittoria 41; Dr. Dempster, Riv. di 
Chiaia; Dr. Schrcen , professor of anatomy at the university, Palazzo 
Montemiletto, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 152, hours of consultation 9 — 10 and 
2 — 3; Dr. Obenaus, physician of the German hospital, Palazzo Cassano, Str. 
Monte di Dio 14 a Pizzofalcone ; Dr. Stamm, Riv. di Chiaia 118 ; Dr. Arnoldo 
Cav. Canlani, director of the Clinica Medica at the university, Palazzo 
Tarsia ; Dr. Fienga, Via lungo Avvocata a Piazza Dante (hours of consul- 
tation 7—10 and 4— G) ; Dr. C. Vittorelli, Str. Taverna Penta 10 a Toledo 
(1 — 2) ; Dr. Wyatt, S. Caterina a Chiaia, Pal. Calabritta. 

Chemists. English, Riv. di Chiaia 258. German, Largo S. Francesco 
di Paola, adjoining the Piazza del Plebiseito. Drug-dealers, Fratelli Herr- 
mann, Piazza del Municipio. 

Booksellers. Detlen <t Rocholl, Piazza del Plebiscite; circulating li- 
brary, newspapers, etc. Hcepli, Via Roma 224; Marghieri, ib. 140. Dorant, 
English reading-room, Riviera di Chiaia 267. Pellerano, Riv. di Chiaia 60. 
French, Dufresne, Strada Medina 61. Italian, Dura, Str. di Chiaia 10. — 
Lithographer, Richter, Colonnade of S. Francesco di Paola. 

Teachers of languages. Addresses may be obtained at the booksellers'. 

Gloves, coral, tortoise-shell, and lava ornaments may be mentioned as 
specialities of Naples. Bargaining is absolutely necessary in order to pre- 
vent extortion. Those who know something of the language will of course 
buy to the best advantage. 

Antique Bkonzes , copies j largely manufactured by Masulli , depot 
Piazza de' Martiri 64, whence the purchaser may desire them to be for- 
warded direct to his own country (Narcissus 130—180 fr.) 

Antiquities. Barone, Str. Trinita Maggiore 6, first floor, nearly oppo- 
site S. Chiara. 

Coral and Lava. ' "Achille Squadrilli, Str. Pace 7, in the Palazzo Nun- 
ziante, first floor, entrance by the court; pretty brooches in lava 2'lz, 
earrings 10, bracelets 2'|2 fr. and upwards; fixed prices, but 5 per cent 
discount allowed. Casalta, Piazza dei Martiri 7. "Bollen, Piazza de' Mar- 
tiri 58; Palchetti, Calata S. Caterina a Chiaia 32, 33; Stella, Str. Pace 9. 
Defective articles may be purchased of Stef. Esposito, S. Lucia 65. 

Gloves. Bossi, Toledo 179; Cremonesi, Largo S. Domenico 17 and 
S. Ferdinando 50; Boudillon, Chiaia 198; Sangiovanni, Str. S. Pietro a 
Maiella 20; Montagna, Toledo 294; Cuosla, Str. di Chiaia 56 and 137; 
Magliola, Toledo 129. 

Hattek, Mammolino, Toledo 258. 

Optician, Heinemann, Toledo 212- 

Perfumery. Zempt, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 33; Bellet & Co., To- 
ledo 180; Genevois el fits, Vico Salata all' Olivella 30. 

Photographs are sold at the book-shops, and also by "Rive, Str. Chia- 
tamone 36 , and Salita S. Filippo alia Riviera 31 ; Sommer , Calata S. 

28 Route 4. NAPLES. Theatres. 

Caterina a Chiaia 5, where views of every part of Italy may be purcha- 
sed ; Grillet, Chiatamone 6. 

Shoemakeks. Finoga, Strada Alobardini 53, 54; Burringlon , Piazza 
de 1 Martiri 57 ; De Ifolaris, Strada Chiaia 189 ; Cliavssures de Paris, Toledo 256. 

Tailors. Lennon (English), Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 2; Kieper, Str. 
Montoliveto 61 (nearly opposite the post-office); Devallier, Str. di Chiaia 

Toktoise Shell, at the small shops in the Palazzo Municipio. 

Umbbellas and Fans, Gilardini, Toledo 335, 336. 

Vases and Terracottas, Etruscan, copies sold by Giusliniani, 10 — 16 
and 20 Str. del Gigante; Colonese, Strada Marinella 21. 

Watches. Gulwenger, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 66 (opposite the Cap- 
pclla Vecchia) ; Eberhard, Str. di Chiaia 207. 

Theatres. The performances generally begin about 8 and last till 
nearly midnight. "<S. Carlo (p. 41), one of the largest theatres in Europe, 
and celebrated in the annals of Italian music, contains six tiers of boxes, 32 
in each. Operas and ballet only. Parterre (pit) 4 fr. 50 c. (arm-chair 8 fr.) ; 
boxes, 1st tier (parterre) 40 fr., 2nd tier 50 fr., 3rd 32 fr., the others at lower 
prices. — Mercadante (or Fondo) , in the Str. del Molo, dramas and 
comedies, and in summer operas. Pit 2 fr. (arm-chair 4 fr.) ; boxes, 1st 
tier 15 fr., 2nd tier 20 fr., etc. — Fiorentini , in the street of that name. 
Dramas. Pit 1 fr. 50; boxes, 1st tier 11 fr. 75 c, 2nd tier 12 fr. 75 c, 
etc. — Teatro Nuovo , Strada Nuova. Comic operas. Pit 1 fr. ; boxes 
7 fr., 8 fr. 50 c, etc. — Fenice Goldoni , Giardino d^Inverno, at the en- 
trance of the Villa Reale ; operas, ballet, etc. — San Carlino , Piazza del 
Municipio, where the visitor may become acquainted with 'Pulcinella 1 , the 
'Punch and Judy' of the Neapolitans, to whom the spectacle is an unfailing 
source of amusement. These performances (twice daily) are said to derive 
their origin from the ancient Oscan comedy of Atella. Those who have some 
knowledge of the Neapolitan dialect will find them not beneath their 
notice. Pit 85 c; boxes 6 fr. 40 c. — Teatro Partenope, similar to the last, 
Piazza Cavour. 

Post and Telegraph-Office in the Palazzo Gravina (PI. 23, E, 4), Strada 
Montoliveto. Branch offices in the Largo S. Caterina a Chiaia, the rail- 
way station, and S. Carlo all 1 Arena, Str. Foria, 77. Letters should be 
posted at the branch-offices 2 hrs., and at the general post-office 1 hr. before 
the departure of the mail-train. The office for the diligences to Gaeta 
and Terracina (R. 2), Avezzano (R. 16), Termoli (R. 11), Reggio in Calabria 
(R. 20), and Potenza (R. 1?) is at the general post-office, or the counting- 
houses of the neighbouring goods-agents. The chief telegraph office on 
the first floor of the Palazzo Gravina, is open day and night ; branch offices 
Str. S. Teresa a Chiaia 6, Vico Concezione a Toledo 16, and Str. Foria 108. 

— Postage and charge for telegrams, see Introd. xn. 

Railways. The Central Station is in the Strada fuori Porta Nolana, 
at the S. E. end of the town (PI. G, 3). To Rome, see R. 1 ; to Capua, 
p. 8; to Xola and Laura, R. 13; to Benevento and Foggia, RR. 11, 12; to 
Portici, Torre del Greco, Torre Annunziata, Pompeii, R. 8; to Castella- 
mare, R. 9 ; to Eboli and Salerno, RR. 10, 17. 

Steamboats. Most of the offices are situated on the quay, Str. I'i- 
liero. Fares including provisions : Civita Vecchia, 1st cl. 54, 2nd cl. 41 fr. ; 
Leghorn 92i| 2 or 62M-2 fr. ; Genoa 125 or 85 fr. ; Marseilles 181 or 128 fr. ; 
Messina or Palermo oS 1 ^ or 22>|2 fr. (the last-named fare is exclusive of provi- 
sions, breakfast 2, dinner 4 fr. extra). The Vapori Postali Italiani of Peirano 
Banovaro <k Co., Str. Piliero 33, start three times weekly at 2 p. m. for 
Leghorn and Genoa (touching once a week at Civita Vecchia, R. 3) ; voyage 
to Civita Vecchia 13 — 14 hrs., to Leghorn 28, Genoa 54 hrs., including stop- 
pages ; once weekly to Messina, Catania, and thence to Corfu, Brindisi, 
and Ancona, touching at the principal harbours on the coast (comp. R. 19). 

— Vessels of the French company Valery Fr'eres et Cie., Piliero 1, and of 
Marc Fraissinel Pere et Fits, Piliero 3, start twice weekly for Civita 
Vecchia , Leghorn , Genoa , and Marseilles. These companies convey 
passengers for '^tk or even 'lijrd less (according to previous bargain) than 

Festivals. NAPLES. 4. Route. 29 

the fares above mentioned , but the voyages are tedious and the service 
unpunctual, as the vessels are employed chieily for goods traffic (comp. 
p. 20). — Vapori Siciliani, Comp. Florio (chief office at Palermo), Str. Pi- 
liero 5, five times weekly to Palermo direct, and thrice weekly to Messina 
corresponding once weekly with a steamer for Malta. — Vapori Italiani, 
Comp. Bubattino A Co., Str. Piliero 15, once weekly to Cagliari in 30 hrs. ; 
three times monthly to Alexandria. — (The vessels of the Messageries 
Maritime* de France do not now ply to Naples, but merely touch there 
when on their way to Athens and Constantinople, or to Alexandria and 
Syria. — During the prevalence of cholera many of the steamers cease to 
ply. — Emharcation of each passenger 1 fr. incl. luggage, comp. p. 21. 

Street Traffic. The stranger is beset and importuned in the principal 
streets by numbers of hawkers, who of course practise gross imposition on 
those who are unacquainted with the prices. As a rule one-third of the 
sum demanded should be offered, and all discussion avoided. 

Newspapers, 5. c. per number, rarely contain much foreign intelligence, 
but may be perused with advantage by those who desire to become better 
acquainted with the language and customs of the country. The evening 
'11 Piccolo' and the popular '11 Pungolo' have a very extensive circulation 
(il pungolo = a goad for driving cattle; 'e usci '1 pung' = e uscito il 
Pungolo, is a call which resounds everywhere about 9 p. m.). In the mor- 
ning appear the Roma, the Giornale di Napoli, and many others of less 

Shoe-blacks, whose knocking is intended to attract passers-by, 5 c. 

Matches. A box of vestas (cerini, 10, or two boxes 15 c.) is a desirable 
acquisition, as matches are never provided at the hotels. 

Vendors of iced water (acquaiuoli) carry on a very brisk traffic in 
summer. They are usually provided with two large tubs filled with snow, 
in which the water is cooled, and a supply of lemons, etc. Iced water 
2 c. per glass; with lemon, amarena, or anisette 5 c. ; with lemon, syrup, 
and anisette 10 c. — There are also several mineral springs in the town, 
containing sulphur, iron, and carbonic acid gas ; the best known is at S. 
Lucia. Women and girls offer a draught to passers-by (5 c.). The water 
has a slightly medicinal effect, and the smell is disagreeable. 

National and Religious Festivals. These are inseparably connected with 
each other, and, though inferior in magnificence to the church-festivals of 
Rome, exhibit the most joyous and animated phase of Neapolitan life. The 
principal pilgrimages take place in summer. The carriages are decked with 
wreaths and banners ; tambourines and lungs are plied most lustily ; the 
horses, especially in the Chiaia, are driven at a furious pace. The political 
changes of late have deprived many of these festivals of their former signi- 
ficance, but the more important are still extremely interesting. 

The Festival of the Vergine di Piedigkotta, celebrated at a small 
church at the Posilipo, near the entrance of the grotto, was formerly the 
greatest of all, and is said to have been instituted by Charles III. in 1745 
to commemorate the victory he gained over the Austrians at Velletri in 1744. 
On 8th Sept. a great review took place; the court drove to the church 
amid the acclamations of the people, to celebrate the religious part of the 
ceremony, and the rest of the day was spent in dancing and merriment. — 
A more interesting sight is now presented by the pilgrimages at Easter to 
the shrine of the Madonna di Monte Vergine near Avellino (p. 179), 
which are prolonged for three days , when the surrounding population, 
assembles from all quarters in carriages and on foot, tricked out in all the 
magnificence they can command. The Neapolitans then return to the town 
by Nola in a gay procession which vies with those of the Bacchanalians of old. 
On the following day they proceed to celebrate the festival of the Madonna 
dell' Arco, 6 M. from Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma, from which they 
again return in procession in the most exuberant spirits. — On Ascension 
Day the festival of the Madonna of the baths of Scafati takes place near 
Pompeii. — On 15th Aug., is celebrated the festival of Capodimonte. — 
Other festivities are celebrated at Chkistmas , when the bagpipers (_zam- 

30 Route 4. NAPLES. English Church. 

bognari) of the Abruzzi perform their sweetest strains before the images of 
the Virgin, and when mangers (jiresepi) in the churches form the principal 
feature in tableaux of the Holy Family. At Easter , on Ascension-day, on 
the festivals of Corpus Christi (Fete de Dieu), St. Antony, when the cattle 
are blessed, and especially of S. Januarius in May, September, and De- 
cember, the ceremonies partake more of an ecclesiastic nature. 

The Festival of the Constitution (la Festa dello Statuto), of more 
recent origin, is celebrated throughout Italy on the first Sunday of June. 
In the forenoon military parade ; the garrison consisting of the elite troops 
(3 grenadier regiments, 1 bataillon of bersaglieri, marines, carabineers, and 
several squadrons of 'guides' and artillery) are drawn up in the Piazza 
del Plebiscito, and the National Guard along the Toledo as far as S. Carlo 
all' Arena. In front of S. Francesco mass is celebrated, accompanied by 
the thunder of the guns from the vessels of war and the harbour-batteries. 
Concerts are given at different places in the evening, and fireworks are 
displayed, especially at the Villa. The Garibaldi hymn invariably elicits 
the wildest applause. 

The Tombola, which is previously announced by placards, attracts a 
large concourse of spectators. 

English Church in the Str. S. Pasquale, at the back of the Str. di 
Chiaia, on the site presented to the English residents by Garibaldi when 
dictator in 1860; Service on Sundays at 11 a. m. and 3 p.m. — Presbyterian 
Church (Chiesa Scozzese) S. Cappella Vecchia ; Service on Sundays at 11 a. m. 
and 3. 30 p. m., on Wednesdays at 7. 30 p. m. — Italian Service of the 
Waldensian Church, Monte Calvario, also on Sunday evenings in the Scotch 
church. — French and German Protestant Church, Str. Carlo Poerio, Piazza 
dei Martiri. 

Principal Attractions. Museums : '"'Museo Nazionale (p. 62) daily 9 — 3 
o'clock, admission 1 fr., Sundays and Thursdays gratis ; museum and church 
of S.Martino (p. 82), with view, 9 — 5, admission 1 fr. — "Catacombs (p. 46) 
daily, admission 1 fr. — Palages: Reale (p. 40), Capodimonte (p. 47), Fondi 
(p. 50), Santangelo (p. 56), Castel Nuovo (p. 42). — Churches: 'Cathedral, 
best seen about noon (p. 58), s 'Sta. Chiara (p. 51), "S. Domenico 7 — 11 a. m. 
(p. 52), "S. Anna de' Lombardi (p. 51); L'Incoronata, early in the morning 
(p. 49), ''cloisters of S. Severino (p. 55) ; S. Giovanni (p. 57) ; S. Maria del 
Carmine (p. 44) ; S. Lorenzo (p. 61), S. Paolo Maggiore (p. 60). — Views : 
'"Camaldoli (p. 84), ' Sant' Elmo (p. 83), =Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 77) ; 
'Villa Nazionale, in the evening (p. 76). 

Excursions. In what manner and at what season the environs of 
Naples should be explored depends greatly on the inclination and the 
resources of the traveller himself. Most of the excursions may be made 
from Naples in one day, but it need hardly be said that both time and 
money may often be economised by making a judicious selection of quar- 
ters for the night in the neighbourhood in order to avoid returning to 
Naples every evening. The inns in the environs are of course inferior to 
those at Naples, but are tolerable in warm weather when fires and other 
comforts are not required. The enterprising traveller about to explore 
the surrounding scenery is recommended to give up his rooms at his hotel, 
where however he should leave all superfluous luggage, and thus to start 
on his tour unfettered. The excursions to Caserta and Capua (pp. 8, 9 and 
follg.) are most conveniently made from Naples. A visit to the islands of 
Capri, Procida, and Ischia should not be undertaken in winter unless the 
weather be calm and settled. 

Naples, the most populous city in Italy (415,549 inhab.f), 

t According to the census of 1871 the population was 448,335 souls. The 
official statistics are not framed on a topographical, but on a political and 
administrative basis. The populations given in the Handbook are (unless 
the contrary be stated) those of the respective 'communes', i. e. of the 
towns with the suburbs and villages around them. — The province of 
Naples, 4200 sq. M. in area, contained in 1871 a population of 907,752, or, 
exclusive of the city, about 1000 person per English square mile. 

Geography. NAPLES. 4. Route. 31 

occupies one of the most beautiful situations in the world. The 
magnificent bay has from the most ancient times been the object 
of enthusiastic admiration, and it is annually visited by thousands 
of strangers in quest of enjoyment or health. In historical interest 
this part of the Italian peninsula is singularly deficient. Nature, it 
would appear, has so bountifully lavished her gifts on this favoured 
spot, that the energy and strength of the most powerful nations 
have invariably succumbed to its alluring influence. Greeks, Oscans, 
Romans, Goths, Byzantines, Normans, Germans, and Spaniards have 
in succession been masters of the place ; yet it has never attained 
even a transient reputation in the annals of politics, art, or lite- 
rature. Those who have recognised in Florence the focus of the 
Italian Renaissance, in Rome the metropolis of a bygone age, in 
Venice and Genoa, and even in Pisa and Siena, the splendour 
of mediseval republics , cannot but experience a feeling of 
disappointment on beholding Naples. The dearth of handsome 
buildings and indigenous works of art creates a void, for which 
Herculaneum and Pompeii with their matchless treasures of 
antiquity alone in some measure compensate. The domestic 
architecture of Naples , the narrow, dingy streets , the high and 
narrow houses , with balconies in front of every window, and 
with their flat roofs, are far from attractive. The never-ceasing 
noise , the interminable clatter of wheels at all hours of the day 
and night, the cracking of whips, braying of donkeys, and shrill 
shouting of hawkers render Naples a most distasteful place, espe- 
cially to those whose stay is limited. To these annoyances 
are added the insolent importunities of drivers, guides, street- 
vendors , beggars , etc. , who often combine the most cringing 
manners with the grossest attempts at extortion. In justice, 
however, be it said, that of late years there has been some slight 
improvement in these matters. 

With respect to the duration of the visitor's stay it is difficult 
to offer a suggestion; the taste and inclination of the individual 
must here more than almost anywhere else decide the 
question. Suffice it to observe that within a period of ten days 
all the most interesting points may be visited, whilst many 
months may be delightfully spent in exploring the incomparable 
beauties of the environs. Where time is limited, it should be 
devoted almost exclusively to the latter, as the town contains 
few objects of interest, with the exception of the Museum and 
one or two of the churches. Those to whom the town is unbear- 
ably distasteful should endeavour to obtain accommodation in 
the vicinity. The pleasantest season at Naples is spring and 
early summer, when the freshness of the vegetation imparts a 
most fascinating charm to the scenery. March is occasionally 
a pleasant month, but winter should never be the season se- 
lected , for in few places is bad weather a greater trial of 

32 Route 4. NAPLES. History. 

patience than at Naples. In hot summers it is the pleasantest 
of all the Italian capitals. About 10 a. m. a cool sea-breeze 
generally rises, tempering the parched atmosphere with a grate- 
ful freshness. 

History aud Art. 

The former kingdom of Naples, according to the census of 1st Jan., 1871, 
contained 7,175,311 inhab. (including Benevento), and is divided into 16 
provinces. In ancient times it embraced the tribes of the Volsci, Samnites, 
Oseans, Campanians, Apulians, Lucanians, Calabrians, Bruttians, Siculians, 
and a number of others of less importance, all of whom were characterised 
by the most marked peculiarities of language, custom, and political consti- 
tution. The Oscan language , the one most generally spoken , predomi- 
nated in Samnium , Campania , Lucania , and Bruttium. On the S. and 
S.W. coast, and especially in Sicily, Greek colonists settled in such num- 
bers that the S. portion of the Italian peninsula received the name of 
Magna Qraecia. After the war against Pyrrhus , king of Epirus, in the 
3rd cent, before Christ, the Romans became masters of the land, but the 
Greek language and customs continued to predominate until an advanced 
period in the Christian era. That this was the case in the time of the early 
emperors has been distinctly proved by the character of the antiquities of 
the excavated ( (scan tnwns of llerculaneum and Pompeii. After the fall of the 
Western Empire this district was occupied by Ostrogoths and Lombards, 
then by Romans from the E. Empire, who in their turn were constantly 
harassed by Arabian bands which attacked them by sea, and who finally suc- 
cumbed in the 11th cent, to the Norman settlers. The Hohenslaufen family 
next held the country from 1194 to 1254. In 1265 Charles of Anjou gained 
possession of Naples and established his dominion, which was secured by the 
cruel execution in 1268 of Conradin, the lawful heir, but being reduced in 
extent by the Sicilian Vespers, 30th May, 1282, soon declined in consequence 
of the crimes and degeneracy of the royal family and of disastrous wars with 
Sicily, then in possession of the Arragonese. Charles VIII. of France, 
as heir of the Anjou family, undertook a campaign against Naples and 
gained possession of the kingdom in a few days, but was unable to re- 
tain it. His successor Louis XII. allied himself with Ferdinand the 
Catholic of Spain with a view to conquer Naples, but in consequence of 
dissensions was compelled to abandon his enterprise after the victory of 
Gonsali'o da Cordova on the Liris. Naples, like Sicily and Sardinia, then 
yielded to the power of Spain, which maintained her dominion till 1713. 
Gonsalvo da Cordova was the first of the series of Spanish viceroys, many 
of whom , such as Don Pedro de Toledo under Charles V. (1532 — 54), did 
much to promote the welfare of the country. The rule of others, 
especially during the 17th cent., was such as to occasion universal distress 
and dissatisfaction, a manifestation of which was the insurrection under 
Masaniello at Naples in 1647. At the peace of Utrecht in 1713 Philip V. 
of Spain, of the house of Bourbon, ceded Naples and Sicily to the house 
of Hapsburg, but after prolonged conflicts they reverted to his son Charles 
in 1734, under the name of the 'Kingdom of the Two Sicilies\ Notwith- 
standing the revolution of 1798 — 1806, the Bourbons continued to reign at 
Naples, until Napoleon I. created his brother Joseph king of Naples, who 
was succeeded in 1808 (to 1815) by his brother-in-law Joachim Mural. In 
June, 1815, King Ferdinand, who with the aid of the English had mean- 
while maintained his ground in Sicily, returned to Naples, and in his 
person the Bourbon dynasty was restored. The following October, Joachim 
Murat ventured to land at Pi/.zo in Calabria, but was captured, tried by 
court-martial, and shot, 15th Oct., 1815. Popular dissatisfaction, however, 
still continued, and in 1820 a rebellion broke out in Italy and Sicily, but it 
was speedily quelled by the Austrians under Frimont in 1821, who occu- 
pied the country till 1827. King Ferdinand I. was succeeded in 1825 by 

History. NAPLES. 4. Route. 33 

his eldest son Francis I., and the latter in 1830 by Ferdinand II, whose 
reign was characterised by an uninterrupted succession of internal struggles, 
partly in Naples and partly in Sicily, especially after the year 1848. 
In the spring of 1859, when the war between Sardinia and Austria broke 
out in N. Italy, which by the peace of Villafranca would have entirely 
changed the internal condition of Italy, Ferdinand II. died, and his son 
Francis II. (married to the Princess Mary of Bavaria) was compelled to 
yield to the storm which burst forth afresh. On 11th May, 1860, Joseph 
Garibaldi landed at Marsala with a band of volunteers, captured Palermo 
on 31st May, was appointed dictator, crossed on 19th Aug. to Reggio, and 
on 7th Sept. entered Naples, where he proclaimed Victor Emmanuel of Sar- 
dinia king of Italy. On 1st Oct. Francis II. was defeated at the battle on 
the Volturno , was then besieged at Gaeta from November 1860 to Fe- 
bruary 1861, and at length compelled to surrender and retire to Rome. 

In a land, whose history, like its volcanic soil, has been chequered by 
a long succession of internal struggles, and where so many and so different 
nations have ruled, repose and the development of civilisation must neces- 
sarily be difficult of attainment. The present government has adopted a 
wise course in endeavouring to raise the standard of national education, 
in energetically suppressing the brigandage in the provinces , and the 
'Camorra' and gangs of thieves in the city, and in introducing a number 
of reforms well adapted to ameliorate the condition of this degenerate 

The following are the most important dates in the history of the 
Kingdom of Naples (comp. p. 216). 

I. Period. The Normans, 1042—1194 : 1042, William, son of Tancred of 
Hauteville, Comes Apulise. — 1059, Robert Guiscard (i. e. 'the Cunning'), 
Dux Apulise et Calabrise. — 1130, Roger, proclaimed king after the con- 
quest of Naples and Amalii, unites the whole of Lower Italy and Sicily. 

— 1154—66, William I. ('the Bad'). — 1166—89, William II. ('the Good'). 

— 1194, William III. 

II. Period. The Hohensiaufen, 1194—1268: 1194, Henry VI. of Ger- 
many, I. of Naples. — 1197, Frederick II. — 1250, Conrad. — 1254, Manfred. 

— 1268, Conradin. 

III. Period. House of Anjou, 1266—1442: 1265, Charles I. of Anjou. 
From 1282 to 1442, Sicily formed an independent kingdom under the house 
of Arragon. — 1285, Charles II., 'the Lame'. — 1309, Robert 'the Wise'. 

— 1343, Johanna I. (married Andreas of Hungary). — 1381, Charles III. 
of Durazzo. — 1386, Ladislaus. — 1414, Johanna II. — 1435, Renato of 
Anjou, banished by Alphonso 'the Generous'. 

IV. Period. House of Arragon, 1442—1496: 1442, Alphonso I., 'the 
Generous'. After his death Sicily and Naples were again separated. — 
1458, Ferdinand I. — 1494, Alphonso II. — 1495, Ferdinand II. — 1496, 
Frederick banished (d. 1554 at Tours, the last of the House of Arragon). 

V. Period. Spanish Viceroys, 1503—1707. — On 7th July, 1707, during 
the Spanish War of Succession, Count Daun marched into Naples and 
established the Austrian supremacy. 

VI. Period. Austrian, Viceroys, 1707—1734. — Charles III. of Bourbon 
crowned at Palermo 1734, recognised by the Peace of Vienna 1738, defeats 
the Austrians at Velletri 1744, finally recognised by the Peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle 1748. In 1758 Charles was proclaimed king of Spain, and resigned 
the crown of Naples and Sicily in favour of his son. 

VII. Period. The Bourbons, 1734—1860: 1734, Charles III. — 1759, 
Ferdinand IV. (regency during his minority till 1767), married Caroline of 
Austria, sister of Joseph II., but a monarch of very different character from 
the latter. — 23rd Jan., 1799, the Repubblica Partenopea proclaimed by 
General Championnet. — 14th June, 1799, the French banished. Reaction 
of Cardinal Ruffo. — 14th Jan., 1806, Joseph Buonaparte established by 
Massena. — loth July, 1808, Joachim Murat, king of Naples. — 1816, Ferdi- 
nand assumes the title of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. — 1820, 
Francis I. — 1830, Ferdinand II. — 1859, Francis II. — 21st Oct.. 1860, 
the Kingdom of Naples annexed to Italy by plebiscite. 

BAEDEKBB I tali- til .-.*l. "»!■- 3 

34 Routt 4. NAPLES. Literature. 

The History of the City of Naples extends back to a very remote age. 
Its origin and name are Greek. About the year B. C. 1056 yEolians from 
Chalcis in Eubcea founded the colony of Kyme, Lat. Gumae, on a rocky 
eminence in the bay of Puteoli, which soon became a powerful and pros- 
perous commercial town. From Cumse the colony of Phaleron or Parthe- 
nope (named after the grave of a Syren of that name, Plin. H. N. iii, 5) 
appears to have emanated at a very early period, and to have been at va- 
rious times reinforced by immigrants from Greece, who founded the Nea- 
polis (or new city), whilst Parthenope, the portion erected by the original 
colonists, was termed Palaeopoiis (old city), a distinction which was main- 
tained till the conquest of Palaeopoiis by the Romans, B. C. 326. After 
that period Naples remained faithful to Rome, both in the wars against 
Pyrrhus and against Hannibal, and on account of the beauty of its situa- 
tion soon became a favourite residence of the Roman magnates. Lucullus 
possessed gardens there on the Posilipo and the hill of Pizzofalcone, where, 
A. D. 476, Romulus Augustulus, the last feeble emperor of the Western 
Empire, breathed his last. Augustus frequently resided at Naples, and 
Virgil composed some of his most beautiful poetry here. The emperors 
Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Hadrian were among the chief bene- 
factors of the city, which continued to enjoy its municipal freedom and 
its Greek constitution. It suffered fearfully during the wars of the bar- 
barian immigration. In 536 it was taken by storm by Belisarius, and 
again in 543 by the Goths under Totilas. The city soon threw off the 
Byzantine supremacy, and under its doge or 'duca 1 maintained its inde- 
pendence against the Lombard princes, until after a long siege in 1130 it 
at length succumbed to the Normans under Roger. Frederick II. founded 
the university, and with it the future greatness of the city. It was consti- 
tuted the capital of the kingdom by Charles I. of Anjou, and was greatly 
extended by subsequent princes, especially by Ferdinand I. of Arragon, the 
viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo, and Charles III. of Bourbon. In comparison 
with the other capitals of Europe, the population of Naples has increased 
but slowly. There were 358,550 inhab. in 1830, 400,813 in 1840, 416,475 
in 1850, and 418,968 in 1860. Since the annexation the city has improved 
considerably, but the eradication of the more deeply rooted evils must 
necessarily progress slowly. 

The national characteristic is still, as it ever has been, love of the 
pleasure of the moment. The Neapolitans are at once the most joyous and 
the most careless, the most indolent and the most squalid of the human 
race. Nothing appears capable of permanently depressing the buoyancy of 
their spirits. If they ever indulge in melancholy, its duration is exceed- 
ingly brief; and accordingly at the present day not a trace is to be ob- 
served of the political tempest which so long cast a gloom over their city. 

Literature under Frederick II. of Hohenstaufen began feebly to deve- 
lop itself, but was speedily nipped in the bud. With the exception of 
Ciullo d'Alcamo, a poet of some reputation at the court of Frederick II. at 
Palermo (comp. p. 219), not asingle name deserves mention. The same monarch 
was also a patron of architecture and music. In the art of medicine the 
school, founded by the Normans at Salerno in 1150, afterwards attained 
considerable importance. During many subsequent centuries the land was 
overshadowed by profound intellectual darkness, illumined at rare inter- 
vals by a few illustrious names , such as Thomas Aquinas, the philoso- 
phers Giordano Bruno, Campanella, Giambatlista Vico, the naturalist Porta, 
and the historians Pielro Giannone (Storia di Napoli, down to the Spanish 
war of succession) and Colletta (Storia del Reame di Napoli, 1734 — 1825). 
In Art the attainments of the Neapolitans have been but slightly less 
insignificant. To its high state of perfection in ancient times Psestum, and, 
above all, Herculaneum and Pompeii bear ample testimony. The mediaeval 
Norman period, under Arabian and Byzantine influence, has produced works 
of architecture and sculpture which are by no means destitute of their peculiar 
merit. The appearance of Giotto exercised a salutary influence on the pictorial 
art at Naples in the 13th and 14th centuries ; but this was a mere external 
impulse, unproductive of any independent development, so that a 'Neapo- 

Art. NAPLES. 4. Haute. 35 

litan School 1 can hardly be said ever to have existed, except perhaps 
during the period of the decline of art. During the loth cent, the realism 
of the Flemish School of the Van Eycks produced a marked effect on 
Neapolitan art (Zingaro, Silv. de' Buoni, etc.). In the 16th cent. Raphael's 
influence extended even to Naples, as is apparent from the works of 
Andrea Sabbalini of Salerno (1480 — -1545) among others. In the 17th cent, 
the Neapolitan school of painting (Corenzio, Giuseppe Ribera or Spagno- 
letto, and Caracciolo), with its 'Naturalist' style, presented a striking 
contrast to the classical tendency of Guido Reni and Domenichino. The 
school of Spagnoletto produced Aniello Falcone, the painter of battle-scenes, 
and the talented landscape painter Salvator Rosa (1615 — 1673). Then follow 
the mannerists Luca Giordano, Francesco Solimena, etc. 

The following list comprises the most distinguished artists whom 
Naples has produced. 

Paixtkbs. 1230 — 1310, Tommaso deyli Stefani. 1382 — 1455, Antonio 
Solario, surnamed Lo Zingaro, a semi-mythical personage. 1430 — 88, Simone 
Papa, the Elder. 15th cent., Silveslro de 1 Buoni and Antonio oVAniato. 
1480 — 1545, Andrea Sabbalini, or da Salerno. 16th cent., Pietro Negroni, 
Francesco Santafede, and Fabrizio, son of the latter. 1568 — 1640, Giuseppe 
Cesari, surnamed Cavaliere d'Arpino. 1558 — 1643, Belisario Corenzio. 
1580 — 1641, Giov. Bat. Caracciolo. 1593 — 1656, Giuseppe Ribera, surnamed 
Lo Spagnoletto. 1585 — 1656, Massimo Stanzioni. 1598 — 1670, Andrea Vaccaro. 
1600—65, Aniello Falcone. 1615—73, Salvator Rosa. 1613—99, Mattia Preti, 
surnamed Calabrese. 1632 — 1705, Luca Giordano, surnamed Fa Presto. 
1657 — 1747, Francesco Solimena. 

Architects and Sculptors. Masuccio the Elder in the 13th, and the 
Younger in the 14th cent, are usually regarded as the founders of the 
plastic art, but their history is involved in obscurity. 15th cent., Antonio 
Bamboccio and Andrea Ciccione. 1478 — 1559, Giovanni Merliano, generally 
named da Nola, after the place of his birth. 1700 — 73, Luigi Vanvitelli. 

In Music Naples incontestably deserves the credit of having brought 
the secular and operatic styles to a high state of perfection. The modern 
opera originated with Alessandro Scarlatti (1658 — 1725). He was succeeded 
by Niccolo Porpora (1687—1767) and Leonardo Leo (1694—1743); the latter 
was the first master who made counterpoint his foundation, a step which 
was followed up by Francesco Durante (1693 — 1755), director of the Conser- 
vators, and his pupils Leonardo Vinci, Giovanni Batlista Pergolese (1710 — 
1736, the young and talented originator of the Stabat Mater), Niccolb Pkcini, 
Sacc/tini, Jomelli, etc. Naples has since enjoyed the reputation of being 
the first school of music in the world, whence in the 18th cent, emanated 
Dontenico Cimarosa and Giovanni Paesiello, and, influenced by the mighty 
genius of Gluck and Mozart, the first composers of great operas, Tritla, 
Guglielmi, Fioravanti, and the grave Niccolb Zingarelli (1752 — 1837), director 
of the Conservatorio. The most celebrated names of the 19th cent._ are 
Rossini, Bellini, and Mercadante (d. 1871). 

' Vedi Napoli e poi mori ! ' 
Situation. The city of Naples lies on the N. side of the 
bay, which extends for about 35 M. from the Capo di Miseno, 
its N.W. boundary, to the Punta delta Campanella, its S.E. limit, 
and is separated from the open sea by the islands of Procida 
and Ischia towards the N., and Capri towards the S. The S. E. 
side consists of Monte Santangelo, a spur of the Apennines, 
5000 ft. in height; its geological formation is similar to that of 
Capri, with which a reef of rock connects it. At its base lie 
the villages of Massa Lubrense, Sorrento, Vico Equense, and 
Castellamare, near the ancient Stabiae which was overwhelmed 
by an eruption. The other sides of the bay are bounded by the 


36 Route i. NAPLES. Site. 

Campanian plain, the surface of which has undergone numerous 
changes in consequence of volcanic agency. Between the chain 
of Santangelo and the hilly district N. of Naples, in the middle 
of the plain, rises Mount Vesuvius, dividing it into two distinct 
districts, of which the S. is intersected by the river Sarno, that 
to the N. by the Sebeto. The plain, as well as the slopes of 
Vesuvius itself, is luxuriantly fertile, and one of the most densely 
peopled districts in the world. In the direction of Castellamare 
and beyond the Sarno are situated the Ruins of Pompeii, and 
among numerous other villages, the populous Torre dell' An- 
nunzinta, Torre del Greco, Resina on the site of the ruined 
Ilerculaneum, and Portici. The N.W. side of the bay has for 
ages been the scene of powerful volcanic agency. Naples, which 
stretches E. towards the plain, nearly to the Sebeto, is to a great 
extent situated on a slight volcanic eminence. This tract is iden- 
tical with the Campi Phlegraei, so frequently mentioned by the 
ancients, which extended from Naples to Cumje. They commence 
with the hills of the Madonna del Pianto, Capodichino, and 
Miradois towards the E., and also embrace those of Capodimonte, 
Scutillo, and <S. Eremo as far as Pizzofalcone and Castello deW Ovo, 
and beyond these extend to the Vomero and the eminence of Posilipo. 
Tufa, mingled with fragments of lava, trachyte, pumice-stone, etc., 
is observed in all directions. Mineral springs and gaseous exhal- 
ations testify to the volcanic nature of the district. The chain of 
Posilipo, separating the bay from that of Pozzuoli, is united by a 
subaqueous ridge with the small island of Nisida, an extinct crater. 
Farther inland are situated the craters of Lago d' Agnano, Astroni, 
and Solfatara. On a promontory lies the town of Pozzuoli; farther 
along the coast rises the volcanic M. Nuovo, then the Lago 
Lucrino with the ruins of Baiae, behind which is the crater of 
Lago Averno and the site of ancient Cumae. Finally towards the 
S. are the Lago Fusaro and the hill of Misenum, with the Mare 
Morto and Porto Miseno. This range is connected with the 
pre-eminently volcanic islands of Procida, Vivara, and the more 
important Ischia with the extinct volcano Epomeo. 

Climate. Naples, situated in latitude 40° 52', has a mean tem- 
perature of 60° — 63°Fahr., the extreme heat of summer rarely 
attaining to 100° and the extreme cold of winter being 28°. The 
highest summer temperature, about 90°, usually prevails between 
22nd June and 22nd Aug., the greatest cold, about 30°, between 
12th Dec. and 20th March. From October to March, S. winds 
are the most prevalent, and are accompanied by rain ; from April 
to September N. or N. E. winds, during which the weather is 
generally bright and cloudless. Autumn and winter are the 
rainy seasons; the summer drought is extremely prejudicial to 
vegetation. Fogs are rare, hail occasionally falls in violent 
showers of very brief duration, snow is almost unknown. Spring 

Site. NAPLES. J. Haute. 37 

water is neither abundant nor good. Tlie .indents accordingly 
constructed aqueducts for the supply of the inhabitants. At the 
present day a number of reservoirs, totally inadequate for the 
supply of the city, are employed. The construction of water- 
works is contemplated. 

Topography. The city lies at the base and on the slopes of 
several slight hills, rising from the sea in amphitheatre-like form. 
It is divided into two unequal parts by the projecting angle of Capodi- 
monte, S. Elmo, and Pizzofalcone, which terminates in the narrow 
ridge surmounted by the Castello dell' Ovo. From Capodimonte east- 
wards towards the Sebeto lies the greater and most ancient part of 
Naples, intersected from N. to S. by the Toledo (or Strada Roma), 
the main street, which is continued towards the N. by the 
Strada Nuova di Capodimonte. From each side of this street 
diverge innumerable smaller streets and lanes, which in their turn 
are intersected by others, most of them unimportant. Among these 
cross-streets are, near the Museum, the Piazza Cavour (formerly 
delle Pigne), which terminates in the Porta 8. Oennaro, and the 
streets S. Carlo alf Arena and Foria to the r. ; then the Strada de 
Tribunali, leading to the Tribunali and the Porta Capuana; and 
the Strada S. TrinitH and S. Biagio de Librai, leading to the Porta 
Nolana and thence to the railway station. Towards the sea the 
Toledo is terminated by the square in front of the palace (Largo 
del Palazzo Eeale, or del Plebiscite), in which is situated the 
Church of S. Francesco di Paola. To the E. of the palace rises the 
Castel Nuovo, adjacent to which are the arsenal and government 
harbour, then the pier (Molo Grande) with the lighthouse at the 
end. To the E. of the Molo Grande, as far as the Castel del 
Carmine, extends the harbour, a scene of the utmost animation, 
especially on the E. side, in the direction of the old market- 
place (Largo del Mercato) and the Porta del Carmine which lie 
on the way between the station and harbour. The business 
quarter of the city to the E. of the Toledo, extending to the station 
and to the harbour, embraces at the same time the greater part 
of ancient Naples. A new and broad street, the Strada. del Duomo, 
running from S. Cario all' Arena to the quay, and parallel with 
the Toledo , is now being constructed through the midst of 
these dense masses of houses. To the W. of S. Elmo and 
Pizzofalcone, in a slight curve, extends the narrow modern 
quarter known as La Chiaia, preferable to all other situations 
on account of the purity of the air and the beauty of the view. 
The broad Riviera di Chiaia skirts the sea, bounded on the N. 
by handsome buildings, and on the S. by the grounds of the 
Villa Nazionale. The busy Strada di Chiaia, terminating near the 
palace, connects this part of the town with the Toledo. A second 
street, still unfinished, which bids fair to be the handsomest in 
Naples (Corso Vittorio Emanuele) , leads from the Strada In- 

38 Route 4. NAPLES. Pastel delV Ovo. 

frasoata to the 1. by the Museum, passes by the hills below 
S. Elmo, and terminates near the church of Piedigrotta, thus 
enclosing the W. half of the city. It is about iy 2 M. in length, 
and affords a series of charming views. Adjacent to the Chiaia 
are the quarters of Piedigrotta and Mergellina on the W- From 
the former runs the road to Pozzuoli, passing through the Grotta 
di Posilipo. The Mergellina, on the other hand, continues to 
skirt the sea, along the slope of the Posilipo as far as its termi- 
nation, and contains numerous delightful villas. 

The length of Naples from the Mergellina to the barracks at 
the mouth of the Sebeto is 3 M., the breadth from Capodimonte 
to the Castel dell' Ovo 2!/ 4 M. It contains upwards of 1300 streets 
and lanes, provided with gas in 1840, and well paved, except 
as regards accommodation for foot-passengers. The squares are 
called Larghi, but the more modern name 'piazza' has recently 
been introduced ; the principal streets are called Strode, cross- 
streets Vichi, the narrow lanes ascending the hills, and generally 
inaccessible to carriages, Calate or Salite, or when so precipitous 
as to require steps, Oradoni. 

Antiquities of the Gra3co-Roman period are far from numerous 
in the city itself; but of mediaeval construction there still exist 
(in addition to the churches), five forts (Castello S. Elmo, dell' Ovo, 
Nuovo, del Carmine, Capuano) and two gates (Porta del Carmine 
and CapuanaJ. The town has on the whole a modern appearance. 
The population is densely crowded, and it is now the anxious 
endeavour of the authorities to remedy the physical and social 
evils thus occasioned , by the construction of new and commo- 
dious dwellings. 

The following description of the objects of interest is ar- 
ranged in the topographical order in which strangers are most 
likely to visit them ; but those whose stay is brief are again 
reminded that as little time as possible should be devoted to 
the town itself. 

/. Side towards the Sea. 

The Largo della Vittoria (PL D, 6) in front of the Villa Na- 
zionale, adorned with trees and a fountain, may be regarded as the 
central point of the strangers' quarter. Thence, skirting the sea 
towards the E., an avenue soon leads to the Chiatamone, a row 
of handsome houses and hotels at the base of the Pizzofalcone, 
an overhanging rock. On the opposite side to the r. lies the — 

Castel dell' Ovo, so called from its oval shape, rising from 
the small island which Pliny calls Megaris, and connected with 
the mainland by a breakwater. On each side of the latter, as 
far as the Villa, a broad quay has recently been constructed. 

William I. erected (lie fort in 1154, and Frederick II. entrusted the 
construction of the edifice to A'irrold Pisano. Charles I. enlarged tin- castle 
and frequently resided there. Kuiiert the Wise (1309) caused the chapel 

N. Francesco di Paolo. NAPLES. 4. Route. '39 

to be adorned with frescoes by Giotto, and superintended the work in 
person, but of these no trace is left. Here Charles III. of Durazzo (1381) 
kept Queen Johanna I. prisoner, and was himself besieged. In 1495 Char- 
les VIII. of France captured the castle, which under Ferdinand II. was 
dismantled. It is now chiefly used as a prison. 

The road between Pizzofalcone and the Castel dell' Ovo, 
passing the Hotel Washington (formerly a royal casino), leads 
to S. Lucia (PI. E, 7, 6), once a dirty street, but in 1846 en- 
larged and improved so as to form a broad ami pleasant quay. 
In January, 1868, a land-slip destroyed a number of houses 
situated at the- foot of Pizzofalcone ; the recurrence of similar 
disasters, it is to be hoped, will be prevented by measures taken 
by the local authorities. Scenes of Neapolitan life may be witnessed 
here in perfection. The female members of the community work 
chiefly in the open air , go through their toilette , and perform 
various unpleasing acts of attention to their children , regardless 
of the public gaze. In warm weather the children often run about 
quite naked. On the side next the sea the oyster-stalls are 
established, where sea-urchins, crabs, and other delicacies, so 
expressively called frutti di mare by the Neapolitans, are also 
sold. The focus of this animated scene, however, is on the 
promontory below, which is reached by a flight of steps, and is 
adorned with a * fountain with figures by Domenico d'Auria and 
Giovanni da Nola. On fine summer evenings , especially on 
Sundays , this spot is densely crowded , and presents a highly 
characteristic picture of Neapolitan life. There is also an Osteria 
here, and a favourite sulphureous spring (p. 29). 

At the end of S. Lucia we ascend the Strada del Gigante to 
the 1. ; on the r. side we look down on the stores of cannon and 
ammunition in the courts of the arsenal, which is connected 
with the Castel Nuovo , and occupies the entire space between 
S. Lucia and the public harbour. 

In a straight direction we observe Fort S. Elmo, rising above 
the town, and a few steps farther we reach the finest square in 

The Largo del Palazzo Reale, called the Piazza del Plebiscito 
since 1860, assumed its present aspect in 1810, after the demo- 
lition of four monasteries. To the r. is the Royal Palace, oppo- 
site is the Foresteria, a public building, on the other side the 
Prefettura (formerly palace of the Prince of Salerno), ami on the 
fourth side, which forms a semi-circle, the church of S. Francesco 
with its dome and arcades. The equestrian statues in the square 
are those of Charles 111. and Ferdinand I. of Bourbon, the two 
horses and the statue of Charles by (.'anova, that of Ferdinand, 
in a Roman toga, by Cocl). 

S. Francesco di Faola (PI. 48), an imitation of the Pantheon 
at Rome, was constructed by Ferdinand 1. from designs of Hianchi 
di Lugano in 1817 — 31. 

40 Route -I. NAPLES. Palazzo Reale. 

The Ionic vestibule is supported by six columns and two buttresses. 
The interior contains thirty Corinthian columns of marble from Mondra- 
gone, which support the dome. The high altar, transferred hither from 
the church of the Apostles, is entirely inlaid with jasper and lapis lazuli ; 
the two pillars at the sides are of rare Egyptian breccia from S. Severino. 
The tribune above is for the use of the royal family. The statues and pic- 
tures are by modern masters. To the 1. of the entrance: St. Athanasius by 
Angelo Salaro; Death of Joseph, Camilla Ouerra of Naples; St. Augustin, 
a statue by Tommaso Arnaud. of Naples ; Madonna della Concezione, 
Casparo Landi; St. Mark, a statue by Fabris of Venice; St. Nicholas, 
Nalale Carta of Sicily ; St. John, Tenerani. In the choir : St. Francis di 
Paola resuscitating a youth, Camuccini; St. Matthew, a statue by Finelli; 
Last Communion of St. Francis of Castile, Pietro Benvenuti of Florence; 
St. Luke, a statue by Antonio Call of Sicily; St. Ambrose, by Tito Angelini 
of Naples; Death of St. Andrea da Avellino, Tommaso de Vivo; St. Chry- 
sostom, a statue by Gennaro Cali. 

The Palazzo Reale (PL 21), or royal palace, adjoining the 
Castello Nuovo , erected from a design by the celebrated Dome- 
nico Fontanel, was begun in 1600 under the viceroy Count de 
Lemos, burned down in 1837, and restored between that year and 
1841. The facade, 554 ft. in length, exhibits in its three 
storeys the Doric and Ionic styles combined ; most of the arches 
of the basement , however , are filled up with masonry for the 
sake of increasing the strength of the building. 

The magnificent staircase in the interior, adorned at the foot 
with statues of the Ebro and Tagus, was constructed in 1651. 
The state-rooms contain numerous modern pictures. 

Visitors apply to the porter , who conducts them (50 c.) to the office 
of the Intendant in the palace, where they receive (gratis) a card of 
admission for six persons, which is available also for the palaces of Capodi- 
monte, Caserta, Favorita, (Juisisana, and the garden of Astroni, and must 
be exhibited in each case to the porter. Attendant's fee 1 fr. 

The visitor is first conducted to the garden-terrace, which 
affords a fine view of the harbour and the arsenal immediately 
below. In the centre a handsome marble table. Then to the 
apartments in the interior. The pictures which they contain are 
for the most part of no great artistic value. On the side towards 
the piazza are situated a small theatre and a superb dining-room. 
Beyond these, in the second room: L. Caracci, John the Baptist; 
Caravagyio, Christ in the Temple; Schidone, Carita. The Throne- 
room is gorgeously furnished with crimson velvet and gilding. 
The embroidery was worked at the extensive poor-house in 1818. 
The bas-reliefs represent the different provinces of the kingdom. 
Then a gallery containing handsome Sevres vases. 5th Room: 
A beautiful writing-table, presented by the city of Naples. In 
another apartment, Leonardo da Vinci presenting 'The Last Supper" 
to the donors , by Podesti. Then a room containing a portrait 
by Van Dyck, a * portrait of the Netherlands school, Usurer by 
Quintin Massy.*, * Cardinal by Domenichino (?). Another room 
contains the * portrait of an old woman, of the Netherlands 
school . 

In the direction of S. Carlo, in a small apartment rilled with 

S.GiacomodegliSpaynuoU. NAPLES. 4. Route. 41 

plants, stands the statue of Italia, erected in 1864 in comme- 
moration of the plebiscite of 21st Oct., 1860, which added the 
kingdom of Naples to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. 

Connected with the Palace is the Theatre of San Carlo (PI. 26). 
founded by Charles III. in 1737, and erected by the Neapolitan 
architect Angela Carasale from designs by the Sicilian Giovanni 
Medrano. The interior was destroyed by fire in 1816, but has 
been restored in harmony with the original plan. It is one of the 
largest opera-houses in Italy, in which the choicest works of 
ancient and modern Italian composers are admirably performed. 
Many of the celebrated compositions of Rossini, Bellini, Doni- 
zetti, and Mercadante were performed here for the first time. 
The facade, Testing on an arcade, is surmounted by a series of 
columns decorated with bas-reliefs. The spaces under the arches 
are occupied by public writers, ready at a moment's notice to 
commit to paper the pleading of the lover or the expostulation 
of the creditor. 

Farther to the r. is the small garden belonging to the palace, 
at the entrance of which are two Horse-tamers, gifts from the 
Emp. Nicholas of Russia , and replicas of those in front of the 
palace at Berlin. 

The long Piazza del Municipio, adorned with pleasant grounds, 
formerly named Largo del Castello, is next reached. At its ex- 
tremity, to the 1., is situated the handsome — 

Municipio (PI. 20), formerly Palazzo de' Ministeri, erected 
in 1819 — 25 from designs by Luigi and Stefano Gasse. At the 
principal entrance are the statues of the kings Roger and 
Frederick II. 

From this point a passage, occupied by stalls of various wares, 
leads to the Toledo ; within it , to the r. , is the entrance 
to the Exchange. Traversing this passage until a court with a 
fountain is seen on the r. , crossing this court to its outlet into 
a side-street, passing through a long, narrow passage, and finally 
descending a flight of steps, we reach — 

S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli (PI. 52), erected in 1540 by 
Don Pedro de Toledo, and now undergoing alteration. 

The sumptuous *Tomb of Don Pedro behind the high altar, the 
master-piece of Giovanni da Kola, is adorned with statues of the cardinal 
virtues , has-reliefs of the achievements of the viceroy, and his statue in 
a kneeling posture, with that of his wife. Inscription: 'Petrus Toletus 
Friderici ducis Alvae filius, Marchio Villse Francee, Neap. Prorex, Turcar. 
hostiumr]ue omnium spe sublata — vivens in ecclesia dotata, Ob. A. 
1553. Yixit A. LXXIII. Maria Osorio, Pimentel con.jux. Behind the 
latter, a monument of Hans Walther von lliernheim , counsellor and 
general of Charles V. and Philip II. (d. 1557); inscription in German and 
Latin. To the r. of the principal door a * Holy Family by And. del Oarto; 
3rd chap, on the 1., Descent from the Cross, Qian Bernardo Lama; other 
pictures by Bernardino Siciliano, Marco da Siena, etc. 

On the opposite side, concealed by a row of houses, is the 
Castello Nuovo (see below). As we turn round to the r. towards the 

42 Route i. NAPLES. Castel Nunrn. 

Strada del Molo, the broad Strada Medina opens to the left. At its 
commencement rises the Fontana Medina (PI. 8), erected from the 
designs of Domenico d'Auria and Fansaga by the viceroy, Duke 
of Medina Celi (1695), and considered the finest fountain in 
Naples. It consists of a large basin, supported by four satyrs; in 
the centre Neptune with his trident, surrounded by jets of water; 
at the base four Tritons on sea-horses, with water-spouting lions 
and other animals. 

Proceeding towards the harbour, we observe to the 1. the 
Teatro del Fondo (PI. 29) and other show-booths, where we shall 
find, as in other countries , that the canvas glories outside are 
hardly realised on a visit to the interior ; to the r. the Castel Nuavo 
(admission not always obtained without a discussion with the 

The Castel Nuovo (PI. E, 5, 6) was begun in 1283 by Charles I. 
of Anjou from a design attributed to Giovanni da Pisa, and exe- 
cuted in the French fortification style of that period. Here the 
kings of the houses of Anjou and Arragon , and the Spanish 
viceroys successively resided. Alphonso I. (1442) enlarged the 
edifice and added five round towers, two of which were demolished 
in 1862 as they held a threatening attitude towards the city. 
In 1546 Don Pedro de Toledo constructed new bastions. In 1735 
Charles III. gave it its present form. 

Turning to the r. through the barrack-yards , we proceed 
to the entrance by the old Fort, where the ^Triumphal Arch, 
the finest monument in Naples, was erected in 1470 to 
commemorate the entry of Alphonso of Arragon (2nd June, 
1442), by Pietro di Martino, a Milanese architect, or, according 
to Vasari, by Giuliano da Maiano of Florence. It is an arch- 
way between two ancient towers, with Corinthian columns on 
each side , frieze and cornice , above which is an attic con- 
taining well executed sculpture, representing the entry of 
Alphonso, by Isaia da Pisa and Silvestro dell'Aquila; beneath 
is the inscription : 'Alphonsus rex Hispanus Siculus Italicus 
pius clemens invictus'; above, 'Alphonsus regum princeps hanc 
oondidit arcem'. The whole is surmounted by statues of 
St. Michael, St. Antonius Abbas, and St. Sebastian, below which 
are the four cardinal virtues. Beneath the arch are bronze doors 
with representations of the victories of Ferdinand I., by Quglielmo 
Monaco. A cannon-ball imbedded in the masonry of the 1. 
wing is a reminiscence of the wars of the time of Gonsalvo 
da Cordova. 

Adjacent to the entrance, to the r., is the Armoury (Sala 
di S. Luigi, or Sala delle Armi), formerly employed by the kings 
as a reception-room, also as a theatre; foreigners not admitted 
without permission from the minister of war. Above it is a 
(iothic chapel, containing an altar-piece by Spac/noletto : S. Fran- 

Porto Militate. NAPLES. 4. Route. 43 

cesco di Paola, with eight small pictures representing the miracles 
wrought by the saint at Naples. 

The church of S. Barbara, or S. Sebastiano, situated in the 
inner barrack-yard (custodian lives to the r., in front of the 
triumphal arch ; */2 fr-)> possesses a Corinthian facade by Giu- 
Liano da Maiano ; on the door a beautiful Madonna in relief. 
The choir, to the 1. behind the high altar, contains the cele- 
brated *picture of the 'Adoration of the Magi', pronounced by Va- 
sari one of the finest paintings in the world, and ascribed by him 
to Van Eyck ; others attribute it to Lo Zingaro, or his pupils 
the Donzelli, because the features of the Magi bear a strong re- 
semblance to those of Alphonso I., Ferdinand I., and another con- 
temporary, with which Van Eyck could not have been acquainted. 
According to competent modern critics, however, this work has 
been greatly overrated. At the back of the choir a spiral stair- 
case of 158 steps ascends to the top of the tower. A covered 
gallery connects the fort with the palace, destined for use in case 
of any sudden emergency or rebellion. In the vicinity is the 
Arsenal, erected in 1577 by the viceroy Mendoza, with the 
dockyard, etc., which are connected with the government harbour. 

The Porto Militare (PI. J. 6) begun in 1826 under Francis I., 
5 fathoms in depth, is enclosed by the old Molo on the N. and 
a strong breakwater on the S., which in a S. E. direction ex- 
tends 1180 ft. into the sea. A number of men-of-war of the 
Italian navy, some of them iron-clad (corazzate), are frequently 
stationed here, and may be inspected by strangers. 

As the Molo is approached, the government harbour, shut off 
by a gate, lies to the r., and to the 1. the commercial harbour, 
Porto Grande (PI. J, 5) constructed in 1302 by Charles II. of An- 
jou at the same time as the Molo Grande, and provided with a 
lighthouse dating from the end of the 15th cent., altered to its pre- 
sent condition in 1843. The harbour was enlarged by Charles III. 
in 1740. An animated and busy scene characteristic of a southern 
climate is beheld here. Boatmen invite foot-passengers to make 
an excursion on the bay, which in fine weather is very enjoyable 
(bargaining necessary; comp. p. 26). 

The Molo is terminated by a battery. The ascent of the 
Lighthouse is strongly recommended, as it enables the visitor 
to form a very accurate idea of the topography of the town 
(fee 1 fr.J. An easy marble stair of 142 steps ascends to 
the gallery. The view embraces the government and commercial, 
harbours; to the W. the Castel dell' Ovo, Pizzofalcone , Pa- 
lazzo Reale with the dome of 8. Francesco behind it , Castello 
Nuovo, Strada del Molo, the city imposingly commanded by Fort 
S. Elmo with the monastery of S. Martino , numerous domes 
and towers, in the background the palace of Capodimonte , and 
to the E. the tower del Carmine. The four red buildings which 

14 Route J. NAPLES. tf. Maria del Carmine. 

lie higher up, beyond the precincts of the city, are barracks and 
magazines. Then the Campanian plain, bounded by the Apen- 
nines above Nola, Vesuvius, the bay, and Capri. 

At the end of the Porto Grande, to the 1., is situated the 
Porto Piccolo, now used for small boats only, being half-filled 
with sand. It once formed part of the most ancient harbour of 
Palseopolis , and traces of a lighthouse still exist. On the Molo 
Piccolo, in the vicinity, is now situated the Immacolatella with 
the offices of the Sanita (PI. 24), and on the other side the 
Custom-House (PL 7). 

Having passed the enclosure of the small-boat harbour, the 
traveller may take the first cross-street to the L, proceed in a 
straight direction past five transverse lanes, and thus reach the 
church of S. Pietro Martire (PL 70), which contains a few inter- 
esting monuments and pictures (Legend of St. Vincent, in a 
style akin to the Flemish). 

The last street but one to the 1. before S. Pietro is reached 
leads into the Strada di Porto, a scene, especially towards eve- 
ning, of the most motley bustle and confusion. Vendors of fish, 
meat, maccaroni, and refreshments of all descriptions cook their 
delicacies in the open street, and attract numerous customers and 
those who would be customers if they could. The fumes which 
arise may well be described as 'ancient and fish-like '; this is more- 
over the dirtiest quarter of the town. The scene which the har- 
bour presents is far more pleasing, although not more character- 
istic of Neapolitan life. The fishermen and boatmen with their 
Phrygian caps and sunburnt, often handsome features, are the 
descendants of the Lazzaroni, a class the popular idea regarding 
which is generally borrowed from the pages of the novel-writer, 
but which may now be considered as extinct. The name is of 
Spanish origin. The lower classes of the present day (setting 
aside the varieties which prey on the stranger) are remarkable 
for their industry and frugality. 

Pursuing our walk along the harbour , we soon perceive to 
the 1. the Porta del Carmine , with its two huge round towers, 
Fidelissima and La Vittoria. Over the entrance is the bust of Fer- 
dinand I. A little farther, at the E. extremity of the town, 
rises the Castello del Carmine, a vast structure erected by Ferdi- 
nand I. in 1484. In 1647 during the rebellion of Masaniello 
it was occupied by the populace. It was afterwards fortified, 
and is now used as a barrack and military prison. 

The Porta del Carmine leads to the piazza of the same 
name in which, to the r., is situated the church of — 

*S. Maria del Carmine (PL 59), containing the tomb of 
Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen. 

The tomb was originally behind the high altar, bearing the simple 
inscription R. C. C. (Regis Conradini corpus). In 1847 Maximilian II. of 

Piazza de' Martiri. NAPLES. 4. Route. 45 

Bavaria, when Crown-prince, caused a *Statue, by Scliiipf of Munich from 
a design by Thorvaldsen, to be erected in the nave of the church to the 
memory of Conradin. The pedestal bears a German inscription to the 
effect that — 'Maximilian, Crown-prince of Bavaria, erected this monu- 
ment to a scion of his house , King Conradin , the last of the llohen- 
staufen'. The reliefs represent the parting of Conradin from his mother, 
the Princess Elizabeth, and his separation from Frederick of Baden at 
the place of execution. Beneath lie the remains of the unfortunate 
prince. The whole is well executed, and, placed as it is, most impressive. 
This church is also said to be the last resting place of Masaniello , but 
this has been denied. 

Quitting the church , we enter the Largo del Mercato to 
the left. Of the three fountains the largest is called Fontana di 
Masaniello, to commemorate the rebellion of 1647. On Mondays 
and Fridays the market attracts numhers of people from all direc- 
tions. This was the scene of the execution of Conradin, the last 
scion of his princely house, and of his relation Frederick of Baden, 
29th Oct., 1268, which took place by order of Charles I. of Anjou. 

To penetrate farther into the interior of the town from this 
point without a guide , even with the aid of the plan of the 
town , is hardly advisable. The traveller should therefore drive 
to one of the places described below, whence he may continue 
his exploration on foot. 

II. Toledo. Capodimonte . 

Proceeding from the Largo della Vittoria (p. 38; PI. D 6), to 
the 1., in the direction of the town, the broad Strada S. Caterina 
leads us to the triangular Piazza de' Martiri, adorned with a 
monument in memory of the patriots who have perished during the 
different revolutions. The monument consists of a lofty column of 
marble decorated with trophies, and crowned with a Victory in 
bronze. The four lions at the base, in different postures, re- 
present the four principal revolutions (1799, 1820, 1848, 1860) 
at Naples during the Bourbon dynasty. The monument was 
designed by Alvino , the Victory executed by Caggiani. The 
inscription runs thus: 'alia gloriosa memoria dei cittadini Napo- 
letani che caduti nelle pugne o sul patibolo rivendicarono al 
popolo la liberta di proclamare con patto solenne ed eterno il 
plebiscito del 21 ottobre 1860 , il municipio consacra'. 

To the 1. in the piazza is the Palazzo Miranda (PI. 19), now 
Ottajano, erected in 1780 by Barba, now the property of the 
Princess of Ottajano , daughter of the Duchess of Miranda, 
containing pictures by Spagnoletto, Guido Beni, Rubens (Triumph 
of beauty") , and others. (Visitors admitted daily , 12 — 2 , on 
presenting their visiting-cards; attendant 1 fr. , rjorter 50 c.) 

We next enter the busy Strada di Chiaia. Where this 
street begins to ascend , it is crossed by the Ponte di Chiaia, 
a viaduct built in 1634 , over which the Strada Monte di Dio 
leads from the quarter of Pizzofalcone to the higher ground 

46 Route 4. NAPLES. Toledo. 

below S. Elmo. The (Str. di Chiaia, which contains no object 
of note, leads into the Toledo opposite S. Carlo. This street, 
the main artery of the traffic of Naples , a busy scene at all 
hours, is from the Piazza del Plebiscito to the Museo Nazionale 
nearly 1 1/ 2 M. in length, but contains no building worthy of 
mention. It was begun by the viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo in 1540, 
and bore his name down to the annexation of Rome in 1870, 
but is now officially called Strada Roma (gia Toledo). In 10 min. 
we reach the Largo della Carith, a small square to the 1.,. oppo- 
site which is the entrance to the Piazza Montoliveto (p. 50). A 
little farther , at the corner to the r. where the street to the 
Largo della Trinita diverges , is situated the Palazzo Maddaloni 
(entrance in the Str. Maddaloni) , a massive structure with a 
gateway and staircase from designs by Fansaga. The interior 
contains a hall of beautiful proportions , now occupied by the 
Bank of Naples, the ceiling of which is decorated with a fresco 
by Francesco di Mura, representing Naples besieged by Ferdi- 
nand I. of Arragon. Adjacent, separated by a cross-street, at the 
corner of the Toledo and the Strada Montoliveto , is yie Pa- 
lazzo Angri (PI. 12), erected about the year 1773 by Luigi Van- 
vitelli , the residence of Garibaldi when dictator in I860. The 
picture gallery it formerly contained has been sold. 

In 10 min. more we reach the spacious Largo di San Spirito, 
or del Mercatello , which is at present undergoing considerable 
extension and improvement. The circular shaped edifice, sur- 
mounted by a bain stride with twenty-six statues, was erected by 
the city of Naples in honour of Charles III. in 1757, the statues 
being emblems of the virtues of that monarch. In 1861 it was 
converted into the Ginnasio Vittorio Ernanuele , and in front of 
it rises a modern statue of Dante in marble. The large red 
building facing us is the Museum (p. 62 and follg.). 

The continuation of the Toledo beyond the Museum is the 
Strada Nuova di Capodimonte, which gradually ascends. The 
Ponte della Sanitct, constructed in 1809, leads over the lower 
lying quarter della Sanita. 

Descending to the 1. beyond the bridge, and from the lower 
end of the street entering the winding Strada S. Oennarello, 
we soon reach the church of S. Oennaro dei Poveri, behind which 
is situated the entrance to the 'Catacombs (PI. 4). Application 
for admission to them is made to the porter of the extensive 
poor-house , where several hundred orphans and aged or infirm 
persons are gratuitously supported (admission 1 fr. for each person, 
and trifling fee). The church of S. Gennaro dei Poveri, founded 
ill the 8th cent, on the site of a chapel where St. Januarius 
was interred, is now completely modernised. The vestibule of the 
inner court is embellished with * frescoes by A. Sabbatini , un- 

Pfilazzu di CajJddiinonte. NAL'LEfr*. i- Route. 17 

fortunately in bad preservation , representing the history of the 
saint. The only entrance to the Catacombs is now at the back of 
this church. Their extent is said to be very great, but since the 
fearful plague of 1656 when, as at subsequent periods, the dead 
were buried here, they have to a great extent been filled up. They 
are remarkable for the width and height of the passages, in which 
respect they far surpass the Roman, though inferior in every 
other respect. They consist of a long series of passages and 
chambers, with innumerable niches (loculi), containing bones 
and emblems of the Christian faith, on three different levels con- 
nected by stairs. The two upper storeys alone are now acces- 
sible. The oldest portions have undergone frequent alteration. 
As to their original destination there was formerly some doubt, 
but it has been satisfactorily proved that they were excavated by 
the early Christians as burialplaces and for religious purposes. 
The names in the inscriptions, as well as the nature of the re- 
presentations in sculpture which have been discovered (now pre- 
served in the Museum), are all Christian : festoons of vine, genii, 
grapes pecked at by birds, Christ as the Good .Shepherd, bearing 
the lamb and tending the sheep, the stag, peacock, fish, dove, 
the emblem of the cross, and angels. (The explanations given 
by the loquacious custodian are of little value.) 

To the r. of the Ponte della Sanita lies the Chinese Colleije 
(Colleyio de 1 Cinesi), founded in 1772 by the Jesuit P. Ripa, 
where missionaries for China are educated. . 

The main street next leads to a circular space, where the 
carriage-road describes a long curve to the 1. , whilst footpas- 
sengers ascend the steps, and to the r. reach the entrance to the 
palace-garden of Capodimonte. The cab-fare to the Tondo di Ca- 
podimonte is in accordance with the tariff for the interior of the city. 

The Palazzo di Capodimonte (PI. 14 ; tickets of admission 
procured at the Pal. Reale ; attendant 1 fr. ; porter, a trilling 
gratuity), situated above the town to the N. on the eminence 
of that name, begun in 1738 by Charles III., completed under 
Ferdinand II. in 1834 — 39, is a handsome rectangular structure, 
the gardens of which, laid out partly in the English "style (but 
destitute of water), and commanding a fine view, are open to 
the public on 15th Aug. Visitors are conducted through the 
public and private royal apartments, which contain a collection of 
pictures more extensive than valuable. They consist principally of 
family-portraits, reviews, battles, etc., by modern native artists. 
Each room is provided with a catalogue. Those which most merit 
inspection are: 1st Room: 1. Hackert, Wild boar hunt in the 
Bosco di Persano ; On the Lago Fusaro, by the same; 11. Lemasle, 
Marriage of the Duchesse de Berry. 3rd R. : Camuccini, Death 
of Caesar. 5th R. : Celentano, Benvenuto Cellini at the Castello 
S. Angelo ; Hayez, Ulysses and Alcinous. In the centre a table 

48 Route 4. NAPLES. Observatory. 

with mosaic from Pompeii. 6th R. : Marinelli, Cleopatra at her 
toilet. 10th R. : Virginia Lebrun, *Portaits of the Duchess of 
Parma and Maria Theresa, Angelica Kaufmann, * Ferdinand I. 
and his consort with their children. — Also on the first 
floor a collection of armour (Armeria), formerly preserved in the 
Pal. Reale, of which the only objects of interest are the ancient 
accoutrements of the kings Roger and Ferdinand I. , of Alexander 
Farnese, Victor Amadeus of Savoy, etc. ; also the sword presented 
by Ferdinand I. to the gallant Scanderbeg , and one sent by 
Louis XIV. to his grandson Philip when the latter succeeded to 
the Spanish throne. 

In the vicinity of Capodimonte are the villas Meuricoffre, 
Ruffo, Avelli, and Forquet. Delightful walks and fine views in 
all directions. 

On the W. slope stands the Villa Eegina Isabella, or Villa 
Gallo, founded in 1809 by the Duca di Gallo, afterwards the 
property of the queen from whom it derives its name, now in 
the possession of her second husband the Conte del Balzo. The 
summit commands a remarkably fine prospect of the city and 
bay. Pleasant walk from the Villa Gallo through the valley 
between Camaldoli and the Vomero to the Lago d'Agnano, or to 
the 1. to Fuorigrotta and to the P>agnoli road on the coast. 

The Strada Nuova di Miano skirts the park of Capodimonte 
and unites with the Capua road at Secondigliano. Quitting the park 
and turning to the 1., the traveller may proceed by the outskirts 
of the city to the Porta S. Gennaro , or still farther to the 
Campo Santo outside the Porta Capuana , an excursion most 
pleasantly made by carriage, occupying altogether about 5 hrs., 
including a visit to the palace and grounds. (Two-horse carr. 
5—6 fr.) 

The summit X)f Capodimonte, 3 / 4 M. to the E. of the palace, 
is occupied by the Observatory (iOsservatorio Reale), popularly 
called La Specola , and by the Spaniards , Miradois , founded in 
1812, and enlarged in 1820 from plans by the celebrated Piazzi. 
It commands an unobstructed horizon in all directions, and under 
Piazzi (d. 1826) attained a European reputation. The present 
director, M. de Gasparis, has distinguished himself by the 
discovery of several small planets. 

Farther off, at the base of Capodimonte, are visible the re- 
mains of the Aqua Julia , now called Ponti Rossi , the great 
aqueduct constructed by Augustus. One branch supplied the city 
of Naples, the other crossed the Vomero to the r., whence sev- 
eral ramifications diverged , some to the villas on the Posilipo, 
another by Monte Olibano to P.aiai and Misenum, where it ter- 
minated in the Piscina Mirabilis. 

The city at present derives its drinkable water from two 
sources, the Acqua di (armignano, conducted about the year 1600 

L' Incoronata . NAPLES. 4. Route. 49 

from S. Agata, 24 M. distant, and in 1770 united with that 
from Caserta, and the shorter Acqua della Bolla, fed by springs 
on Monte Somma, and supplying the lower quarters of the city, 
but both insufficient. The Artesian wells recently sunk have 
yielded no water lit for drinking. 

Turning to the r. by the Museum , we enter the spacious 
Piazza Cavour (formerly Largo delle Pigne), now embellished with 
promenades, and proceed by the broad Strada S. Curio all' Arena 
to the Strada Foria, to which omnibuses run. Here, to the 1., 
is the Botanic Garden, established in 1809, extended in 1818. 
Adjoining it, in the Str. Foria, is the extensive poor-house, 
Albergo de' Poveri, or Eeclusorio, begun by Charles III. in 1751 
from a design by Fuga, and intended to contain four courts. It 
bears the inscription : 'Regium totius regni pauperum hospitium'. 
The building, one side of which is appropriated to men , the 
other to women , is still little more than half completed. In 
this establishment and its dependencies about 5000 persons are 
maintained. The city contains numerous other charitable insti- 
tutions, about 60 in all, many of them richly endo.ved. The 
cross streets to the r. lead from the Str. Foria to the Port;* 
Capnaiia (p. 56). 

III. The Old Town. 

Naples contains about three hundred Churches, most of them 
devoid of interest. The more ancient exhibit the tasteless archi- 
tecture and art of the 17th and 18th centuries, which appears 
to have attained its highest perfection here. As, however, they 
contain numerous monuments, important in the history of sculp- 
ture, and are rich in historical and political associations, some of 
the more important are well deserving of a visit. They are gen- 
erally closed about noon, and not re-opened till the evening. 

*L'Incoronata (PI. 56; E, 5), in the Str. Medina, to the 1. of 
the fountain, adjoining No. 49 (open early in the morning), was 
erected in 1352 by Johanna I. to commemorate her coronation 
and marriage with her cousin Louis of Taranto, and made to 
include the chapel of the former Palais de Justice in which the 
marriage had been solemnised. 

This chapel contains admirable "Frescoes, formerly attributed to Giotto, 
but probably by one of his pupils or imitators, representing the 'Seven 
Sacraments and the Church', to inspect which we mount a platform to 
the 1. near the entrance. In the arch over the window, to the r. the 
'Triumph of the Church' (in which King Robert and his son Charles are 
represented, attired in purple), to the 1. the Extreme Unction. The next 
arch to the r. comprises : to the 1. Baptism, r. Confirmation; then to the 1. 
the Eucharist, r. Confession; and on the other side, 1. Ordination, r. Matri- 
mony. Two half-figures in 'Uaptisnf, one of which is crowned with laurel, 
are said to represent Petrarch and Laura, and in .Matrimony' Iiante's 
Baedeker. Italv III. 0th Edition. A 

f)(t Route 4. NAPLES. $. Maria la \uovu 

features are said to be recognisable. The Chapel of the Crucifix , at the 
end of the 1. aisle, also contains frescoes in the style of Giotto, ascribed 
to Gennaro di Cola, pupil of Maestro Simonc : to the 1. are represented 
the Coronation of Johanna I., her nuptials, and other events in her life: 
to the r. St. Martin, St. George, battles, etc., all much damaged. 

The church contains numerous votive offerings for recovery from sick- 
ness and the perils of childbirth. 

Opposite the church is situated the Palazzo Fondi (PI. 16) 
( shown by special permission of the prince only), constructed 
from plans by Vanvitelli , and containing a collection of pictures. 

Calabrese, Martyrdom of St. Januarius ; Salvator Rosa, four land- 
scapes^ Caravaggio, Portrait of the poet Marini ; Domenichiito, S. Filippo 
Neri ; Leonardo da Vinci, Mater Dolorosa; RapliaelC!), Madonna del Car- 
dellino, a replica of that in the Tribuna in Florence; Rubens, Diana and 
Callisto; Rembrandt, Portrait of himself ; Van Dyck, Portraits of the Ge- 
noese family of Marini : Velasquez, Palace of the Inquisition at Madrid, etc. 

At the end of the Strada Medina we enter the busy Strada 
>S. Giuseppe to the left. After a few minutes' walk, a broad street 
to the r. leads to S. Maria la Nuova (PI. 61), in the square of 
that name, erected in 1268 by Giovanni da Pisa, restored in 
1596 by Franco, and adorned with frescoes on the ceiling by 
Santafede and Simone Papa the younger, and on the dome (the 
four Franciscan teachers: S. Iionaventura, Duns Scotus, Nicolaus 
do Lira, and Alexander ab Alexandra) by Corenzio. 

In the 1st Chap, to the r. the 'Archangel Michael', formerly ascribed 
to Michael Angela. 3rd Chap. : Crucifixion, Marco da ftiena. In the Chap, 
del Crocelisso frescoes by Corenzio. The r. transept contains the monument 
of Galeazzo Snnseverino (d. 1477), with numerous basreliefs of the 15th 
cent. In the opposite chapel a beautiful crucifix in wood by Merliano. 
The second chapel to the 1., that of S. Giacomo della Marca, was erected by 
Oonsalvo da Cordova, 'il gran capitano 1 , whose nephew Ferdinand placed 
on either side of the altar the monuments of his most distinguished enemies 
I'ietro Navarro (who strangled himself while imprisoned in the Castello 
Nuovo) and Lautrec, a Frenchman, the general of Francis I. (who died of the 
plague in 1528, while besieging Naples). The inscriptions, composed hy 
1'aolo (lioi'io, testify to the noble and chivalrous sentiments of that period. 
At the high altar is the monument of the Triventi family. 

We now return and pursue our route along the Str. Giuseppe, 
of which the Str. Montoliveto forms the continuation. To the r., 
where the latter expands into a square, stands the Palazzo Gra- 
vina , now the General Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 23), 
erected about 1500 by Ferdinando Orsini, Duca di Gravina, from 
designs by Gabriele d'Aynolo. Although disfigured by modern 
improvements, and much injured by lire during the revolution 
of 1848. this is still the finest building in Naples. It once bore 
the graceful inscription of the founder: 'Sibi suisque et amicis 
omnibus '. 

An ascent from this point to the 1. leads to *S. Anna de' 
Lombardi , or Monte Oliveto (PI. 66), in the piazza of that 
name, once a l.enedictine monastery, erected in 1411 by Guerello 
Origlia, the favourite of King Ladislaus, from the designs of 
Andrea Ciccione. The monastery is now the property of the 

Monte (Hirettj. NAI'UvS. 4 Route. 51 

municipality ; the garden, where the poet Tasso was kindly received 
when ill and in distress in 1588, is now a market-place, from 
which the Toledo (p. 46) is entered. The church contains va- 
luable sculptures. 

At the entrance, to the 1., the monument of General Giuseppe Trivulzio 
(d. 1757); to the r. that of the celebrated architect Domenico Fontana 
(d. 1607), who flourished in Rome under Sixtus Y. 1st Chap, to the 1. 
(Piccolomini): the ^Nativity, a relief by Do/iatello, or, according to others, 
by his pupil Antonio liossellino. Above it, 'Dancing Angels by llossellino. 
The ''Monument of Maria of Arragon, natural daughter of Ferdinand I., 
wife of Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfl. by KosseUino, a copy of the 
monument of the Cardinal of Portugal in H. Miniato's at Florence. The 
Ascension, a picture by Sitvetlro df? Buoni. — 1st Chap, to the r. (Maslro- 
giudici) : the Annunciation, a relief by Benedetto da Maiano. Several mo- 
numents , including that of "Marinus Curialis Surrentinus Terrenovse 
ciimes', 1490, who founded this chapel. Alphonso I. composed the epitaph: 
'Qui fuit Alphonsi quondam pars maxima regis Marinus modica hac nunc 
tumulatur humo\ — 5th Chap, to the 1. : John the Kaptist, by Merliano. — 
The chapel of the Madonna (by the r. transept) contains the tombs of 
Cardinal Pompeo Colonna , viceroy of Xaples (d. 1532), and of Charles of 
Lannoy (d. 1527), general of Charles V. The ehapR of the Holy Sepulchre 
contains a 'group in terracotta by Modanino (Guido Mazzonii) of Modena, 
representing Christ in the Sepulchre, surrounded by six life-size figures in 
a kneeling posture, all likenesses of contemporaries of the artist: Sanna- 
zaro as Joseph of Arimathaea, Pontanus as "Nicodemus, Alphonso II. as 
John, beside him his son Ferdinand. — The choir contains frescoes by 
Simone Papa the younger. Monuments of Alphonso II. and Guerello Origlia 
by Giovanni da Nola. 

Retracing our steps from this point, and proceeding in a 
straight direction through the Calata Trinita Maggiore, we now 
reach the square of that name, adorned with a lofty statue of the 
Virgin, erected in 1784 in the tasteless style of the period. To 
the 1. is situated Gesu Nuovo, or S. Trinith Mtiyyiore (Pi. 50j, 
in the form of a Greek cross, built in 1584, containing frescoes 
by Solimena (History of Heliodorus, over the portal), Stanzioni, 
Spuynoletto, and Corenzio, and overladen with marble and de- 
corations. A furniture -magazine opposite the church, Largo 
S. Trinita Maggiore 19, 20, contains the old refectory of the 
former monastery of <S. Chiara, adorned with a fine Fresco of 
the School of Giotto, representing the Miracle of the Loaves ^not 
very accessible, but admission readily granted, '/ 2 ir 0- 

Nearly opposite is * Santa Chiara (PL 4'2j, originally a Gothic. 
church erected by Robert the Wise in 1310, but almost entirely 
rebuilt in the Romanesque style by Masuccio II. in 1318, and 
richly and tastelessly decorated in 1752. At the same time 
Giotto's celebrated frescoes were white-washed , with the single 
exception of the Madonna delle Grazie mentioned below. 

The lofty and spacious interior of the church resembles a magnificent 
hall. To the 1. of the principal entrance is the monument of Onofrio di 
Penna, secretary of King Ladislaus (d. 1322), with a relief of the Madonna 
and hermits by Bamboccio, converted into an altar. Above are a Madonna 
enthroned and the Trinity, by Francesco, son of Maestro Simone (about 
1300). — In front of the organ are tasteful reliefs from the life of St. Ca- 

52 Route 4. NAPLES. Santa Chiara. 

tharine, 14th cent. — Of the principal paintings on the ceiling o the firs 
the Queen of Sheba, and the second, David playing on the harp, are b 
Seb. Conca; the third, S. Clara putting the Saracens to flight, by Bonito 
the fourth, David sacrificing, by Francesco di Nura. By the latter i 
also the high altar-piece (the Sacrament) and the painting over the prii 
cipal entrance (King Robert watching the progress of the building of th 

The Sanfelice Chapel, the 8th to the ]., near the pulpit, contains 
Crucifixion by Lan/ranco, and an ancient sarcophagus with figures of Pre 
tesilaus and Laodamia which serves as the tomb of Cesare Sanfelice, Due 
di Rodi (d. 1632). — The following chapel of the family Longobardi de 1 
Cruz Ahedo contains on the 1. side a monument of 1529, on the r. one o 
1853. The last chapel to the r. is the burial-chapel of the Bourbons, wher 
six children of Charles III. are interred. 

At the back of the high altar is the magnificent *Monument of Rober 
the Wise (d. 1343), executed by Masuccio II. On the summit the king is re 
presented seated on his throne, and again beneath in a recumbent posture 
on a sarcophagus, in the garb of a Franciscan. The inscription : 'Cerniti 
Rnbeitum regem virtute refertum 1 is ascribed to Petrarch. On the r 
side is the beautiful Gothic monument, also by Masuccio, of the king', 
eldest son Charles, Duke of Calabria, who died in 1328, before his father 
Farther on , to the r. that of Mary of Valois , his queen, sometimes er 
roneously supposed to be the monument of her daughter Johanna I. ; foi 
historians of that period record that the latter, murdered by Charles o 
Durazzo in 1382, was interred in the church of St. Clara in an unknowi 
spot, without any mark of distinction. To the 1. of the high altar is tin 
monument of their second daughter Mary, sister of Johanna I., empress o 
Constantinople and Duchess of Durazzo, attired in her imperial robes. Bj 
the wall to the 1., the tomb of Agnese and Clementia, the two daughter; 
of the empress, the former having also been the consort of a titular em 
peror of Constantinople , Giacomo del Balzo, Prince of Taranto. In tin 
1. lateral wall , the tomb of Mary, infant daughter of Charles (he Illu 
strious, who died in 1344. 

Near the side-door which leads out of the church, to the 1. the small 
but graceful monument of Antonia Gaudino, who died in 1530 at the age 
of 14, on the day appointed for her marriage, with a beautiful epitaph by 
the poet Antonius Epicurus (d. 1555). By the 3rd pillar to the 1. the altar 
of the Madonna delle Grazie, the fresco on which is ascribed to Giotto. The 
Madonna della Pieta, to the r. by the main entrance, is by the same master. 
The 2nd Chap, to the 1. contains (on the r. side) the tomb of Gabriel 
Adurini (d. 1572), admiral under the Emp. Charles V.; on the 1. side two 
sarcophagi of the 14th cent. The pulpit, supported by four lions, is deco- 
rated with reliefs of (he 13th cent. 

The Clock-Tower (it Campanile) of S. Chiara, attributed to 
the mythical Masuccio II. , or by others to his pupil Qiacomo 
de Sanctis, dates from different periods, but of the Ave storeys 
in different styles of architecture originally planned, one only in 
the Tuscan style was completed at that early period. The second 
(Doric) was added in the J 6th, the third (IonicJ at the begin- 
ning of the 17th cent. 

Farther on in the Str. Trinita, Maggiore, we soon reach, on 
the 1., the Laryo S. Domenico , containing the palaces of Ca- 
sacalenda , Corigliano, S. Severo, and Caviaii, and adorned with 
a tasteless Obelisk, surmounted by a bronze statue of the saint, 
executed by Vacraro in 17o7 from a design by Fan.ia.ya. 

*S. Domenico (PI. 45), erected by Charles 11. in 1285 in 
the Gothic style from the design of Masuccio I. , is one of 
the finest churches in Naples, notwithstanding the subsequent 

S. Domenico. NAPLES. i. Route. 53 

alterations it has undergone (the last in lSfid — f>3). The lofty 
interior, with its nave and aisles, twenty-seven chapels and twelve 
altars, handsome columns and rich gilding, is remarkably imposing. 
Unfortunately the flat ceiling of the 18th cent, does not har- 
monise well with the rest of the edifice. The most distinguished 
princes of Naples have for centuries possessed chapels here, 
containing numerous monuments. The church is therefore as 
valuable a repository of early Renaissance sculpture as that of 
S. Chiara is of Gothic works. The principal entrance is to the 
1. in the court of the Pretura in the Vic. S. Domenico (generally 
closed; side-entrance by a flight of steps in the same street). 
The church is open 7 — 11 a. m. only. 

To the r. the 1st Chap. (S. Martino), of the Saluzzo, formerly of the 
Carafa family, contains an altar-piece (Madonna with S. Martin and S. 
Dominic) , adjoining which are several monuments of the Carafas by 
Andrea da Salerno; the rococo monument of General Filippo Saluzzo (d. 
1852) and the chaste and simple monument of Galeotto Carafa (d. 1513) 
with medallion. — 2nd Chap.: altar-piece by Agnolo Franco; monument 
of Archbishop Bartolommeo Brancaccio (d. 1341). — 3rd Chap, the badly 
preserved frescoes of this chapel, which also belongs to the Brancaccio 
family, represent the Crucifixion, Supper at Emmaus, Resurrection, Mary 
Magdalene, and John the Baptist, by Agnolo Franco. — 4th. Chap, of 
the Capece: altar-piece, Crucifixion by Girolaino Capece; Baptism of Christ 
by Marco da Siena. — : '7th. Chap, del Crocefisso , contains important 
monuments. The : High Altar of Florentine mosaic was executed in 1652 
from a design by Cosimo Fansaga. Below the altar a relief of the 'Cru- 
cifix by Tom/naso de'' Stcfani, which according to tradition, thus addressed 
Thomas Aquinas: 'Bene scripsisti de me, Thnma: quam ergo mercedem 
recipies? 1 To which the saint replied: 'Non aliam nisi te/ Pictures 
on each side of the altar: on the r. Bearing the Cross, on the 1. Descent 
from the Cross by an imitator of the Flemish style. To the 1. of the 
altar the monument of Francesco Carafa by Agnello del Fiore , on the 
opposite side another by the same master, completed by Giovanni da Aola. 
The small chapel to the 1. of the altar contains the tomb of Ettore Carafa, 
Conte 'di Ruvo (d. 1511), with martial emblems and arabesques. The 
Madonna della Rosa is ascribed to Maestro Simone. On the opposite side the 
beautiful 'monument of Mariano d'Alagni, Count. Bucchianico, and his wife 
Catarinella Orsini, by Agnello del Fiore. Adjacent to it, to the r., the 
monument of Niccolo di Sangro, Principe di Fondi, by Domenico d^Auria. — 
At the entrance to the sacristy, monuments of members of the family of 
Thomas Aquinas. 

The 'Sackistt contains a ceiling-painting by Solimena; an Annun- 
ciation at the altar by Andrea di Salerno; forty-live large sarcophagi of 
wood with scarlet covers, ten of which contain the remains of princes of 
the house of Arragon. Among these are Ferdinand I. (d. 1494); Ferdi- 
nand II. (d. 1496) ; his aunt, cjueen Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand I. 
(d. 1518); Isabella (d. 152)), (laughter of Alphonso II. and wife of the Duke 
of Milan, etc. The coffin of Alphonso I. (d. 1458) still exists, hut his 
remains were conveyed to Spain in 1666. Also the coffin of Fernando 
Francesco d'Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, the hero of Ravenna and I'avia, 
who died of his wounds at Milan in 1525. The inscription is by Ario&to. 
Above the tomb are suspended his portrait, a banner, and a sword. Dis 
wife was the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, who after his death sang his 
praises in the island of Ischia (p. 101). Near this are the three sarcophagi 
of the wife and two children of Count Agar de Mosbourg (d. 1844 at Paris), 
minister of finance under Murat. 

In the S. Tkansept the chapel of St. Hyacinth contains the monu- 
ment of Galeazzo Pandone (d. 1514) by Giovanni da Nola. — From the r. 

54 Route 4. NAPLES. Capp. di fl. Severo. 

transept a door leads into a portion of the older church, containing some 
interesting monuments, especially that of Porzia Capece, wife of Bernardino 
Rota, by Giovanni da Nola. 

In the jS t . Teansept, above the chapel of the Pignatelli, the monu- 
ments of Giovanni di Durazzo (d. 1323) and Filippo di Taranto (d. 1335), 
sons of Charles III., with a long inscription in leonine verse. 

In the N. Aisle is the 8th Chap. (S. Maria della Neve.), containing above 
the altar a beautiful ;; haut- relief with a statue of the Virgin, attended by 
St. Matthew and St. John, the best work of Giovanni da JYola, executed in 
1536. Here is also the monument of the poet Giambattista Marini of Naples 
(d. 1625), well known for his bombastic style; his bust by Bartolommeo 
Vixvonlini, originally placed in the monastery by King Joachim in 1813. — 
7th Chap., of the Ruffo Bagnara family: Martyrdom of S. Catherine, by 
Leonardo da Pisloja; tombs of Leonardo Tomacelli and of Cardinal 
Fabrieio Ruffo (d. 1829) who acted a prominent part in the events of 1799. — 
Gtli Chap.: tombs of the Carafa; in the 5th, those of the Andrea, and in 
the 4th those of the liota family. The last chapel contains a "'statue of 
St. John by Giovanni da Nola^ as a monument to the poet Bernardino Rota 
Id. 1575), with figures of the Arno and the Tiber by Domenico d' Atiri a (iGOtt). 
— 3rd Chap, to the 1.. Martyrdom of St. John by hripione Gaetano ; tomb of 
Antonio Carafa, surnamed Malizia (d. 1438). — 2nd Chap., in the bad taste 
of the 17th cent. : the miracle-working Madonna di S. Andrea. — 1st Chap, 
to the 1. by the entrance (S. Stefano) : Christ crowning Joseph, by Liica 
Giordano: on the lateral walls an Adoration of the Magi, ascribed to' Albert 
Diirer; Holy Family by Andrea da Salerno. a, Tomb of 1636. 

In the adjacent monastery the celebrated Thomas Aquinas lived in 1272 
as professor of philosophy at the university which was then founded. 
Charles I. directed that he should receive a salary of one ounce of gold 
per month. Men of the highest rank, even the king himself, were among 
his auditors. His cell, now a chapel, and his lecture-room are still shown. 

The old leoture-room of Thomas Aquinas is now used for the 
meetings of the Ac.ademia Pontaniana , founded in 1471 by the 
erudite Giovanni Pontano, a native of Cerretto or Ponto in Um- 
bria , state-secretary under Ferdinand I., and tutor of the Duke 
dl' Calabria (d. 1503). The society, reconstituted in 1817, con- 
tains five classes , for mathematics , moral and political science, 
history and literature of antiquity, Italian history and literature, 
and the fine arts respectively. It consists of a limited number 
of native and of non-resident members. 

In the vicinity (Calata di S. Severo) is situated S. Maria della 
Pitta de' Sanyri, commonly called La Cappella di San Severo 
(Fl. 74) (ascending on the r. side of S. Domenico, taking the 
first lane to the r., and then the first to the 1., the visitor will 
obtain the keys at a shop opposite him, at the beginning of the 
latter; fee y 2 fr.j, erected in 1590 by Francesco di Sangro, ex- 
tended in 1613 by Alessandro di Sangro, Patriarch of Alexandria 
and Archbishop of Benevento, as a burial-place for the Sangro 
family, then in 17(i0 lavishly decorated with gold and sculpture 
by Raimondo di Sangro, Principe di Sansevero. There is no 
building in Naples in which such bad taste is displayed as in 
this chapel with its exaggerated magnificence, and unnatural and 
laboured allegories. It does not fail, however, to attract gaping 
admirers, and is certainly remarkable for great skill of work- 

The principal of these allegories is the 'Man in the Net', from which 
with the aid of reaxon (a cmwned genius} he disentangles himself, whence 

University. NAPLES. 

it is called il disinganno, a work of Francesco Queirolo of Genoa. It con- 
tains an allusion to Antonio di Sangro, who renounced the world and 
became a monk, after '.'aving lost his beloved wife Cecilia (lactam. The 
latter is represented as Pudicitia, nude, but slightly veiled, the work of 
Antonio Conradini of Venice. — The altar-piece is a Descent from the 
Cross, by Francesco Celebrano of Naples. — As another instance of extra- 
ordinary perversion of taste may be mentioned the li^ure of Christ 
enveloped in a winding sheet by Giuseppe Sammarlino (I7r>;.i), laid out in 
a chapel fitted up for the purpose. 

From this point (or by S. Domenieo to the r.J we may ascend 
the side-street leading to the >Str. de' Tribunali , where the ca- 
thedral and other important churches (p. f>8j are situated. 

The traveller may, however, prefer to return to the Largo 
S. Domenieo, in order to pursue his route along the Str. Trinita 
Maggiore, continued by the Str. Nilo and by the Str. S. Biagio 
de' Librai farther on. Immediately to the r. is S. Angelo a Nilo 
(PI. 33), erected in 1385; in the interior, to the r. of the high 
altar, the *Monument of the founder Cardinal Brancaccio (d. l-t'28), 
by Donatello and Michelozzo. The lunette of the door, attributed 
to Colantonio del Fiore, is not now distinguishable. — The Str. 
Salvatore (second from the Largo S. Domenieo to the r. ) leads 
hence to the not far distant — 

University (PI. 32) (Regia University degli Studj), founded in 
illi by the Emp. Frederick II., reconstituted in 1780 and 
removed to the Jesuits' College. It is one of the most ancient 
in Europe, and was the only one in the kingdom of Naples; it 
possesses five faculties, twenty-five professorial chairs, a library. 
and natural history collections of which the mineralogical is the 
most valuable. The library, admirably arranged by Tommaso (Jar, 
may be used by strangers from 9 to 3 daily. The Court contains 
the statues of Pietro della Vigna, chancellor of Frederick II.. 
Thomas Aquinas, G. B. Vico , and Cfiordano Bruno, erected 
in 1863. 

In a straight direction from the university a side-street leads 
to the richly decorated church of S. Severino e Sosio (PI. 73), 
in the Largo S. Marcellino, containing frescoes by Corenzin, who 
is interred here. The choir-stalls are beautifully carved. 

Adjoining the choir to the r. is the chapel of the Sanseverini, con- 
taining three monuments of three brothers, who were poisoned by their 
uncle in 151G, works of Giovanni da Nola. In a chapel near the choir, to 
the r., the tomb of Carlo Troya (d. 1858). In the 1. transept, the niunu- 
ments of Admiral Vincenzo Carafa (d. 161 1 > and the Duca Francesco de 
Marmilis (d. 1649). By the entrance to the sacristy, in the last chapel of 
the r. transept, the tumb of a child , Andrea Honifacio , ascribed to (Hoc. 
da Xola; opposite to it is that of Oiambattista Cicara, by the same master, 
both with inscriptions by Sannazaro. 

The court of the monastery at the back of the church con- 
tains a venerable plane-tree, said to have been planted by St. 
Benedict's own hand ; a fig-tree is grafted on it. The cloisters, 
the work of Andrea Ciecione (entrance ascends to the 1. by the 
church, gateway to the r. ; permission to enter must, lie obtained 

56 Route 4. NAPLES. CnsteUo Capuano. 

from the keeper of the archives ; fee 1 fr. ) , contain nineteen 
"Frescoes by Lo Zinyaro , recently badly restored, representing 
scenes from the life of St. Benedict, his best work, and the 
finest specimen of Neapolitan painting extant (best light in the 
forenoon). — The neighbouring monastery has since 1818 been 
the depository of the Archives of the kingdom, which are among 
the most valuable in the world. Frescoes and paintings by Corenzio 
adorn the interior. The 40,000 parchment MSS. (the oldest are 
in Greek) date from 703 and include the Norman, Hohenstaufen, 
Anjou, Arragonian, and Spanish periods. The documents of the 
Anjou period are the most numerous. 

Returning to the principal street hitherto followed, we now 
pursue our route along its continuation, StradaS. Biagio de' Librai. 
To the r. is the Monte di Pieta , or public loan-establishment ; 
then several churches and palaces of little importance. One of 
these, No. 121, the Palazzo Santangelo (PI. 22), formerly named 
Colobrano-Carafa, dating from 1466, once contained a valuable 
collection of antiquities which are now in the Museum (p. 74). 

The Picture Gallery is shown by permission of the Marchese 
Santangelo. The 1st Room contains modern Neapolitan pictures. — 2nd 
R. : Aynello Falcone, Battle-piece; Santafede, Madonna with SS. John 
and Andrew ; Cav. Massimi, Infant Christ asleep ; Gent. Bellini, two oriental 
portraits. — 4th E. : *Diirer, Garland-weaver, 1508; Van Dyck {?), Body of 
Christ. — 5th R. : * School of Van Eyck, Madonna ('a tempera') ; Rubens, Por- 
trait of himself and Van Dyck ; Giulio Eomavo (?), Madonna ; Sandt'o 
Botticelli, Madonna; Wohlgemuth, Death of Mary, painted in 1479 for the 
Volkamcr family at Nuremberg. 

After a walk of 5 min. our street intersects the new and still 
uncompleted Strada del Duomo, which is intended to afford more 
light and air to these crowded purlieus, and leads to the r. to the 
Cathedral (p. 58). We continue to follow the Str. S. Biagio, which 
after 5 min. more divides: to the r. S. Egeziaca a Forcella leads to 
the Porta Nolana; to the 1. is the Str. Annunziata with the Church 
of the Annunziata (PI. 35), erected in 1757 — 82 by Vanvitelli 
(frescoes by Corenzio; tomb of the profligate Queen Johanna II.). 
This street is continued by the Str. Maddalena, which leads to the 
square by the Porta Capuana. Here to the 1. is the — 

Castello Capuano (PI. F, G, 3), founded by William I., 
completed by Frederick II. in 1231 from a design by Fuccio, 
the principal residence of the Hohenstaufen kings, and occasionally 
of those of Anjou. In 1540 Don Pedro de Toledo (p. 46) 
transferred the different courts of justice to this palace, where 
they remain to this day, whence the name I Tribunali, a visit 
to which affords an admirable insight into the Neapolitan national 
character. The prison of La Vicaria, of evil repute, is under 
the jurisdiction of the criminal court. The *Porta Capuana 
bears the coat of arms of Ferdinand I. of Arragon, its founder, 
but was restored and re-decorated with sculpture in 1535, on 
the entry of Charles V. It was designed by the Florentine 

Protestant Cemetery. NAPLES. 4. Route. 57 

Giuliano da Maiano, and is one of the finest Renaissance gate- 
ways in existence. The towers on each side hear the inscriptions 
'L'Onore' and 'La Virtu' respectively. 

Outside the gate are situated the Cemeteries (Campi Santi), 
of which the new, l</ 2 M. from the gate, deserves a visit (one- 
horse carr. thither from the gate and back, 1 fr.). It was laid 
out by the Krench , and extended in 1837 at the time of the 
cholera. The situation is very beautiful, commanding delightful 
views of Naples, the sea, and Vesuvius, on which the black lava 
stream which destroyed S. Sebastiano in 1872 is distinctly recognis- 
able. The cemetery contains comparatively few monuments of 
individuals, but a great many erected by guilds and societies, 
many of them imposing, but displaying little taste. 

The Churtft, built in the form of a Doric temple, stands on an eminence ; 
the tribune contains a Pieta by Gennaro Cali. At the back of the church 
is a rectangular space enclosed by a Doric colonnade ; in the centre a co- 
lossal statue of Religion by Tito Angelini, erected in 1836. In this colonnade 
are the entrances to i02 private chapels, beneath which are the family vaults. 
In the vicinity stands the small Capuchin monastery of S. Ferdinando, in the 
Gothic style. On the W. slope, at the back of a marble pyramid to the 
memory of Girolamo Ruffo, are the graves of several eminent men; the 
composer Niccolo Cingarelli (d. 1837), the surgeon Francesco Petrunti, the 
scholars Giuseppe del Re and Raffaele Liberatore, etc. 

The cemetery presents a most animated and interesting spec- 
tacle on All Souls' Day (2nd Nov.). — The old cemetery (campo 
santo vecchio) is equally distant from the town (before reaching 
the Porta Capuana. quit the main street by the 2nd turning to 
the 1."). It is now used for the interment of the poor only, for 
which two extensive enclosed courts with 365 vaults, one for 
every day in the year, are set apart. 

The Protestant Cemetery, adjoining the small Laryo di 
S. Maria delta Fede, outside the Porta Capuana, is well laid out 
(from the gate 5 niin. in a straight direction; at the end of the 
square the Vico Cavalcatore to the 1. leads to the Largo della Fede 
on the r.; entrance 1. of the church, fee '/ 2 fr.^). Numerous English, 
American, German, Russian, and other names will be observed. 

The Margravine Elizabeth of Ansbach-Baireuth (Lady Berkeley, d. IK?B| 
is interred in the same grave with her son and her friend Sir William 
Gell. Lady Coventry, wife of GeneralW. Pepe (d. 1865). The poet Matthias, 
near the entrance, etc. 

From the Porta Capuana the broad Strada Carbonara leads to 
the r. (as the town is approached) to S. Carlo all' Arena, whence 
to the 1., beyond the Largo delle Pigne, the Museum may be 
reached. Where the street contracts, to the r. rises *S. Giovanni 
a Carbonara (PI. 54), erected in 1344 from a design of Ma- 
tuccio JJ., and enlarged by King Ladislans. 

The * Monument of Ladislacs, the master-piece of Andrea Cicciaite, 
erected by .lohanna II., the king's sister, in 1414, stands at the back of 
the highaltar. Above is the equestrian statue of Ladislaus; in a recess 
below, a sarcophagus with the king in a recumbent posture, receiving the 
benediction of a bishop; underneath , Ladislaus and Johanna ; the whole 
is supported by statues which represent the virtues of the deceased. 

f>8 Route 4. NAPLES. Cathedral. 

The Chapel del Sole, behind this monument, contains the 'Tomb of 
Sergianni Caracciolo, the favourite of Johanna II., murdered in 1432, also 
by Ciccione. Inscription by Lorenzo Valla. The frescoes, scenes from the 
life of Mary, are by Leonardo da Bisuccio of Milan, one of the last, pupils 
of Giotto. — The Chapel of the Caraccioli Rossi, to the 1. of the high- 
altar, a circular temple from the design of Girolamo Santacroce, contains 
statues of four apostles. The monuments of Galeazzo to the 1., and Colan- 
tonio Caracciolo opposite are by Sr.illa and Bom. d'Auria respectively. — 
The Sacristt contains frescoes of New Testament scenes by Vasari, 1546. 
— Outside the sacristy, on the r., is a Madonna delle Grazie, a statue of 
1571. On the 1. side is the Chapel of John the Baptist, with Renais- 
<ance sculptures, 15th cent. — The Congregazione di S. Monica contains 
the monument of Prince Ferdinando di Sanseverino by Andreas dp 

Near S. Giovanni a Carbonara was once the arena for gladiator- 
oombats, of which, in the time of Johanna I. and King Andreas. 
Petrarch was a horror-stricken spectator. 

We now return to the Tribunali and turn to the r. through 
the busy Str. de' Tribunali, which, running parallel with the 
Str. Trinita Maggiore and its prolongations, also terminates in 
the Toledo. We soon reach the small square of S. Gennaro on 
the r. , the column in which was erected after the appalling 
eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (p. 107). On the summit is the 
bronze figure of the saint by Finelli ; beneath, the inscription : 
'Divo Januario patriae regnique prastantissimo tutelari grata 
Neapolis civi opt. mer. excitavit.' 

The flight of steps ascends to the'cathedral (principal entrance 
in the new Str. del Duomo). 

The ""Cathedral (PI. 46), il Duomo, or V Arcivesc.ovado, with its 
lofty towers and pointed arches, was begun in 1272 by Charles I. 
of Anjou in the French style on the site of a temple of Nep- 
tune, and completed by Robert, grandson of the founder, in 
1316. In 1446 the church was almost entirely destroyed by an 
earthquake, but was afterwards rebuilt by Alphonso 1., and has 
since undergone frequent alterations and restorations, the last in 
1837. It still, however, retains many of its original characteristics. 

The edifice is a basilica, the aisles of which have a Gothic vaulting. 
The ceiling-paintings of the nave are by Santafede (square in shape) and 
Viurenzio da Forfi (oval); the frescoes on the upper part of the lateral walls 
are by Lura Giordano and his pupils. St. Cyril and St. Chrysostom are by 
Xolimena. Over the principal entrance are the tombs of (1.) Charles I. of 
Anjou and (r.) Charles Martel, King of Hungary, eldest son of Charles II. 
and his wife Clementia, daughter of Rudolph of Hapsburg, erected by the 
viceroy Olivarez in 1599. — The 2nd Chapel (Brancia), next to that of 
St. Januarius (see below), contains the tomb of Cardinal Carbone, by 
BambocHo. The chapel of the Caraccioli contains the monument of the 
cardinal of that name (d. 16G8). 

At. the back of the transept, to the r., is the entrance to the 'Chapel 
of the Minutoli (open 6 — 8 a. in. only), constructed by 3fa.swrr/o(?), the upper 
portion adorned with paintings by Tommaso dci Stefani in the 13th cent, 
(frequently retouched), the lower part by an unknown master ; monument 
of the cardinal by Bamborrio ; altar by Pielro del Stefavi. — The ad- 
joining Tocca Chapel contains the tomb of St. Asprenas, cme of the first 
bishops of Naples. 

Beneath the high-altar is the richly decorated Shrine nf St. Januarius 

Santa Restituta. NAPLES. 4. Route. 59 

with ancient columns and beautiful marble covering: within is the tomb 
of the saint; facing it, to the 1., the kneeling figure of the Cardinal Oliviero 
Carafa, who erected the chapel in 1492 — 1506. — Fresco on the ceiling of 
the choir by Domeniclrino, the Adoration of the Angels. — The Gothic 
chapel of the Capecc Galeota, to the 1. of the high-altar, contains a painting, 
of Christ between St.. Januarius and St. Athanasius, 15th cent. — In the 
transept, by the door of the sacristy, the tombs of (r.) : Innocent IV. 
(d. 1254 at Naples), erected by the Archbishop Umberto di Montorio in 
1318, restored in the 16th cent. ; Andreas, King of Hungary, who was 
murdered by his queen Johanna I. at Aversa, as the inscription records : 
•Andrese Caroli Uberti Pannoniie regis f. Neapolitanorum regi Joanna- 
uxoris dolo laqueo necato Ursi Minutili pietate hie recondito' ; (1.): Pope 
Innocent XII. ( Pignatelli of Naples ; d. 1696). — In the following Chapel 
(de' Scripandi): "Assumption of the Virgin, by Pietro Pemgino (1460). — 
Then the entrance to Santa Restituta (see below). — In the 2nd chapel : 
Entombment, a relief by Giovanni da Xola; above it St. Thomas, by 
Marco da Siena. — In the vicinity is the Font, an ancient basin of green 
basalt, with Bacchanalian thyrsi and masks. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the 1., and accessible (fee '/.> fr. ) 
from it by a door in the 1. aisle, is the church of * Santa Resti- 
tuta (PI. 71), a basilica with pointed arches, occupying the site 
of a temple of Apollo, to which it is probably indebted for the 
ancient Corinthian columns in the nave. This was the cathedral 
of Naples prior to the erection of the larger church. 

The foundation, erroneously attributed to Constantine the Great, dates 
from the 7th cent. In the 17th cent, it was restored. In the Chapel 
S. Maria del Principio, at the farther extremity, to the 1., an ancient 
mosaic of the Virgin with St. Januarius and Sta. Restituta, restored in 
1322, and considered the earliest in Naples ; whence the name 'del Principio\ 
On the lateral walls two remarkable bas-reliefs from an altar-screen, sup- 
posed to date from the 8th cent., each in fifteen compartments ; to the 1. the 
history of Joseph ; to the r. above, St. Januarius, then Samson; beneath, 
St. George. — At the back of the high-altar the Virgin with St. Michael 
and Sta. Restituta, by Silvestro Buono (?). — The small dome of the chapel 
S. Giovanni in Fonte to the r. , said to have been erected by Constantine 
in 333, formerly the baptistery of the church, is adorned with old, but 
frequently restored mosaics of Christ, the Virgin, etc. — The altar-piece, 
the Baptism of Christ, by Silrestro Buono ('!). — On the ceiling of the 
nave a fresco by Luca Giordano: the body of Sta. Restituta being con- 
veyed by angels in a boat to Ischia. 

Opposite the entrance to Sta. Restituta, in the r. aisle of 
the cathedral, is the * Chapel of St. Januarius, called Cappella 
del Tesoro (may be visited most quietly towards 12. the hour for 
closing the church). It was begun in 1608 in consequence 
of a vow made during the plague of lf>27. and completed in 
29 years at a cost of a million ducats. The white marble front, 
with two large greenish columns, bears the inscription : ' IMvo 
Januario e fame bello peste ac Vesuvi igne miri ope sanguinis 
erepta Xeapolis civi patrono vindici.' 

It forms a Greek cross, richly decorated with gold and marble, contains 
eight altars, forty-two columns of broccatello, magnificent doors, five oil- 
paintings on copper bv Domenirhino, and several frescoes of scenes from the 
life of St Januarius. The first four representations, however, alone (tomb of 
the saint; his martyrdom; resuscitation of a youth ; sick persons healed bv 
oil from a lamp which had hung before the tomb of the saint) are entirely by 
Vommirhiiio, who along with (,'niihi Unit and Lun/i-unro, intimidated by 
the threats nf their jealous Neapolitan rivals. Spaenolrtto and Corenzio. 

60 Routed. NAPLES. S. Filippo Neri. 

abandoned the task of painting the dome. — The Sacristy of the Tesoro 
contains pictures by Stanzioni and Luca Giordano; a costly collection of 
ecclesiastical vestments and sacred vessels ; the silver bust of St. Januarius, 
executed for Charles II. in 1306 ; forty-five other busts in silver of the pa- 
tron saints of the city, and other valuable relics. — In the tabernacle of the 
high-altar, which is adorned with a carefully covered relief in silver 
representing the arrival of the saint's remains, are preserved two vessels 
containing the blood of St. Januarius (S. Gennaro), Bishop of Benevento, 
who according to tradition was exposed to lions in the amphitheatre of 
Pozzuoli by order of Diocletian in 305. These animals, however, crouched 
submissively at his feet. Dracontius, proconsul of Campania, or his de- 
puty Timotheus, then caused the holy man to be beheaded, and his 
remains were interred at Pozzuoli. Under Constantine the Bishop St. Severus 
caused the body to be conveyed to Naples and re-interred in the church 
of St. Januarius extra Moenia. Shortly after this a woman brought him 
two phials containing a quantity of the saint's blood, which immediately 
became liquid as he received it. In 817 the remains of St. Januarius were 
conveyed to Benevento, thence in 1159 to Monte Vergine, and finally at 
the time of a plague in 1497 solemnly transported to Naples by the Arch- 
bishop, Cardinal Alessandro Carafa, and deposited in the cathedral. 

The Liquefaction of the Saint's Blood is the greatest festival of Naples 
and takes place three times annually during several successive days (1st 
Sunday in May, 19th Sept., and 16th Dec). The protection of the saint is 
invoked during seasons of war or distress, and especially during eruptions 
of Mt. Vesuvius. A number of old women, the reputed descendants of 
S. Gennaro, occupy the place of honour on these occasions. Delay on the 
part of the saint to work his miracle occasions profound disappointment 
to the expectant throng, and calls forth a torrent not merely of prayers 
and lamentations, but also of wild threats and bitter reproaches, to which 
of course the saint invariably yields. 

Adjoining the cathedral, and facing the Largo Donnaregina 
and the Str. Angelica, is the extensive Archiepiscopal Palace, 
erected in the 13th cent., entirely restored by Cardinal Filo- 
marino in 1647. In the great hall is preserved an ancient Nea- 
politan almanack, found in the 18th cent, in the walls of S. 
Giovanni Maggiore. 

Farther on in the Str. Anticaglia are the remains of an 
ancient Theatre, once apparently of considerable extent, of which 
two arches still exist. 

We now return to the Str. de' Tribunali. After a walk of a 
few yards, we observe the small Largo Oerolomini on the r., with 
the church of S. Filippo Neri (PI. 47), or de' Oerolomini, erected 
in 1592, and overladen with ornament. 

Over the principal entrance: Christ and the money-changers, a large 
fresco by Luca Giordano; high-altar-piece by Giovanni Bernardino Siciliano ; 
lateral paintings by C'orenzio. The sumptuous chapel of S. Filippo Neri, 
to the 1. of the high-altar, contains a ceiling-fresco by Solimena; and that 
of St. Francis of Assisi (4th chap, to the 1.) a painting by Guido Rati. 
Near the latter, at the base of a pillar in the nave, is the tombstone of 
the learned Giambattista Vico, b. at Naples 1670, d. 1744. The sacristy 
(entrance to the 1.) also contains paintings. The neighbouring monastery 
possesses a valuable library and MSS. 

A little farther, to the r., is situated S. Paolo Maggiore 
(PI. 67), opposite S. Lorenzo, occupying the site of an ancient 
temple of Castor and Pollux, of which two beautiful Corinthian 
columns and part of the architrave are still to be seen. The 

8. Lorenzo. NAPLES. 4. Route. 61 

church was destroyed by an earthquake in 1688 , and rebuilt 
three years later from a design by the Theatine Grimaldi; it 
contains numerous decorations in marble, and paintings by Co- 
renzio, Stanzioni, Marco da Siena, and Solimena. 

In the 4th chapel to the 1. the monument of Cardinal Zurlo (d. 1801), 
with a statue. The 5th chapel contains cabinets in which fifty-two relics of 
saints are preserved in velvet and gold cases. In the 2nd chapel to the 
1. the monument of the minister Donato Tommasi (d. 1831). In the 
passage to the sacristy is an old copy of Raphael's Madonna del Pesce. 
The cloisters are said to occupy the site of the ancient theatre in which 
Nero appeared as an actor. They possess twenty-four ancient granite co- 
lumns. During the Roman period this was the "central point of the city. 

On the opposite side of the street, in the small square of 
this name, is situated the Gothic church of *S. Lorenzo (PI. 57), 
begun by Charles I. of Anjou in 1266, to commemorate his vic- 
tory over King Manfred at Benevento (p. 176), and completed by 
Robert in 1324. The site is that of the ancient Basilica Au- 
gustalis. The plan, according to Vasari, was designed by Ma- 
glione, a pupil of Niccolo Pisano, but was altered by Masuccio II., 
in his peculiar style. 

The three statues of St. Francis, St. Lawrence, and St. Antony, and the 
bas-reliefs on the high-altar are by Giovanni da Nola (1478); St. Antony, 
in the chapel of that saint in the 1. transept, on a gold ground, and the 
Coronation of King Robert are by Simone di Marlino of Siena. Jesus 
and St. Francis, a large picture over the principal entrance, is by Vin- 
cenzo Corso. In the choir behind the high-altar , entering to the r. , are 
the monuments of: (1) Catherine of Austria, first wife of Charles Duke 
of Calabria (d. 1323), with pyramidal canopy and adorned with mosaics, by 
Masuccio II (?); (2) Johanna di Durazzo, daughter of Charles of Durazzo, 
and her husband Robert of Artois, both of whom died of poison on the 
same day, 20th July, 1387. Beneath are three Virtues, above them two 
angels drawing aside the curtain. On the opposite side: (3) Mary, the young 
daughter of Charles of Durazzo, killed at Aversa. The two last monu- 
ments are also by Masuccio 11(1). By the entrance of the church, to the r., 
is the tombstone of the naturalist Giambattista della Porta (1550—1616). 

The cloisters contain the tomb of Ludovico Aldemoresco, by 
Bamboccio (1414). In the chapter-house all the saints of the Fran- 
ciscan order are represented "al fresco'. In 1343 Petrarch resided 
in this monastery; and Boccaccio, when in the church of S. Lo- 
renzo, beheld the beautiful princess whose praises he celebrates 
under the name of Fiammetta. 

In the direction of the Toledo, to the 1., is situated S. Pietro 
a Maiella (PI. 69), in the Gothic style, erected by Giovanni 
Pipino di Barletta, favourite of Charles II. (d. 1316; his tomb 
is in the 1. transept), but afterwards altered. In the adjacent 
monastery is established the Conservatory of Music (PI. 6), 
founded in lf>37. It has produced a number of celebrated 
composers (e. g. Bellini) , and was long presided over by 
Mercadante. A number of MSS. of Paesiello, Jomelli, Pergolese. 
and other eminent masters are preserved here. From this point 
we reich the Largo Mercatello (p. 46), adjoining the Toledo. 

62 Route 4 NAPL» 


IV. The Museum (PL 9). 

In the upper part of the town beyond the Mercatello, in the 
Piazza Cavour and the new Strada di Capodimonte, rises the 
**Museo Nazionale, formerly called Museo Reale Borbonico, or 
yliStudj. It was erected in 1586 by the viceroy Duke of Ossuna 
as a cavalry-barrack, and in 1615 ceded to the university, which 
was established there until 1780, when it was transferred to the 
Gesii Vecchio. Since 1790 it has been fitted up for the reception 
of the royal collection of antiquities and pictures, to whicli in 
1816 Ferdinand I. gave the name of Museo Reale Borbonico. The 
history of the edifice is recorded on twelve marble slabs recently 
built into the wall of the vestibule. 

Here are united the older and more recent collections belong- 
ing to the crown , the Farnese collection from Rome and 
Parma, those of the palaces of Portici and Capodimonte, and the 
excavated treasures of Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabi«, and Cuma;. 
This aggregate collection is one of the finest in the world ; the 
Pompeian antiquities and objects of art in particular, as well as 
the bronzes from Herculaneum, are unrivalled. -]- 

The Museum is open daily, 9 — 3 o'clock ; on Sundays and 
Thursdays gratis, on other days adm. 1 fr. ; gratuities forbidden. 

The director, Commendatore Oiuseppe Fiorelli, is now engaged 
in re-arranging the collections , so that the chief objects of 
interest are at present difficult to find. There is as yet no 
catalogue except for the coins, the weapons, and the inscriptions. 
Custodians stationed at different parts of the building readily 
give information when applied to; most of them speak French. 

Permission to copy or study, which is always accorded to artists and 
scientific men, is obtained by strangers on showing their passports at the 
Segreteria (entered by the second door , on the second floor ; public 
entrance to the library on the first floor, p. 71), where a similar per- 
mission may be procured for Pompeii and Pfestum. Free tickets fur 
Pompeii (p. 113) are also to be had here. 

A room to the r. by the vestibule contains casts, models, 
photographs, and copies of the objects in the museum, which 
are sold at fixed but high prices , discount , however , being 
allowed on large purchases. A catalogue of these articles may 
be procured. Sticks and umbrellas are deposited at the first door 
on the 1. ; tickets sold at the second door. 

The following is a sketch of the general arrangements : — 

A. Ground Floor (comp. Plan). 

Right Side: 1st and 3rd doors, ancient frescoes (p. 63); 2nd 
door, through the court, inscriptions and several 

+ The following letters indicate the origin of the different objects: 
B. Borgia collection, C. Capua, ('. A. Amphitheatre of Capua, Cu. Cumse, 
P. Farnese collection, H. Herculaneum, L. Lucera, M. Minturnas, N. Naples, 
P. Pompeii, Pz. Pozzuoli, S. Stabise. 

Museum. NAPLES. d. Route. 63 

large sculptures (p. 65); also Egyptian antiquities 
fp. 66). 
Left Side: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd doors, ancient marble statues 
(p. 66); beyond them large bronzes (p. 69). 

B. Entresol. 
Right Side: Medieval works of art (p. 70); beyond, ancient 

crystal (p. 70); farther on, terra cottas (p. 70). 
Left Side: Cumeean antiquities (p. 71). 

C. Upper Floor (comp. Plan). 
Right Side : To the right and left, copies of Pompeian pictures 
(p. 71) ; to the right, library of the papyri (p. 71); 
to the left, engravings (p. 71); facing the en- 
trance, pictures (p. 71 ; Italian). 
Immediately opposite: Library (p. 72). 

Left Side: To the right, precious relics (p. 73); to the left, 
coins (p. 73); beyond them, the Museum Sant- 
angelo (p. 74) and vases (p. 74); opposite, pic- 
tures (p. 73; Neapolitan and foreign); beyond, 
small bronzes (p. 75). 
The Lower Passage contains the following statues of the 
Farnese collection: r., by the entrance, Alexander Severus; 1., 
by the entrance , a Melpomene from the theatre of Pompey at 
Rome, erroneously restored as Urania. By the staircase, r. Flora; 
1. Genius of the city of Rome. At each of the two doors leading 
to the court two figures with toga; by the stair-case two river-gods. 
In the stair-case above, two Venuses from the theatre at Hercu- 
laneum. The description of the different storeys always begins 
on the right (East) side. Thus A. r. signifies ' on the ground- 
floor, to the right', B. 1. 'on the entresol, to the left', and 
so on. 

A. Ground Floor. 

The ** Collection of Ancient Mural Paintings (A/freschi 
Pompeiani) from Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabia;, etc., which we 
first enter, occupies the right (E.) half of the ground -floor. 
The arrangement of the paintings has recently been completed. 
They occupy nine rooms and a corridor, being grouped in ac- 
cordance with their subjects. The numbering is still unfinished. 
The frescoes are, with the exception of painted vases and 
mosaics, almost the only specimens of ancient painting which have 
come down to us, and therefore of extreme value. They are our 
sole informants with regard to the ancient style, colouring, and 
treatment of light and shade. Many of them are beautifully con- 
ceived, and executed with an easy, masterly touch, and they in- 
clude landscapes , historical and mythological subjects , genre- 
paintings, architectural drawings, animal and fruit-pieces. Although 
mere decorative paintings of a small provincial Roman town, they 

64 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

suffice to show how thoroughly the profession was imbued with 
artistic principles. Some of the representations may be copies 
from celebrated or favourite pictures, but the style is such as 
entirely to preclude the idea that they may have been mechanic- 
ally copied or stencilled. The rapid, easy execution and absence 
of minute detail prove that they were intended for effect and 
not for close inspection. Their state of preservation of course 
varies greatly (comp. Introd., p. xliii — xlvi). 

1st Room: Architectural mural decorations. Most of the represen- 
tations placed along the wall on the 1. side, the narrow wall at the hack, 
and the farther part of the wall on the r. are from the Temple of Isis at. 

2nd Room : Animals , fruit , still-life , attributes of gods, etc. — En- 
trance hence to the gallery of inscriptions (p. 65). We now return through 
the 1st Room to the principal collection. 

The following rooms contain the mythological and genre re- 
presentations. Their enumeration is in the order denoted by 
the Roman numerals. 

3rd Room : xv. Apollo and Diana. Head of Medusa, xvi — xvm. 
Sea-gods. On the window-wall Phryxus and Helle. Two glass tables ex- 
hibit, a well-arranged collection of colours found at Pompeii, xix. Ari- 
adne and Bacchus, xx. Sacrifice to the Lares, xxi, xxir. Sacrifice to 
Isis and representations in the Egyptian style, from the Temple of Isis at 
Pompeii, xxrv. Cimon nourished from the breast of his daughter Perone 
(a favourite subject with modern artists, known as 'Caritas 1 ). jEneas wound- 
ed. The Trojan horse. Scipio and the dying Sophonisbe. xxvi. Medea 
brooding over the murder of her children. 

4th Room : xxvm. Hercules supported by Priapus and Omphale. 
xxix. Perseus releasing Andromeda. xxx. Drunken Hercules and Om- 
phale. Below it, Hercules, Dcjanira , and the Centaur Nessus. *xxxi. 
Finding of Telephus (from Herculaneum) ; below it, a paintress; guitar- 
player; musicians; "attiring of a bride; Dioscuri. "xxxiv. Orestes 
before the murder of his mother, xxxv. Comedy scenes, xxxvi. Chastise- 
ment of Dirce by Amphion and Zethus (same subject as the Farnese Bull, 
)i. 65). xxxvn. Theseus after the slaughter of the Minotaur, xxxvm. 
Scenes from the forum of Pompeii, school, hawkers, etc.; man and wife 
(portraits). Caricature of ^Eneas, Anchises, and Ascanias represented with 
dogs' heads. Pensive Muse, xxxix. Ulysses unrecognised by Penelope. 
"Abduction of Briseis from the tent of Achilles. Achilles being taught the 
lyre by Chiron. XL. Sacrifice of Iphigenia (from the 'House of the Tragic 
Poet'). Orestes and Pylades in presence of Iphigenia at Tauris. — Adjacent 
to this room is the — 

5th Room. Mosaics. On the entrance - wall by the pillar: Theseus 
killing the Minotaur, three copies. Farther on, to the r. : in the centre, 
actor trained by a poet; on the 1. and r. comedy scene (by Dioscurides of 
Samos, according to the inscription). Under the window: Egyptian land- 
scape. — Principal Wall : The Graces ; Phryxus and Helle ; Theseus and 
Peleus ; chained dog with the warning 'Cave Canem' (from the threshold 
of the 'House of the Tragic Poet', p. 125); 'Garland with Muses; "Acratos 
riding on a lion (from the House of the Faun, p. 131); wild cat with a 
partridge. — We now retrace our steps, and continue to follow the ar- 
rangement of the pictures. 

6th Room: "xi.i. Rope -dancing Satyrs. xlii. Centaurs. 'Dancing 
Satyrs and Bacchantes. xliii. Rope-dancing Satyrs. : 'xi.v. Represen- 
tations of Cupid, among them Cupid as a shoemaker, "xlvi. Zephyrus 
and Chloris. xlix. Venus and Mars, several representations. Venus 
and Cupids, i.ii. Triumphal procession of Bacchus. Bacchus and Ariadne. 
i.i 1 1. Dancers. 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 65 

7th Room (more ancient paintings from the tombs of Ruvo, Gnatia, 
Paestum, Capua) : lviii. Mercury as conductor of the dead. Dance of the 
dead. lix. Sainnite warriors in full armour, from a grave at Piestum. 
Gorgon head with Messapian inscription, lx. Narcissus in different attitudes. 
i.xi — lxvii. Landscapes from Pompeii, Herculaneum , and Stabise (118 in 
number). • r.xvm. Vulcan showing Thetis the arms of Achilles, lxx. 
Jupiter crowned by Victoria, lxxi. Io's arrival in Egypt. Jupiter and 
Juno on Mount Ida. lxxii. Five drawings on marble (monochromic) from 
Herculaneum : Achilles (!) in a quadriga ; CEdipus with Antigone and 
Ismene; Latona with Niobe and other women of Cadmus playing at dice 
(purporting to be by Alexandres of Athens) ; Scene from a tragedy ; The- 
seus rescuing the bride of Pirithous from a Centaur (?). 

To the above collection belongs a corridor containing Nos. 
lxxiii — lxxxv. (entered from the vestibule of the Galleria 
Lapidaria, or by the 3rd door in the great vestibule), * Ornamen- 
tal Paintings (Affreschi Ornamentali) from Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum, being mural decorations, some of them with raised 
stucco designs and reliefs. They are executed with taste and 
precision and deserve careful inspection. 

To the r. in the semicircular space, lxxxi. Valuable collection of de- 
corative masks, i.xxxii. Pillar with paintings from the Fullonica (fuller's 
workshop) at Pompeii (p. 130), showing the different processes of the handi- 
craft. The owl is the symbol of Minerva, the tutelary goddess of fullers. 

The second door to the r. leads to a court, tilled, like the 
other opposite to it, with reliefs, statues, and architectural 
fragments, many of which deserve the notice of connoisseurs. 
From this court we enter the — 

* Gallery of Inscriptions (Galleria Lapidaria, or Sala del 
Tow), which has another entrance from the second room of the 
ancient pictures (p. 64). 

The vestibule , as well as the principal saloon , contain a large col- 
lection of Latin inscriptions (upwards of 2000 in all), Oscan inscriptions, 
and graven (graffiti) and painted (dipinti) mural inscriptions from Pompeii. 
The arrangement is in accordance with the geographical situation of the 
different localities of discovery. They consist chiefly of epitaphs, but also 
include laudatory and other inscriptions. Among the bronze- tables are 
the celebrated tables of Heraclea (p. 198), bearing on one side regulations 
as to temple lands in the ancient Greek language, and on the other 
(inscribed at a later date) the Italian municipal laws promulgated by 
Caesar in B. C. 46. A cabinet contains leaden pipes, inscriptions from 
aqueducts , etc. — The following large sculptures are also placed here : 
to the 1. at the entrance a statue of Tiberius, to the r. Atreus with the 
son of Thyestes (?). Farther back the celebrated group of the '"' Farnese 
Bull, a work of Apollonius and Tauriscus, the Rhodian sculptors, once in 
possession of Asinius Pollio, and found in the Thermse of Caracalla at 
Rome in a sadly mutilated condition. The restoration of the group was 
superintended by Michael Angelo. The new parts are the head of the bull, 
the Antiope, with the exception of the feet, the upper parts of Dirce, and 
considerable portions of Amphion and Zethus. The two sons of Antiope, 
Amphion and Zethus, avenge the wrongs of their mother by binding Dirce, 
who had succeeded in withdrawing the affections of Lycus from Antiope, 
to the horns of a wild bull. Antiope in the background exhorts them to 
forgiveness, and not in vain. The boldness and life of the group, originally 
hewn out of a single block of marble, is unrivalled in any other work of the 
same character (comp. Introd., pp. xxxvi — xxxvm). Opposite, on the r. side 
of the room, stands the so-called "Farnese Hercules, also from the Therm* 
of Caracalla. The legs were at first wanting, but were restored by Delia 
Porta: twenty years later the genuine missing portions were discovered, 
Baedeker. Italy III. 5th Edition. 5 

(')() R,,utr 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

and having been presented by Prince Korghese to the King of Naples, were 
restored to the statue. According to the inscription it is the work of the 
Athenian Glycon, and was probably executed under the early emperors. 

Descending a stair in this hall, and passing through a room 
containing inscriptions from the catacombs of Rome and Naples 
built into the walls, we reach the Egyptian Antiquities, a con- 
siderable number of which were purchased from Cardinal Borgia's 
collection at Velletri. The arrangement is complete, with the ex- 
ception of the numbering. 

1st Room. In the centre Serapis , found in the vestibule of the 
.Serapeiun at Pozzuoli. Isis, a marble statuette from the temple of Isis 
at Pompeii, holding a sistrum and the keys of the Nile, with interesting 
traces of gilding and painting. On the short wall, Horus with a dog's head. 
The cabinets contain a valuable collection of small statuettes. 

'2nd Room. In the centre: Granite tombstone with twenty-two figures 
in relief and hieroglyphics. Egyptian priest , so-called 'Pastophorus' , in 
black basalt. By the walls six glass cabinets with all kinds of trinkets, etc. 
To the r. of the entrance, the second immured tablet is the so-called 'Table 
of Isis\ from the temple of Isis at. Pompeii. By the window-wall a papyrus 
with Greek writing, dating from the 2nd or 3rd cent., which with forty others 
was found at Memphis in a chest of sycamore wood, and contains names 
of the canal labourers on the Nile. Opposite the entrance a number of 
mummies of men, women, and children , some of them divested of their 
cerements and admirably preserved (the skull of a female mummy still 
retains the hair). Also the mummy of a crocodile. 

The 1. (W.) half of the ground-floor contains the valuable 
collection of marble sculptures and the bronzes. 

The **Collection of Marble Sculptures occupies the great 
corridor with three branches, and the rooms situated beyond the 
second branch. The objects are not numbered, but some of the 
statues are furnished with notices of their subjects. The new 
arrangement of the collection in accordance with the local and 
historical position of the works is in its main features complete. 
It is convenient to begin with the N. corridor (third door from 
the entrance passage), the — 

Corridor of the Masterpiecks (Portico tfe' Capolavori), 
which contains in chronological order the finest works in the 
collection, affording a review of the development of the ancient 
plastic art from the 5th cent. B. 0. to the reign of Hadrian 
and his successors. This part of the collection in particular 
affords the visitor an admirable opportunity of studying the 
history of ancient art , and includes moreover several works of 
the highest merit. 

! Hera (Farnese Juno) , of the early type , austere in expression, pro- 
bably copied from the ideal of Polycletus (Introd. , p. xxxiv); "Orestes 
and Electro- . a group which has given rise to much discussion , probably 
belonging to the revived archaic style introduced by Pasiteles towards the 
end of the republic (Introd., p. xxxvin); Minerva, archaic style, from Her- 
culancum; Diana, archaic, with painting, from Pompeii ; * Harmodius and 
Arisiugilon, the slayers of the tyrant ITipparchus of Athens, a copy of the 
bronze statues erected to them at Athens about B. C. 500 (head of Aristo- 
geiton ancient, but originally belonging to some other statue, see Introd.. 
p. xxxv): Athlete (Dorypliorvs) , after Polycletus, from the palaestra of 
Pompeii (Introd., p. xxxiv) ; Dying Amman, Dead Persian , Giant, and 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 67 

Wounded Gaul, of the Pergamenian school, all belonging to the group of 
votive offerings on the Acropolis of Athens , presented by King Attalus 
about B. 0. 200 (Introd., p. xxxvi): Adonis, freely restored. '-'^ Venus of 
Capua: it is uncertain how this statue, which greatly resembles and is 
little inferior to the Venus of Milo in the Louvre, ought to be restored. 
The Cupid, the pedestal, and the arms of the goddess are modern. On 
Corinthian coins Venus, the tutelary goddess of the city, is represented in 
a similar attitude, in the act of using a shield as a mirror, but it is more 
probable that the Capuan statue had a figure of Mars standing beside her, 
whose helmet she trod under her left foot, and from whom she was taking 
his sword. : '''jSschines, once erroneously called Aristides , an admirable 
draped statue, found at the villa of the papyri at Herculaneum. 'Psyche 
of Capua, sadly mutilated; she was probably represented with her hands 
bound behind her, being tortured by Cupid. ;: : Venus Callipyyus, so called 
from that part of her body towards which she is looking, found in the 
imperial palaces at Rome; the head, breast, right leg, right hand, and 
left arm are modern. — The adjacent room to the right contains a large 
basin in porphyry, valuable columns, a marble basin, etc. — 'Homer, a 
beautiful bust ; " v Satyr, carrying the child Bacchus on his shoulder -, Pallas. 
archaic, from Velletri ; Brutus and Poinpey , two busts found in a house 
in Pompeii in 1869 :, Juno; Sere id, on a sea-monster ; Aarippina, a sitting 
portrait-statue; ■ Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian ; bust of Antoninus Pius; 
PiQtina; Caracalla; torso of Venus. 

We next enter the adjoining — 

Corridor of Portrait Statues and Busts, sometimes called 
the Portico dei Balbi, from the noble family of that name, which 
was the most distinguished at Herculaneum. 

To the right, at the N. end of the corridor, torsi, dogs, leopards, boar 
sacrifices; ''Equestrian Statue of M. Nonius Balbus the Younger, prsetor 
and proconsul, found, like that of his father at the opposite end of the 
passage, in the basilica of Herculaneum. On the left, Statue of the Priestess 
Eumachia of Pompeii, erected by the fullers in her honour; Statue of Mar- 
cus Holconius Rufus, a Roman military tribune, and five times mayor of 
Pompeii; also two orators from Pompeii. On the right, portrait-statue of 
an orator from Herculaneum. Then Roman heads, with pedestals in the 
Roman style, in four rows, one above the other : in the lowest, three ex- 
amples of a so-called Seneca, a Brutus, Scipio, and a so-called Hannibal. 
Double hermes of an unknown Greek and Roman. Double hermes of Hero- 
dotus and Thucydides. Two sitting statuettes, one of them representing 
the poet Moschion; Socrates, a hermes with Greek inscription. Then Greek 
busts, in the Greek hermal form, in two rows, one above the other: in 
the lowest row Euripides, Demosthenes ; in the second row Lysias, Hero- 
dotus, Carr/eades, the astronomer Aratos, Poseidonios, Zeno, Socrates; in 
the third row Solon, Periauder, Themistocles, Agathocles. (Many of the 
busts, both Greek and Roman, are either unknown or erroneously named.) 
On the left the ''Family of Balbus, honorary statues erected by the town 
council in the theatre at Herculaneum: the father, son, the mother Vi- 
cyria Arenas, a handsome matron, and her tour daughters (a fifth daughter 
in the museum at Dresden). '■Equestrian Statue of Balbus the Elder. Genre 
figures of children, a hunter. Several Dacians from the Forum of Trajan 
at Rome; two barbarians as supporters, in pavonazzetto, the head and 
hands in basalt. 

We now retrace our steps, and enter the third corridor, the — 

Corridor of the Roman Kmpkrors (Portico degli Imperadori), 
the arrangement of which begins at the farther end, by the en- 
trance from the passage. It contains statues and busts in chro- 
nological order, of a more or less ideal character. 

Left: 'Caesar, a bust and a statue; Augustus, a statue, sitting; Livia; 
Tiberius, a bust; Drusus, a statue from Pompeii; Caligula, with reliefs on 


68 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

his armour ; Claudius, a sitting statue ; Nero, a bust and statue ; Qalba, 
Otho, busts ; Vitellius, a statue ; Vespasian, a bust ; Trajan, a statue ; Faus- 
tina, a bust. Right : Hadrian, four busts. Left : Antoninus Pius, Marcus 
Aurelius, Faustina, busts; Lucius Verus, a statue and bust. Then Septimius 
Szverus, Probus, etc. 

The Seven Rooms beyond the Portico dei Balbi also have 
their contents arranged according to subjects. Among much that 
is mediocre there are a few works of great excellence. The ar- 
rangement begins with the gods, in the room opposite the en- 
trance to the collection of bronzes (p. 69). 

I. Room : Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Ceres. In the centre, Apollo, 
in a sitting posture, in porphyry, the head and hands in marble ; a work 
of the decline of art during the imperial period, when a taste prevailed 
for rare kinds of stone which were difficult to work. Right: Diana of 
Ephesus, in yellow alabaster, the head, hands, and feet in bronze; her 
symbols indicate the fecundity of the goddess of nature. Left : Apollo, in 
basalt. Posterior wall: * Jupiter, a bust from the temple of Pompeii (p. 
123); Jupiter, half-statue from Cumse ; on the r., liermes of the ram-horned 
Jupiter Amnion. 

II. Room: Venus, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Bacchus. Among the nu- 
merous Statues of Venus (eight from Pompeii, including a statuette found 
in 1873, interesting from its being painted) are several with portrait heads. 
In the centre, Mars, sitting. Opposite, Mercury. 

III. Room: Satyrs, Ganymede, Cupid, Cybele, etc. — Left: Satyr with 
a bunch of grapes; "Pan teaching the young Bacchus the llute; Ganymede 
with the eagle; ''Cupid, resembling an original by Praxiteles; Cupid en- 
circled by a dolphin, fountain-figure; Atlas, bearing the globe; Paris; :V j£scu- 
lapius, from Rome. Right : Masks of river-gods, once used as water-spouts. 
Xtjinph before the bath. Three Priestesses of Isis. Cybele, the mother of the gods. 

IV. Room, with statues of Muses from Herculaneum. By the window, 
head of Ajax. In the centre, Amazon, falling from her horse ; : Hercules 
and Omphale, a group in the genre style. 

V. Hall of the Floka, containing the 'Farnese Flora from the Baths 
of Caracalla at Rome. The head, arms, and legs were restored by Gia- 
como della Porta, and afterwards by Albaccini and Taglioni. It is not im- 
probable that the figure once represented a Venus. In a conspicuous po- 
sition is the 'Mosaic of the Battle of Alexander, which was found in 1831 
in the house of the Faun at Pompeii. This work, which is almost the 
only ancient historical composition in existence , represents the battle at 
the moment when Alexander, whose helmet has fallen from his head, 
charges Darius with his cavalry, and transfixes the general of the Persians 
who has fallen from his wounded horse. The chariot of the Persian mon- 
arch is prepared for retreat, whilst in the foreground a Persian of rank, 
in order to ensure the more speedy escape of the king, who is absorbed 
in thought at the sight of his expiring general, offers him his horse (In- 
trod. p. xlv). 

VI. Room: Reliefs. In the centre a beautiful 'Marble Vase with a 
relief: Mercury, followed by dancing Bacchanalian figures, gives the young 
Bacchus to a nymph to be brought up. According to the inscription it is 
the work of a certain Salpion of Athens; it was found at Formia, and was 
long used as a font in the cathedral of Gaeta. Below this vase is a foun- 
tain enclosure with seven gods: Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, iEsculapius, Bac- 
chus, Hercules, and Mercury. To the left of the entrance, an early Attic 
Cippus, of the middle of the 5th century. Wall of egress : Bacchanalian. 
Also sarcophagi, fountain-masks, and numerous oscilla, or reversible marble 
disks and masks, which used to be hung up by way of ornament between 
the columns of peristyles. 

VII. Room: Reliefs. Left: "Aphrodite, seconded by Peitho (persuasion), 
endeavouring to induce Helen to follow Paris (Alexandras), who with Cu- 
pid stands before her, a Greek work; Bacchanalian; "Apollo with the 
Graces (or Alcibiades with three hetierte) : sarcophagus; Battle of Amazons 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 69 

and Bacchanalian procession. — Window-wall: Gladiator contests from the 
monument of Scaurus at. Pompeii (p. 127); sarcophagus with Prometheus 
and man as yet uninspired with life, surrounded by beneficent gods. — 
Posterior wall : "Banchetto (T Icario, or banquet of the drunken Bacchus ; 
trophpeum, framed with caryatides; Cupids in the circus; nymph defend- 
ing herself against a satyr. Seven Female Figures, dancing, with names 
attached: the three Graces (Euphrosyne, Aglaia, and Thalia,), then Ismene, 
Kykais, and Eranno, probably three nymphs, and a smaller figure called 
Telonnesus, of doubtful import, perhaps the name of a town ; "Orpheus 
and Eiirtidic, with Hermes, in the infernal regions (see Introd., p. xxxv) ; 
sarcophagus with Bacchanalian scene; two "Bacchic Vases; two Cande- 
labra, the stooping sphinx from Pompeii particularly beautiful ; Pedestal 
from Pozzuoli, with figures representing fourteen towns of Asia Minor 
which the Emp. Tiberius rebuilt after an earthquake, each figure being 
furnished with its name. 

At the S. end of the Portico dei Balbi is the entrance to the 
**Collection of Bronzes, most of them from Herculaneum, a few 
only from Pompeii. Their respective origins are distinguished 
by their different colours. The pressure of the masses of lava 
has imparted a dark, black-green hue to the bronzes of Hercula- 
neum, while those of Pompeii, which were much more exposed to 
moisture, are oxydised, and of a light, bluish green colour. This 
collection is unrivalled, and deserves careful and repeated in- 
spection. The number and magnitude of the works, the delicate 
treatment adapted to the material, and the skilful mastery of 
difficulties of every kind in casting and chiselling convey to us 
an idea of the high development of this branch of art in ancient 
times. — The arrangement, begun in I860, is now completed, 
with the exception of the objects in the first room and the numbering. 

I. Room. Animals. :: C'nlossal horse's bead, found at Naples, for- 
merly in the Pal. Oolobrano (8. Angelo), and long supposed to be the cogni- 
sance of the city. It belonged to a horse which is said to have stood in the 
vestibule of the temple of Neptune (S. Gennaro), and lo have been destroyed 
by the clergy on account of the veneration with which it was regarded. 
Horse from Herculaneum, belonging to a quadriga, and reconstructed 
from minute fragments. Two deer. Several animals once used as foun- 

TI. "Room. Statuettes. In the centre: Bacchus with a sati/r (eyes new, 
as in many of the others). Two equestrian statuettes, an Amazon and 
Alexander the Great. "Venus arranging her hair, with a mirror in her 
left hand. Flying Victory. Angling fisherman, a fountain-figure. Boy with 
goose. Apollo. — Beyond the last, the ""Dancing Faun found in the large 
house at Pompeii called the 'Casa del Fauno' (p. 130). In front of it a so- 
called ""Narcissus, perhaps a Pan listening to Echo, and a "Silenus used as 
Ihe bearer of a vase (the handle is very unsuitably made in imitation of the 
body of a serpent). — The window-cabinet contains a number of boys with 
pipes or masks, once used as fountain-figures. Silenus with a panther. Youth- 
ful Bacchus.— E. Wall: all kinds of fancy figures, chiefly gladiators. Small 
busts : Demosthenes, Epicurus, Zeno, Augustus. Hands with quaint emblems, 
used as amulets to avert the danger of the 'evil eye". Above these, 
Lares (household gods), youths adorned with wreaths and bearing drinking- 
horns and vases. — N. Wall. Statuettes of gods: Hercules, Victoria, 
Fortuna, Bacchus, Mercury, Minerva, Jupiter, etc. — W. Wall : Etruscan 
mirrors, the backs adorned with engraved scenes. 

III. Room. In the centre: "Drunken Fdun. On each side a copy 
of the statue of a Runner. To the r. beyond these: "Apollo playing the 
lyre, from Pompeii, a work of the arcbaistic school of Pasiteles, about the 
beginning of the Empire. To the 1. beyond it, Apollo shooting. On the 

70 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

r. before the latter, ' Head of Apollo in the archaic style. 'Mercurp 
reposing. To the 1. before the last, so-called 'Head of Seneca. "Sleeping 
Satur. — Window Wall : "Diana shooting, half-figure. Female portrait- 
statue. "Boy-priest ('cammus'). In the corner a portrait-head. — E. Wall : 
Female portrait statue (Livia, consort of Augustus). Between the doors, 
Archytas of Tarentum, on a console, with bandaged head ; above it ahead 
of Ptolemy Philadelphia. '"Three dancing women from the theatre of Hcr- 
culaneiim (three corresponding figures on the opposite side). Head of the 
philosopher Deniocritus (V). On a console above it, a male portrait-head. — N. 
Wall: 'Female head with hair restored (erroneously called Ptolemy Apion). 
On a console, portrait-head. Statue of Augustus as Jupiter. Head of a 
so-called Berenice (eyes and lips lined with silver when discovered). 
Statue of Claudius as Jupiter. Female portrait-statue as a 'Pieta 1 from 
Herculaneuin (mother of BalbusV). — W. Wall. Between the doors, 
'HeracliUm (7 ). On a console, the young Tiberius. Three dancing women 
from Herciilanenm (see above). On a console, ''Head of a bearded Dio- 
nysus, commonly called Plato. Above it, Lepidus. In the corner, a statue 
of Nero Drusus, sacrificing. 

IV. Room. Weapons. In the centre Equestrian statue of Aero, 
found in the forum of Pompeii. — Window Wall : Bust of Scipio Afri- 
canus. Two Greek busts, perhaps destined for a palaestra, with pro- 
jecting supports for wreaths; the first is furnished with the name of the 
artist, Apollonius, son of Archias of Athens. Bust of C. Csesar. The 
cabinets contain a choice Collection of Weapons (detailed descriptions 
hung up at the entrance). — E. Wall: Greek armour, helmets, and 
weapons, found at Piestum, Euro, and Canosa. — N. Wall: Helmets of gla- 
diators and richlv decorated armour from Pompeii and Herculaneuin. 
Above these, 2S3. Helmet, with the Taking of Troy, 288. Shield with 
head of the Medusa. In the corner a bust of Sulla. -- W. Wall: Italian 
weapons ; among them a cock, a Samnite boundary figure from Pietrabbon- 
dante (Bovianuin). Catapult balls, etc. 

B. Entresol. 

The. Entresol (Ital. Mezzanino) contains on the r. the Re- 
naissance objects, and beyond them the ancient crystals and 
terracottas, on the 1. the Cmiut'an collection and the 'Controlloria', 
or office of the superintendent of the Museum. 

The Collection of Renaissance Works (linceottn de.gli ogyetti 
del Cinquecento) is arranged in two rooms. 

I. Room. In the centre: a large bronze tabernacle, the design 
ascribed to Michael Angelo, executed by Jacopo Siciliano. Left: bust in 
bronze of Ferdinand of Arragon. Busts in marble of Paul III. and 
Charles V. Right: Medusa after Canova ; an altar with reliefs in marble 
of the German school, representing the Passion in seven sections. — II. Room : 
Indian and Chinese paintings, and all kinds of Asiatic curiosities. The ca- 
binets contain weapons, seals, carved amber and ivory, etc. 

The next room contains the Collection of Ancient Crystal 

( Vetri), the most extensive of the kind in existence , showing 
the numerous ways in which it was used by the ancients. 

Several panes of glass from the villa of Diomedes should be inspected ; 
also a beautifully cut glass vase with white Cupids and foliage on a blue 
ground, which was found in 1837 in a tomb in the street of the tombs 
at Pompeii, and contained ashes. 

Adjacent is the Collection of Ancient Terracottas. 

I. IIuhm: Common earthenware articles forhousehold use. Among them 
air vessels with beans, wheat, almonds, egg-shells, plums, olives, eft-, from 
Pompeii. In the passage to the second room to the 1. Artemis, r. Medusa. — 
II. lini.ji. Several Etruscan sarcophagi with recumbent figures on tile lids. 
Numerous lamps. In Hie cabinets figures of small animals: horses, pigs. 

Museum. NAPLES. i. Roxde. 71 

birds, also hands and other votive-offerings such as are still to be seen in 
Roman Catholic churches: infant in swaddling-clothes, legs, right half of a 
human figure. By the window to the r. a colossal Juno, 1. Jupiter from 
the small temple of iEsculapius at Pompeii (p. 137). 15 y the door of egress 
to the r. the fragments of the celebrated Volscian relief from Velletri, 
in the ancient Italian style, with traces of colouring : warriors on horseback 
and in chariots. • — III. Room : Lamps , goblets , votive limbs ; in the ca- 
binets opposite the door interesting heads, detached, and in relief, also 
statuettes. By the window two comic figures, in front of them a small 
painted statuette. By the wall of egress, fine reliefs and statuettes in 
terracotta ; also moulds employed in their execution. 

The central storey contains the Cumsean Collection, which 
was purchased by the Prince of Carignano from the property left, 
by the Count of Syracuse and presented to the Museum. It con- 
sists principally of vases, terracottas, and bronzes found at Cumae. 

By the window of the first room an elegant jewel-case in wood, 
containing several golden ornaments. In the second room tables with small 
objects in bronze, gold, and crystal ; a remarkable head in wax from a 
Roman tomb. Among the vases at the window is a fine specimen of the 
more recent Attic style, representing a battle between Amazons and Greeks. 

C. Upper Floor. 
On the r. (E.) side we first reach two rooms, opposite each 
other, containing Copies of Pompeian Pictures. 

These merit careful inspection, as they serve to convey an idea of the 
brilliant colouring of these ancient walls when they were first discovered. 
The room on the r. contains a cabinet in which the skull, arm, and im- 
pression of the bosom in lava, of a girl found in the Villa <if Diouieiles, 
are preserved. "Model in wood of the 'House of the Tragic Poet' at Pom- 
peii (p. 125). Models of the amphitheatres of Pompeii and Capua. — The 
room on the 1. contains models of the temples of Peestum. 

Next, on the r., is the Library of the Papyri. 

This collection was discovered in a villa near Herculaneum in 17o'2. 
The rolls were completely encrusted with carbonaceous matter, and it 
was only by slow degrees that the real value of the discovery was 
appreciated. About 3000 were discovered, of which 1800 only have been 
preserved. The thin layers of the bark (libri) of the papyrus plant, each 
of the breadth of one column of writing, are pasted together and rolled 
round rods, and the difficulties encountered in disengaging them may be 
imagined. The task was long attempted in vain , until the Padre Piaggi 
invented an ingenious machine by which the difficulty was removed. 
Several of these may be seen at work in the second room. Several 
hundred of these libri have been by degrees unrolled , and whatever of 
their contents has escaped obliteration lias been published in the Yolumin 
Heracleensia. The library belonged to a follower of the Epicurean school, 
and the recovered MSS. are by no means of general interest. They con- 
tain treatises in Greek by the Epicurean Philodemus, a contemporary of 
Cicero, on nature, music, rhetoric, etc. 

Opposite these rooms is the Collection of Engravings, per- 
mission to inspect which must be obtained from the custodian. 

This room also contains (r.) an admirable "Bust of Dante in bronze, 
said to have been modelled from a cast taken from the poet's features alter 
death. On the walls are hung drawings and sketches by great masters, 
among whom are Caravaggio, Raphael, and Michael Angelo (group from 
the frescoes in the Cap. Paolina at Rome). 

In a straight direction we next enter the "First Section of the 
Picture Gallery, containing master-pieces of the Italian, as well 
as the Neapolitan school. The collection has recently been re- 

72 Route i. NAPLES. Museum. 

arranged. Catalogues in each room. The 7th and 8th rooms 
comprise the chefs d'oenvre ; the contents of the others are of 
subordinate importance. 

1st Room (Roman School): : 5. Claude , Quay at sunset; 12. School of 
Raphael (?), Female Portrait ; 27. Sassoferrato, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
2S. Raphael, Madonna delle Grazie, a copy ; 55. R. Mengs, Ferdinand IV. ; 
47. 1'aitnini, Charles III. visiting Benedict XIV. 

2nd Room (Schools of Parma and Genoa); i. Bernardo Strozzi, Portrait 
of a Capuchin ; 9. School of Correggio, Head as a study. 

3rd Room (Lombard School) : 11. School of Leonardo, John the Baptist; 
15. Same School, Madonna with two donors of the picture ; 17. Cesare da 
Sato, Adoration of the Magi, one the master's chief works ; -18. Leonardo's 
School, Christ and John; 19. Madonna; 29. A. Bronzino, Portrait. 

4th Room (Venetian School): 1. School of Mantegna, Suffering Christ; 
4. Aloise Virarini, Madonna enthroned; 9, 13, 16, 22, 25, 28, etc. Canalelto, 
Views of Venice; 19. Tiberio Tinelli, Portrait ; 39. Moretto, Scourging of 
Christ. Proceeding hence in a straight direction we reach the 5th, and, 
turning to the r., the 7th and 8th rooms. 

5th Room (various schools) : 5. Parmeggianino, Madonna (tempera); 15. 
Giorgioned). Portrait of the Principe di Salerno; 79. L. Lotto, Madonna 
with St. Peter the Martyr; 25. Titian (?), Penitent Magdalene; 27. Palma 
Vecchio, Madonna, saints, and donors; 33. Pinluricchio, Assumption; ! 35. 
Bart. Virarini, Madonna enthroned; 36. Breughel, Penitent deceived liy the 
world (tempera) ; 36. School of Perugino, God the Father ; "40. Parmeg- 
gianino, Portrait of his daughter; "51. Mignaud, Portrait of Fenelon. 

6th Room : 4. Velasquez, Drinkers, a copy ; "14. Mantegna, S. Eufemia ; 
37. Holbein (V), Portrait of Erasmus. — Hence hack to the 4th room, from 
which the collection of the master-pieces is reached. 

7th Room: 1. Salvator Rosa, Christ and the scribes; 2. Sebastian del 
Piombo, Mary watching the sleeping infant Jesus; 3. Correggio, Madonna, 
named la Zingarella, or del Coniglio (rabbit); 4. Van Dijck, Portrait; 
"5. Titian, Danae ; 6. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine; 8. Titian, 
Portrait of Paul III; 9. Correggio (?), Descent from the Cross; 11. Titian, 
Portrait of Philip II.; 12. Spagnolelio, St. Sebastian; 13, 14. St. Jerome, 
by the same master ; 15. Guercino, Magdalene ; 16. Rubens, Monk. 

8th Room, to the 1. : "17. Giulio Romano, Holy Family, called Madonna 
del Gatto ; "18. Raphael (?), Portrait of the Cavaliere Tibaldeo ; 19. Giovanni 
Bellini, Portrait; "20. Raphael, Holy Family (Madonna del divino amore), 
of the master's Roman period ; 21. Andrea del Sarto, Copy of Raphael's 
portrait of Leo X., with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Rossi (at Naples 
this picture is declared to be the original) ; 22. Raphael, Portrait of Car- 
dinal Passerini; 23. Luini, Madonna ; 24. And. del Sarto (?), Portrait; "25. 
Adoration of the Magi; "26. Christ on the Cross, both by Netherlands 
masters ; 27. Breughel, The seven blind men ; "28. Nativity (date 1512), 
ascribed to Barer; 29. Perugino, Madonna ; "31. Hubert 'ran Eych (?), St. Je- 
rome extracting the thorn from the lion ; "32. M. Venusti, Copy of Michael 
Angelo's Last Judgment, before its disfigurement; "33. Giovanni Bellini, 
Transfiguration; 34. Holy Family , master unknown; 35. Parmeggianino, 
Lucretia ; 36. Sanlafede, Madonna and saints. 

Returning to the exit , we may in passing obtain a glimpse 
through the central staircase at the principal hall of the Library. 

It, contains numerous ancient Italian works (200,000 vols., 4000 MSS.) 
and valuable Greek MSS. (among which Lycophron s Alexandra, Quintus 
Sinyrnauis, date 1311), and Latin (e. g. Charisius, Ars graminatica ; the 
half burned MS. of Festus; a mass-book with beautiful miniatures of fruit 
and flowers, called la Flora); catalogues for the use of visitors. In the 
principal hall the custodian awakens a remarkably fine echo. Books may 
not be removed from the library, but within its precincts three may be 
used at a time (8 — 2 o'clock). Readers enter from the outside (not 
through the museum) by the last door reached by the stair to the r. in 
the museum buildings. The arrangements are sadly defective. 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 73 

The third stair leads to the left (W. ) wing, containing the 
second half of the picture-gallery, and other important collections. 

The first room to the r. contains the collection of Precious 
Relics, consisting of ancient cut stones, and trinkets in gold and 

In the cabinets to the r. are preserved glasses and dishes containing 
various "articles of food from Pompeii: nuts, figs, dried oil, eggs, a loaf 
with the name of the baker Q. Cranius. Also other objects in common 
use: remnants of nets and cables, a purse, colours found in a shop at Pom- 
peii, small ivory figures. By the window, the celebrated Tazza Farnese, 
a vessel of onyx with beautiful reliefs, the largest of its kind. On the out- 
side a large Medusa's head in relief; in the inside a group of seven persons, 
referred by some to the occasion of an inundation of the Nile, by others to 
a festival in spring, instituted by Alexander at the foundation of Alexandria. 
The first table near the window contains the cameos, or stones cut in pro- 
minent relief, many of which are very remarkable : 32. Head of Medusa ; 
29. Zeus in conflict with the Titans, by Anthemion ; 65. Portion of the group 
of the Farnese bull, which it is intended to restore to its place. The se- 
cond table contains the intagli, or stones on which the designs recede: 209. 
Ajax and Cassandra ; 213. Apollo and Marsyas ; ,: 392. Bacchante. The third 
table contains unfinished stones ; the fourth a considerable collection of 
rings, among which a gold ring with a male portrait, possibly of Brutus, 
with the artist's name Anaxilas. The cabinets by the 1. wall contain : 
1. Objects in silver; vases, one with the apotheosis of Homer; a small sun- 
dial. 2. Beautiful tripods ; vases with foliage ; rings from the Greek tombs 
in the Basilicata at Armento; silver plate from the house of Meleager at 
Pompeii, e. g. two "goblets with Centaurs. Also, under glass, golden trin- 
kets from a tomb of Tarentum. 3, 4. Gold ornaments : a chain, bracelet, 
necklace, ring, and ear-rings, found with a female skeleton in the house of 
Diomedes at Pompeii ; bracelets, brooches, beautiful necklace from Ruvo, etc. 

The next door to the r. leads to the Reserved Cabinet, to which men 
only are admitted ; it contains mural and other paintings not adapted for 
public exhibition, and numerous bronzes of considerable artistic merit. 

The first room to the 1. contains the Collection of Coins 

(Medagliere), which within the last few years has been suitably and 

tastefully arranged, and is of almost unrivalled value and extent. 

The first room contains the Greek, the second and third the Roman, 
the fourth the mediteval coins, and the fifth the dies of the Neapolitan 
mint, together with a numismatic library. Catalogues are placed over 
the glass-cases for the use of visitors. In the corners are busts of 
distinguished numismatists. — The Museo S. Angelo (p. 74) adjoins the 
5th room. 

In a straight direction a door leads to the Second Section of the 
Picture Gallery, chiefly containing works of the later Italian and 
Neapolitan masters, very inferior in attraction to the first section. 

1st Room (Bolognese School): 38. Romanelli, Sibyl; 55. Ann. Caracci, 
Rinaldo and Armida ; 62. Lavinia Fontanel, Christ and the Samaritan 
woman; 69. Caravaggio, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Ann. Caracci, Land- 
scape with St. Eustachius. 

2nd Room (Tuscan School) : 2. And. del Sarto, Madonna, a copy ; 22. 
Mazzola, Pieta, and saints; 26. Lor. di Credi, Madonna; 29. Florentine 
School, Madonna enthroned ; 30. Matteo da Siena, Murder of the Innocents ; 
31. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna ; 33. Florentine School, Pope Liberius found- 
ing S. Maria Maggiore (ad nives) at Rome; 43. Bom. Puligo, Portrait. 

3rd Room (Neapolitan School) : 6. Zingaro (?), Madonna and saints ;*31. Sim. 
Papa Senr. , St. Michael with SS. Jerome and James and the donors. 

4th Room, adjoining the last on the r. , contains Byzantine works, 
badly preserved and freely restored. 

74 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

5th Room (Neapolitan School) : 5. Criscnolo, Adoration of the Magi ; 
51. L. Giordano, St. Xavier baptizing the Indians (painted in three days); 
53. Traversa, Girl with doves; 54. Pacecco di Rosa, Madonna; 61. Spagno- 
letlo, Joseph and the Infant Christ ; "67. Luea Giordano , Madonna del 
Eosario ; 68. Don. Garginlo, Smokers. — A large cabinet in the centre from 
the sacristy of the monastery of S. Agostino degli Scalzi contains objects 
artistically inlaid with ivory and glass. A second cabinet contains majolicas. 
Then the ' Cassetta in bronze, executed by Giovanni de' Bernardi, 
with six beautifully cut stones: Meleager and Atalanta, Procession of the 
Indian Bacchus , Circus games , Battle of the Amazons , Battle of the 
Centaurs and Lapithse, Battle of Salainis. 

6th Room (German School): 7. Portrait of a cardinal, master unknown; 
12. Breughel (?), Landscape; 22. Am.berger(T>- Portrait; 41. Lvr. Cranarli, 
Christ and the adulteress. 

7th Room (Netherlands Schools): 1. Rembrandt, Portrait; 12. JYetherl. 
School, Portrait; 36. Crucifix, after Van Di/cl; ; 61. Collection of miniatures 
of the House of Farnese; :S 73. Miererelt, Portrait; 78. Ferd. Bol, Portrait; 
85. Van Cenlen, Portrait; 89. Nabnsson, Villa Medici at Rome. 

From the 6th Room of the paintings we enter a circular room, 
the first of the collection of vases (see below"), and pass thence 
to the left into the Museo Santangelo, which occupies three 
rooms. This museum was formerly in the Pal. Santangelo, but 
was purchased by the city of Naples in 1865 and placed under 
the care of the Museo Nazionale. 

1st Room : Vases. In the cabinet in the centre, a vase with Baccha- 
nalian scene; r. a vase from Ruvo with the death of Meleager. In the 
middle of the cabinet on the 1., Bacchanalian feast with an armed dancing 
woman. To the r. by the window a "cabinet with drinking-horns (rhyta). 

2nd Room : Terracottas and Small Bronzes. Left by the entrance , a 
vase from Nola, with the return of Hephsestus to Olympus. 

3rd Room: Collection of Coins, one of the most extensive in Italy 
(about 43,000 in number), particularly valuable on account of its ancient Ita- 
lian specimens. Catalogue by Fiorelli recently published. On the table by 
the window an interesting selection of 'aes grave'' and other Italian coins. 
By the window a vase with Pelops and CEnomaus. In the centre a vase 
with Orpheus in the infernal regions. By the wall of the egress, "Mercury 
and Spes, relief mosaics from Metapontum, unique of their kind. 

We now return to the ** Collection of Vases, which begins 
with the circular room mentioned above , and occupies seven 
rooms. This is a collection of great extent and value , and is 
particularly rich in specimens of the large and magnificent vases 
of Lower Italy. The want of a catalogue renders it difficult to 
obtain precise information. The specimens placed on pillars 
and those contained in the four last rooms are the finest in 
the collection. The rooms are paved with ancient mosaics, 
restored where defective. — As Greek vase-painting was adopted 
by the Etruscans and modified according to the national taste, 
so this branch of art was strongly influenced in Lower Italy, 
and especially in Apulia , by the peculiar character of its inhab- 
itants. The vases here are of large and imposing dimensions, 
and the artists , not satisfied with the decoration of paint- 
ing alone, have frequently superadded reliefs to adorn the necks 
and handles. Their aim appears to have been to cover, if pos- 
sible . the entire surface of the vase with the colour-;. The 

Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 75 

different series of representations, one above another, which they 
bear, are often without connection ; or the centre is occupied by 
an architectural design and surrounded irregularly with groups. 
The figures are generally of a somewhat effeminate mould, and 
great care appears to have been bestowed on the delineation of 
rich but scantily folded garments. The representations are for 
the most part borrowed from the ancient Greek tragedy, but in 
some cases scenes of a more Italian character are observed. The 
period of their manufacture is believed to have been shortly 
after the reign of Alexander the Great. 

1st Room: A variety of unpainted vases. Those preserved in the two 
cabinets opposite the entrance, and the three placed on pillars in front of 
them are specimens of the earliest stage of this art. They are of a yellow- 
ish colour, ornamented with two rows of plants or animals of brownish 
ur black colour, and are round or oval in form. 

2nd Room: By the window two models of tombs, which illustrate 
the manner in which the vases were discovered. As the ornaments, 
weapons, etc. of the deceased were deposited with his remains in the 
tomb, so also were these vases which adorned his home; in some 
cases, however, the nature of the subjects leads to the conclusion that 
they were manufactured for this express purpose. Left, by the window, 
Battle of Amazons. Right by the exit, "Electro mourning at the grave of 

i-ird Room : Diedalus and Icarus. Death of Archemerus. 

4th Room: In the centre the largest 'vase yet discovered (from Ruvol, 
with a battle of Amazons and Greeks. By the window to the r. the cele- 
brated large vase of Darius from Canosa: Darius planning the conquest 
of Greece; above is Hellas, at whose side Athene and Zeus are stand- 
ing ; beneath are the Persian provinces on which subsidies are levied for 
the war, with accompanying names. Adjacent, under a glass shade, 'Leky- 
tlms with reliefs of Marsyas and Apollo. On the 1. Patroclus. 

5th Room: By the window, 'Destruction of Troy, "Battle of Amazons, 
: Bacchanalian sacrifice, all from Nola. 

6th Room: In the centre a large vase from Altamura, with Orpheus 
in the infernal regions. 

The third room of the small bronzes may be entered hence, 
but it is generally reached through the 6th room of the picture- 
gallery (p. 74). 

The collection of the ** Small Bronzes, the finest of its kind 
in existence , consists chiefly of household utensils , lamps, 
candelabra, tools of all kinds, musical and surgical instruments, 
weapons, etc., most of them found at Pompeii, and is admirably 
adapted to convey an idea of the life and habits of the ancients. 
The use of most of the objects is too obvious to require ex- 
planation. The most valuable are in the centre. 

1st Room: "Candelabrum from the villa of Diomedes, a small Bacchus 
riding on a panther, and a pilaster adorned with a mask and bucranium 
(skull of an ox), on a square pedestal ; the lamps hang from four branches ; 
those at present placed there are not the original. A large kettle and 
iron stocks from the gladiators" barracks at Pompeii, near which three 
skeletons were found. Baths. Tripod for sacrifices, richly decorated, 
from the temple ol' Isis at Pompeii. Two ''pitchers with double handles. 
Table-support with Victoria and trophies. Bisellia (seats of honour) de- 
corated with horses' heads, swans, and inlaid silver ornaments. A portable 

76 Route -t. NAPLES Villa Nazionale. 

stove. — The !?nd Room contains a. : Model of Pompeii, faithfully represent- 
ing the ruins, on a scale of 1 : 100, but still unfinished. — In the 
3rd Room a triclinium , or three dining-sofas, each for three persons (the 
table was placed in the middle). Three money-chests , which were once 
employed in the atrium of an ancient house, from Pompeii. 

V. The Posilipo. 

The name is derived from that of a villa of the notorious 
epicure Vedius Pollio, viz. IlauoiXuTrov (i. e. 'sans-souci' or 'an 
end to rare). It afterwards came into the possession of Au- 
gustus, and the name was gradually extended to the whole of the 
eminence which bounds Naples on the W. It is now covered 
with charming villas, and the modern quarter of the city is ex- 
tending in this direction. The Posilipo is most conveniently 
visited from one of two points , the museum , or the sea- 
side. We select the latter. These are also the points whence the 
routes lead to the places of interest mentioned in R. 5, with an 
excursion to one of which a visit to the Posilipo may be combined. 

We now proceed to describe the modern quarter of the city, 
stretching to the W. of the Toledo, and rapidly increasing in 

The * Villa Nazionale, formerly Villa Reale (PL C, D, 6), 
generally called The Villa, situated close to the sea, affords the 
principal, and one of the most beautiful walks in Naples. This 
promenade, laid out in 1780, and considerably extended in 1807 
and 1834 . skirts the Riviera di Chiaia , and is about 2/3 M. in 
length, but not more than 50 yds. in breadth. The grounds are 
laid out chiefly in the Italian style ; the avenue of oaks 
leading towards the sea is particularly beautiful. Among the 
trees a few palms will be observed. In the centre are several 
cafe's. The sculptures intended for the decoration of the grounds, 
indifferent imitations of ancient and modern works , do not 
deserve inspection. In the principal walk is a large ancient 
granite basin from Paestum, brought from Salerno, and placed 
here in 1825 to replace the celebrated group of the Famese Bull, 
which was then removed from this spot to the Museum. To the 
i'., farther on, is a so-called ' Pompeiorama , (adm. 1 fr.), con- 
taining views and photographs of Pompeii. In the centre of the 
promenade, the most frequented spot, where the band plays, 
rises a statue of Giambattista Vico, recently erected. Farther on, 
to the r., rises a mediocre statue of P. Colletta, with a long in- 
scription, erected in 1866; then a small temple to the memory 
of Virgil (p. 80), and another to the 1. to that of Tasso. At 
the end of the garden, to the 1., is a *Belvedere extending into 
the sen, affording a cool and delightful resting-place, close to the 
rippling waves, and commanding a magnificent prospect. The villa 
is almost deserted during the day, but presents a busy and gay 

Chiesa del Sannamro. NAPLES. 4. Route. 77 

scene at hours when the daily concerts (gratis) take place: viz., 
in the colder season 4 — 6, in summer 9 — 11 p. m. In the evening, 
when lighted with gas, enlivened by the music, and fanned by 
the cool sea-breeze, these grounds afford a good idea of the 
charms of an Italian summer night (chairs 10 c). 

A handsome new building on the side of the Villa next the 
sea contains a large *Aquarium, opened in 1874, and belonging 
to a 'Zoological Station founded by the German naturalist Dr. 
Dohrn. The aquarium is on the ground-floor of the building, 
and is entered from the side next to the Castello dell' Ovo (ad- 
mission 2 fr. from 1st Oct. to 31st April; 1 fr. from 1st May 
to 31st Sept. ; season-tickets sold at the office). 

Although the arrangements of the aquarium are of an unpretending 
character, it contains such an abundant stock of curious marine animalr 
that it is more interesting than the aquaria of Brighton , Berlin , os 
Vienna. Among the contents are 6—7 varieties of cuttle-fish (the feeding 
of the large Octopus is interesting), a number of electric rays (which visi- 
tors are permitted to touch so as to experience the shock from which the 
fish derives its name), numerous beautifully coloured fish of the Medi- 
terranean, upwards of twelve different kinds of living coral, beautiful Me- 
dusae and crested blubbers, many extraordinary looking crabs and cray- 
fish, pipe-fish, etc. 

The Zoological Station has been established for the purpose of assisting 
zoologists of all nations in the study of marine animal life, and is fur- 
nished with large laboratories and a valuable zoological library on the 
upper lloor of the building. The greater part of the expense was borne 
by Dr. Dohrn, and the German government contributed a sum of 1500 L. 
Arrangements have been made with the governments of different countries 
and with several universities regarding the terms on which the establish- 
ment may be used for scientific purposes. 

The grounds of the Villa in the direction of the Posilipo are 
terminated by an avenue of small trees. By the side of the 
carriage road a riding-path extends the whole length of the 
Chiaia. Towards sunset the corso, or principal promenade, takes 
place here. The number of the carriages is so great that in 
many places they are seen four abreast. Where the Str. di 
Chiaia divides, the Str. di Piedigrotta gradually ascends to the 
r. to the Posilipo, which it penetrates by means of the celebrated 
Orotta di Posilipo, and leads to Pozzuoli (p. 87). If an ex- 
cursion be made thither, this road may be taken in going, and 
the Str. Nuova di Posilipo, skirting the sea and described below, 
in returning. 

The Mergellina (PI. A, 7), a continuation of the Chiaia, is a 
long row of houses and villas on the slopes of the Posilipo facing 
the sea, intersected by the **Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which was 
begun in 1812, and continued as far as Bagnoli in 1832. As this 
road commands a succession of the most beautiful views, the trav- 
eller should on no account omit to visit it, which, when time is 
limited, he may do in going to or returning from Pozzuoli. 

About 5 min. walk from the point where the Str. di Piedi- 
grotta diverges from the Chiaia to the r., the road forms a curve 

78 Route i. NAPLES. (irotto vf Sejnnus. 

in the direction of the sea. A little above this curve, to the r. 
(from the exterior scarcely distinguishable) , stands the Chiesa del 
Sannazaro, or £. Maria del Parto, on the site of a small estate 
which King Frederick II. of Arragon presented in 1496 to the 
poet Jacopo Sannazaro (b. at Naples, 1458), for whom he enter- 
tained the highest regard. After his villa had been destroyed 
by the French in 1529, the aged poet caused the church to be 
erected by monks of the Servite order. It derives its name from 
his Latin poem 'De partu Virginis'. 

The church contains a high-altar and six chapels. In the 1st chap, 
to the r., St. Michael overcoming Satan, by Leonardo da Pfsloja. The 
devil is represented with the features of a woman of whom Diumedes 
Carafa, Bishop of Ariano, was once passionately enamoured, and is popularly 
known as 'il diavolo di Mergellina'. Behind the high-altar is the monu- 
ment of the poet, executed by Fra Giovanni da Montorsoli from a design 
by Girolamo Santacroce. At the sides Apollo and Minerva, popularly be- 
lieved to be David and Judith ; on a bas-relief between them Neptune and 
Pan, with Fauns, satyrs, and nymphs singing and playing, an allusion to 
Sannazaro's poem 'Arcadia' ; above is the richly decorated sarcophagus with 
the bust of the poet which bears his academic name : Actius Sincerus. At 
the base of the monument is the inscription by Bembo : — 

Da sacro cineri flores : hie ille Maroni 

Sincerus Musa proximus ut tuniulo. 
It alludes to the poet's having imitated Virgil. Hie principal works are 
idyls, elegies, and epigrams in Latin. 

To the r., farther on, rises Villa Anyri; then to 1. by the 
sea the picturesque ruins of the Palazzo di Dorm Anna (erro- 
neously believed to be that of the Regina Giovanna) , begun 
in the 17th cent, by Fansaga for Donna Anna, wife of the 
viceroy Duke of Medina, on the site of a former palace of the 
princes of Stigliano, but never completed. Farther on is the trattoria 
di campagna of Frisio (p. 24). The road, gradually ascending, winds 
between gardens and villas round the base of the hills ; to the 
1. the Latzaretto (quarantine), the Villa Bocca Romana with hot- 
houses and a collection of animals, Rocca Matilda, and Villa Minutolo. 
At the entrance of the Villa de Melis, the so-called Palazzo delle 
Cannonate, a path diverges to the 1. and descends to the extre- 
mity of the promontory of Posilipo, where the small church of 
S. Maria stands on the site of a former lighthouse. A boat may 
be hired here to convey the traveller back to Naples. The high 
road continues to the r. ; at the highest point a road unites with 
it on the r., leading to the Posilipo and Vomero (p. 83). A 
little farther , after quitting a deep cutting , we reach an open 
space , where a magnificent prospect of Bagnoli , Camaldoli, 
Pozzuoli, Baise, and Ischia is disclosed. The road then descends 
on the W. side of the Posilipo, passing the so-called Orotta di 
Sejano, to the coast and Bagnoli, 3 3 / 4 M. from the Villa Keale. 
This Grotto of Sejanus is a passage hewn through the rocky 

ridge near the sea by the Punta di Coroglio, upwards of -/ 3 M. 

in length, 500 ft. longer than the grotto of Posilipo, and originally 

Grutto di Posilipo. NAPLES. 4. Route. 79 

of greater height and width; in the side towards the sea are 
several openings for ventilation (fee 1 fr., the inspection occupies 
about '/ 2 h- r -)- This is the tunnel whose construction is ascribed by 
Strabo (v, 4) to M. Cocceius Nerva (B. C. 37), almost simulta- 
neously with that of the Julian harbour on the Lucrine lake by 
M. Agrippa. It is therefore a mistake to associate it with the 
name of Sejanus, as it is of much earlier origin. It has recently 
been cleared of rubbish and supported by walls, on which 
occasion an inscription was found, recording that the tunnel had 
been repaired by the Emp. Honorius about the year 400. At 
the E. extremity of this passage, especially near the rocky pro- 
montory of La Gojola, the most beautiful views are obtained of 
Nisida, Procida, Ischia, Capri, the bay of Naples, and a number 
of relics of antiquity. The custodian conducts the visitor from 
the grotto to a vineyard in the vicinity (fee 30 — 50 c.j, 
whence a magnificent view is enjoyed, and some of the scattered 
fragments of the Pausilypon , or villa of Vedius Pollio (p. 76) 
are visible , extending from the slope of the hill down to the 
sea, and overgrown with myrtles, erica, and broom. 

The fishponds, in which the cruel Vedius was in the habit of feeding 
large lampreys with the flesh of his slaves, lay nearer the town. A small 
Theatre is also seen , which belonged to the villa of Lucullus , with 
seventeen rows of seats hewn in the rock. Besides these are numerous 
other relics of the villas with which the Posilipo was almost entirely co- 
vered in ancient times. We also observe, close to the sea, in the direc- 
tion of the town, the ficuola, or properly Scoglio (rock) di Virgiliu, per- 
haps once a temple of Fortune, or of Venus Euplcea, to whom mariners 
sacrificed after a prosperous voyage. 

Opposite to the promontory of Coroglio rises the small rocky 
island of Nisida, the Nesis of the ancients, an extinct crater, 
which opens towards the S. On the N. side is a rock on which 
the Lazzaretto is erected, connected with the main land by a 
breakwater. The small harbour below serves for quarantine pur- 
poses ; the building on the height is a bagno for criminals. The 
son of Lucullus possessed a villa on this island, to which Brutus 
retired after the murder of C«sar in the spring of B. C. 44, 
and where he was visited by Cicero. He took leave here of 
his wife Portia on his departure for Greece , previous to the 
battle of Philippi. In the 15th cent., Queen Johanna II. poss- 
essed a villa on the island of Nisida, which was converted into 
a fort for the purpose of keeping the fleet of Louis of Anjou in 

The high road to Pozzuoli, diverging (p. 77) from the Chiaia, 
ascends, following the Strada di Piedigrotta, and passing through 
the Gtrotta di Posilipo (PI. A, 7 ), a tunnel probably constructed 
in the reign of Augustus. It is mentioned by Seneca and Petronius, 
under Nero, as a narrow and gloomy pass. Mediaeval superstition 

80 Route 4. NAPLES. Logo d'Agnano. 

attributed it to magic arts practised by the poet Virgil. King 
Alphonso I. (about 1442) enlarged the opening by lowering the 
level of the road, and caused it to be ventilated; a century later 
Don Petro de Toledo caused the road to be paved ; and it was again 
paved and improved by Charles III. (1754), who left it in its 
present condition. The length of the passage , which is always 
well lighted, is nearly i/ 2 M.; height at the E. entrance 80 — 90 ft., 
varying in the interior from 20 to 50 ft. ; breadth 25 — 30 ft. 
Small chapels are situated at the entrance and in the middle. 
On a few days in March and November the sun shines directly 
through the grotto , producing a magic illumination. The Nea- 
politans frequently amuse themselves by raising a deafening shout 
when passing through the tunnel. 

Among the vineyards on the height, to the 1. of the entrance 
to the grotto, is situated the Tomb of Virgil (PI. A, 7), a Roman 
burial-place or columbarium. The door of the vineyard being 
opened, we ascend a number of steps. A flue view of the bay 
and city is obtained from this point ; but the monument itself 
is of no great interest, and its genuineness is doubtful. Admission 
'/o fr- each person, and a trifle to the attendant at the tomb and 
to the opener of the door. This digression occupies about 8/4 hr. 

The monument contains a chamber about 15 ft. square, with three 
windows and vaulted ceiling. In the walls are ten recesses for cinerary 
urns, and in the principal wall, which has been destroyed, there appears to 
have been one of greater size. Probability and local tradition favour the 
view that this was the last resting-place of the poet, who, as he 
himself informs us, here composed his immortal works, the Georgics and 
the iEneid, and who unquestionably possessed a villa on the Posilipo, and 
by his express wish was interred here after his death at Brundisium, B. (J. 
19, on his return from Greece. Petrarch is said to have visited this spot 
accompanied by King Robert, and to have planted a laurel, which at the 
beginning uf the present century fell a prey to the knives of curiosity- 
mongers, and has since been replaced. It is on record that in 1326 the 
tomb was in a good state of preservation, and contained a marble urn with 
nine small pillars, the frieze of which bore the well-known inscription : — 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 

Parthenope : cecini pascua, rura, duces. 
Of all this no trace now remains. In 1530, however, Cardinal Bembo's 
epitaph on the poet Sannazaro (see p. 78) proves that he believed in the 
genuineness of this tomb; and the following inscription, which is still 
legible, was accordingly placed on it in 1554 : — 

yui cineresV tumuli hcec vestigia: conditur olim 

Hie hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 
The question may therefore be considered as decided in favour of the 
prevalent belief, and the poet's name is thus inseparably connected with 
Naples and its fascinating environs. 

At the egress of the grotto of Posilipo is situated the village 
of Fuorigrotta, where several roads diverge. A new road to the 
r. leads to Orsolone and Capodimonte. The second leads to the 
village of Planum (3 M.), at the foot of the hill of Camaldoli, 
with its vast quarries; a third to the Lago d'Agnano and Astroni, 
and that in a straight direction to the small Bagnoli with warm 

Lago d'Ai/nano. NAPLES. i. Route. 81 

springs, situated on the coast, on the road to Pozzuoli. At the 
W. end of Fuorigrotta is the small church of S. Vitale, contain- 
ing a simple monument to the distinguished philologist and poet 
Count Giacomo Leopardi, who died at Naples in 1837. The road 
to Pozzuoli (p. 87) runs hence in a straight direction, while the 
monotonous road to Agnano diverges to the r. and leads to the 
(8/4 M.) margin of the crater (one-horse carr. to Agnano and 
back 3 fr., to Astroni 3 l / 2 — 4 fr."). The whole excursion takes 
3 — 4 hrs. (comp. Map, p. 86 ). 

The Lago d' Agnano is an ancient crater of irregular form, 
about 2 M. in circumference, once tilled with water, but now- 
drained. Little is said to have been gained by this operation. 
while the beauty of the landscape is sadly impaired. On its 
.S.E. bank, where the road to Fuorigrotta diverges, are the Stu/'e 
di San Germano , ancient receptacles in which warm sul- 
phureous vapour is collected for the use of patients (visitors 
pay 1/2 fr- each, but bargaining necessary). In the vicinity is 
the celebrated Grotta del Cane, which, however, in the present 
age of discovery and science, no longer possesses its ancient 
interest. It derives its name from the circumstance that the 
ground and sides are so thoroughly impregnated with carbonic 
acid gas, that the fumes render dogs insensible in a few seconds. 
and produce a feeling of languor on human beings (here again 
extortion can only be prevented by previous bargaining). Dogs 
are provided for the exhibition of this somewhat cruel experiment, 
but the curiosity of the traveller may be sufficiently gratified by 
observing that a light is immediately extinguished when brought 
in contact with the vapour. Pliny (Hist. Nat. ii, 93) mentions 
this grotto as: 'spiracula et scrobes CharoneiE mortiferum spiri- 
tum exhalantes in agro Puteolano '. 

From the grotto the road proceeds to ('/a M. ) Astroni, the 
largest and most important of the volcanic craters in this region. 
upwards of 3 M. in circumference, and densely overgrown with 
holm-oaks and poplars. On the S. side it contains a small lake, 
and in the centre an eminence of trachytic lava. The crater 
has long been used as a preserve of deer and other game for 
the royal 'chasse'. Access cannot be obtained without permission 
from the intendant in the Palazzo Reale (p. 40) at Naples. 
Owing to the badness of the road, driving is practicable only as 
far as the foot of the margin of the crater. The old road should 
therefore be ascended to the 1. to ( 1 /j M.) the large gate where 
the traveller shows his 'permesso'. Fee '/2 fr- Beautiful, but 
somewhat lonely park scenery. Riding pleasanter than walking. 

From the Museum the Stradu deW Jnfrascata (PI. I), E, 3), 
now named after Sulrator Rosa, ascends the heights of S. Elmo 
Baedekrk. Italy III. 5th Edition. G 

82 Route 4. NAPLES. A\ Martino. 

and the Posilipo. At the base of these hills, and also farther 
up, donkeys, which many will prefer to carriages, may be hired. 
The road ascends in zigzags. After 7 minutes' walk an open space 
is seen to the left. From this point the new *Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. D, 4, 5; C, 5, 6; B, A, 6), now in course of 
construction, diverges to the 1., running considerably above the 
city, of which it commands an admirable survey. It terminates 
at the church of S. Maria di Piedigrotta , near the entrance to 
the Grotta di Posilipo (p. 80). Walk thither from the museum 
about 1 hr. , but pleasanter as a drive. 

From the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, after 8 min. walk, a steep 
path ascends to the r. to the Castel Sant' Elmo (p. 83). The 
easier, but longer approach is by the Str. dell' Infrascata, which 
the traveller may prefer to follow. Where this road proceeds 
towards Antignano to the r. , a path opposite, by a small chapel, 
ascends to the 1., and shortly afterwards turns to the 1., then to 
the r. (one-horse carr. for the excursion 3 — 3 1 /.) fr. ; donkey 
1 — 1!/ 2 fr.). Pedestrians may also ascend direct from the Toledo 
at the Largo della Curita, but the path is somewhat precipitous 
(donkey 1 fr.). 

On entering the precincts of the fortifications, we first pro- 
ceed to the Carthusian monastery of — 

*S. Martino (PI. D, 5), which is not less remarkable for the 
beauty of its situation and its views , than for the magnificence 
of its endowment. It was begun in 1325 by Duke Charles of 
Calabria, was almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th cent. , and is 
adorned with pictures of the Neapolitan school. Since its dis- 
solution , the monastery has been placed under the management 
of the Museo Nazionale , and is shown daily, 9 — 5 o'clock (adm. 
1 fr). The custodian expects no gratuity, but sometimes im- 
portunes visitors to buy photographs. Part of the now deserted 
buildings is destined for the reception of a library, to be col- 
lected from all the suppressed monasteries at Naples. 

The Museum, which is unimportant, consists of nine rooms containing 
majolicas , crystal , and a state coach of the time of Charles III. — The 
Church contains an Ascension on the ceiling of the nave and the Twelve 
Apostles between the windows, by Laiifranco. Over the principal entrance 
a '"Descent from the Cross by Stanzioni (damaged), and next to it Moses and 
Elias by Spagnoletto. The Twelve Apostles above the arches of the chapels, 
by the same artist. Frescoes of the choir by the Cavaliere oVArpino. The 
large Crucifixion by Laiifranco. Nativity, by Guido Reni (who died before 
the completion of the painting). On the sides : to the 1., Communion of the 
Apostles, by Spagnoletto (in the style of Paolo Veronese), and Christ wash- 
ing the disciples 1 feet, by Caracciolo; to the r., Last Supper by Stanzioni, 
and Institution of the Eucharist, by the pupils of P. Veronese. The marble 
decorations of the church, twelve dillerent roses of Egyptian granite, after 
Cosirno Fanxaga of Carrara, the beautiful mosaic marble pavement by 
iYr.*//, and the high-altar by Soli meiia also merit inspection. — The Sacristy, 
entered to the 1. from the choir, is adorned with intarsias by Bonaventura 
I'resto, and paintings by the Cavaliere iVArpino, Stanzioni, and Varavaggio. — 
Beyond it is the Tesoro, containing as an altar-piece a "Descent from the 

Castel Sant' Elmo. NAPLES. i. Route. 83 

Cross, the master-piece ol' SpaijnoUllu ; on the ceiling Judith, by Luca 
Giordano , painted, it is said, in 48 hrs., when the artist was in his 72nd 
year. — The ceiling ol' Hie Chaftek-House is adorned with a painting by 
Corenzio; other pictures by Arjtino, Finoglia, Stanzioni, and Cambiaso. 

From the chapter-house we pass through another small room 
and enter the *Cloisters, supported on each of the four sides by 
fifteen columns of white marble, and adorned with numerous statues 
of saints. The *View from the belvedere of the garden embraces 
the city, the bay, and the fertile country as far as Nola and the 
Apennines. It is more limited than that from the summit of 
the fort, but more picturesque. 

Visitors are not admitted to the castle without a permesso 
from the commandant at Naples (Piazza del Plebiscito, PI. E, 6), 
which is readily granted. 

The Castel Sant' Elmo (876 ft.), formerly Sunt' Erasmo, was 
erected by Giacomo de Sanctis under Robert the Wise (1343). Under 
Ferdinand I. (1458) it was called Castello di S. Martina , after 
the neighbouring monastery, and considerably extended. In the 
16th cent, it was altered to its present form by Don Pedro de 
Toledo, and in 1641 some additions were made by the Duke of 
Medina. The vast walls, the fosses hewn in the solid tuffstone 
rock, its subterranean passages, and ample cistern formerly ob- 
tained for it the reputation of impregnability, which it has 
long ceased to enjoy. The fort has been dismantled under the 
new regime and is used as a military prison. A walk on 
the ramparts affords a splendid panorama of the town and bay, 
and particularly of the district towards Misenum and Ischia. 

Instead of returning by the same route, the visitor is recom- 
mended to proceed along the height towards the sea. He may 
then either descend to the Corso Yittorio Emanuele and by it 
reach the church of S. Maria di Picdigrotta (p. 82), or continue 
to follow the road on the hill, leading through the Vico Belvedere 
and past the Villa Floridiana to the Vomero, where it unites 
with the road described below near the beautiful Villa Belvedere. 

The Strada dell' Infrascata (Pi. D, E, 3; now Salvator Rosa) 
prolonged under different names, leads from the Museum, 
skirting the brow of the hill, to the extremity of the Posilipo. 
It intersects the small villages of Antignano, Vomero, Posilipo, 
and Strato, and' passes numerous villas and country-residences. 
The first half of the way towards Posilipo is bordered with high 
walls, but beyond that point a succession of delightful views is 
obtained on both sides , over the town and bay and the W. 
environs. A walk as far as the projecting rock of the Posilipo 
occupies 2 hrs.; thence to the Villa Keale 1 hr. ; one-horse 
carr., allowing time to visit S. Elmo and the Grotto of Sejanus 
(p. 78), 4 — 5 fr. , an excursion strongly recommended, as it 


84 Route I. NAPLES. Camaldoli. 

conveys the best idea of the beauties of the environs (drive 2 hrs., 
visit to S. Elmo l 1 /,*, to the Grotto of Sejanus 1 hr.). 

Half-a-mile from the Museum the Vico Arenella diverges to 
the r. towards the village of that name, situated on the height, 
the birth-place of Salvator Rosa in 1605, who terminated his 
chequered career at Home in 1673. 

Running between garden-walls and continuing to ascend, the 
road next reaches Antignano, 10 min. farther. Shortly before the 
village is reached the road to 8. Elmo diverges to the 1., and 
the main road soon divides, leading to Camaldoli to the r., while 
the route at present described proceeds to the left. 

In '/i nr - more we reach Vomero, where the Villa Belvedere 
affords a delightful panorama of land and sea. A precipitous path, 
the Salita del Vomero , descends from this point to the Chiaia. 
L'uder the name of Strada Belvedere the road now skirts the heights 
of the Chiaia, passes the Villa Regina (r.J, and leads to the sum- 
mit of the Posilipo. Near the point where it turns towards the S., 
are the beautifully situated villas Ricciardi, Tricase, and Patrizi. 

We next reach the Grotta di Posilipo, or di Pozzuoli (p. 79), 
'/■2 hr. from Vomero. Between Vomero and the sea the hill bears 
the name of Posilipo. We now arrive at the village of Posilipo, 
whence the Salita di S. Antonio di Posilipo descends to the Mer- 
gellina, passing Virgil's Tomb (p. 80). 

The road continues on the height, leading in about 1 hr. 
to the Strada Nuova. Beyond Posilipo it passes through the village 
of Strato, nearly opposite the Punta di. Cnroglio. It affords an 
admirable survey of the country as far as the Lago d'Agnano, 
Bagnoli, Camaldoli, the Solfatara, Pozzuoli, the environs of Baiae, 
the heights of Misenum, the island of Procida, and the lofty peak 
of Epomeo in Ischia; in the other direction, the town and bay. 

From the point where the road unites with the Str. Nuova 
di Posilipo, a walk of 10 min. more to the r. will enable us 
to inspect the Grotto of Sejanus (p. 7S). Thence back to the 
town is a distance of 3 ' /-2 M. 

** Camaldoli 
commands the most beautiful view near Naples, and perhaps 
the nnest in Italy. The monastery, founded by the Marchese 
di Pescara, the victor at Pavia in 1525, is situated on the E. 
extremity of the chain of hills bounding the Campi Phlegr*i 
on the N., and is the highest point near Naples (1476 ft.). 

Donkeys (2 fr., and a trifle to the attendant ; for two or more 
l'/'i t'r. each), which afford the pleasantest means of accomplishing 
this excursion, are to be found in the Str. dell' Infrascata (PI. 1), 
K, •> ; see p. 83), ascending from the Museum to the left. 
i>r a carriage may be taken as far as the Cappella di Cangiano, 

(Mmaldoli. NAPLES. 4. Route. 85 

( no donkeys here ; necessary therefore to engage one near the 
Museum), but the last part of the ascent (1 hr.) must still be 
performed on foot or on donkey-back. The path described below 
was closed for a considerable time, but is now open to the public 
on payment of a toll C/2 fr)- The public road, easier, and about 
'/■> M. longer, leads through the small village of Nazzaret , but 
is uninteresting. The whole excursion from the Museum to the 
monastery and back occupies about 4 hrs. if a donkey be taken, 
on foot somewhat more. The early morning and the evening 
are most favourable for the view. The evening excursionist should 
start in good time on his way homewards , as a crowd of car- 
riages, horses, mules, and walkers often render the road anything 
hut pleasant after dusk. 

The Strada dell' Infrascata ascends in 20 min. to Antignano. 
After 7 min. it reaches an open space, where the new Corso 
diverges to the left. The road next passes the Stabilimento di 
Francesco di Sales, a girls J school, and leads between rows of 
houses, and finally through gardens in 14 min. more to the vil- 
lage. The road to S. Elmo here diverges to the 1. ; that to the 
r., through the villages, is our present route. The road soon 
divides, the branch to the 1. leading to Vomero. The branch 
10 the t. must be taken, and, where the road again divides 
shortly after, that to the left. Half-a-mile farther the frontier 
of the city douane is reached ; below it and in the garden to 
the r. are beautiful pines. A few min. walk farther we take 
the field-road passing the Osteria to the 1. and soon afterwards 
crossed by a small viaduct, and do not again quit it. We now 
traverse a small ravine, the path being shut in by underwood 
and pines. After 20 min. a house is seen to the r. ; 2 min. 
more, a farm. The path now ascends to the r. , commanding a 
fine view of the bay. Where, after 7 min., it divides, the 
branch descending to the 1. is taken, passing a ravine, through 
which a beautiful glimpse of Capri is obtained. At the end of 
the ravine a road diverges to the 1. . but this and all the inter- 
secting forest paths must be avoided. After 25 min. the path 
passes through a gateway, ascends to the 1. by the wall of the 
monastery garden, and then turns to the left. 

Visitors ring at the gate (a few sous to the doorkeeper), but 
as both monastery and church are uninteresting , we may at 
once enter the garden. It should be observed that there are 
two particularly fine points of view; the most important of these 
is in the garden, in a straight direction ; the other, by the 
monastery, affords a survey of the Campanian plain. Ladies 
have been admitted since the dissolution of the monastery. The 
surviving monks, four in number, offer wine and coffee to visitors. 

The **View from Camaldoli embraces the bays of Naples. 
Pozzuoli, and Gaeta, the widely extended capital (of which a great 

86 Route 5. POZZUOLI. Environs 

portion is concealed by S. Elmo) with its environs, the Lago 
d'Agnano, the craters of Solfatara and Astroni, the promontories 
of Posilipo and Misenum, the islands of Nisida, Procida, and 
Ischia, and the districts of Baiie, Cumse, and Liternum. Towards 
the S. the view is bounded by Capri and the Punta della Cam- 
panella, the ancient promontory of Minerva. The small towns 
of Massa, Sorrento, and Castellamare are visible ; also Monte Sant' 
Angelo, the smoking cone of Vesuvius, and the luxuriant plain 
at its base. Towards the N. the eye wanders over the expanse of 
the Campania Felix with its numerous villages, over Nola, Cancello. 
Maddaloni, Caserta, Capua, Monte Tifata, the volcanic group of 
the Rocoa Monfina, the lake of Patria, Gaeta, the hills of Formia\ 
and the Monte Circello beyond. To the W. extends the open 
sea with the islands of Ponza, Ventotene, S. Stefano, and Isola 
delle Botte. 

A precipitous path, traversing wood and rock, leads from Ca- 
maldoli to the plain of Pianura. On the S. side of the mon- 
astery lies the village of Soccavo, beyond it Fuorigrotta , above 
which rises the hill chain of S. Elmo, Vomero, and Posilipo. 

5. Pozznoli, Baise, Misenum, and Cumse, 

The district to the W. of Naples has from time immemorial been a 
scene of the most powerful volcanic agency, and as late as the 16th cent. 
vast changes have taken place here, the traces of which are encountered by 
the traveller at every step. This tract is scarcely less interesting in an 
historical than in a physical point of view. It was here that Hellenic 
civilisation first gained a footing in Italy, and constant communication was 
thenceforth maintained between this portion of the peninsula and the East. 
The legends of Hellenic tradition are most intimately associated with these 
coasts, and the poems of Homer and Virgil will continue to invest it with 
a peculiar interest as long as classic literature exists. The prosperity of 
this lovely coast has long since departed. The grand creations of imperial 
Rome, the innumerable palatial villas of the Roman aristocracy, have long 
been converted into a chaotic heap of ruins by convulsions of nature, and 
have left behind comparatively slight traces of their former magnificence. 
The malaria which prevails in many parts of the district, and the stupendous, 
though slumbering , agencies beneath the soil cast a certain gloom over 
the scene; but the inexhaustible beauties of Italian nature are still in- 
vested with the same charms as they possessed two thousand years ago. 
Islands and promontories, bays and lakes, and singularly beautiful inden- 
tations of the coast forn\ the chief features of this scenery, which is per- 
haps without rival. 

The excursions in this direction may be regarded as extensions of those 
last described in the vicinity of Naples. How they may best be combined, 
must depend on the inclination of the traveller himself. The fertile ima- 
gination of the natives has assigned all kinds of imposing classical names 
to many insignificant and uninteresting objects in this district, and strangers 
are therefore often importuned to inspect worthless curiosities which make 
serious inroads on time, temper, and purse. The only objects of real 
interest are enumerated in the following description. 

Excursion ok One Day: carriage and pair 25 fr. : with one horse, for 
two persons, 10 — l'J fr. ; distinct bargain as to details of tour to be made 
before starting. As (hose only who are well acquainted with the country 
can dispense with the services of a iiuide , the traveller is recommended 

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of Naples. POZZUOLI. 5. Route. 87 

to escape from the importunities of the guides at Pozzuoli, Baise, etc., 
by engaging a cicerone (6 fr.) at Naples, who will also order the carriage 
and pay all gratuities (whole expense for two persons in carriage with 
one horse about 20 fr.). — The road leads through the grotto of Posilipo 
to Bagnoli and -Pozzuoli, to the Arco Felice, the ruins of the ancient 
Cumae, the Lago del Fusaro, and "Baiae, whence we ascend to the Piscina 
Mirabilis and the Capo Miseno. Then back to Baise, and past the Lucriiie 
Lake to the Grotto of the Sibyl on the Lacus Ave nuts ; ascend the crater of 
Monte Nuovo , return by the shore to Pozzuoli, and finally to Naples by 
the Strada Nuova di Posilipo. One day amply suffices for the excursion 
if the visit to Cumse and the ascent of M. Nuovo be omitted from the plan. 
Cumse is chiefly interesting to archaeologists. The road leading over the 
Arco Felice, and past the Lago del Fusaro, to Baise is practicable for car- 
riages, but bad. The start should be made at an early hour, and break- 
fast taken at Baise. The important antiquities of Pozzuoli may be in- 
spected either in going or returning. 

These excursions may also be conveniently divided into two. One 
afternoon may be devoted to the two routes between Naples and Pozzuoli, 
the town itself with the Solfatara, and the Lago oVAgnano (one-horse carr. 
5 fr.) , the best arrangement being to proceed first to the Lago d'Agnano, 
there quit the carriage, and walk (in 1 hr.) by the Solfatara and amphi- 
theatre to Pozzuoli (boy to act as guide '^fr.), where the carriage is rejoined. 
Another afternoon to Baiae and Misenum , the Lacus Avernus and Cumae 
(7 — 8 hrs. ; one-liorse carr. 8 fr.). 

A visit to Procida and Ischia may also be pleasantly combined with 
the excursion. From the beach at Miniscola the passage to Procida may 
be made in '| 2 — 3 |4 hr. (i'| 2 — 2 fr.); but boats are not always to be obtained. 
About 8 or 9 a. m. a market-boat starts from Pozzuoli for Procida (30 — 50 c.) ; 
a private boat is of course preferable (5 — 6 fr.). Boat from Pozzuoli to Baise 
for 1 — 3 pers. 1 fr., according to tariff. Travellers who take an interest in 
antiquities, and do not object to walking, should not engage a carriage for 
the whole excursion , but hire one from time to time when necessary. A 
single traveller may engage a 'corricolo' at 8 fr. a day. 

To Pozzuoli is a drive of 1 hr., or a walk of 2 hrs. The carriages, 
by which the constant communication between this town and Naples is 
maintained, are to be found in front of the Cafe Benvenuto in the Str. di 
Chiaia ; one-horse carr. for the single journey l'fe fr. ; for a single seat !| 2 fr. 
These vehicles, however, which are in fact omnibuses on a small scale, 
are not to be found with certainty except in the early morning, and are 
less suitable for excursionists than an ordinary carrozzella (double journey 
4 fr., or returning by the Str. Nuova di Posilipo 5 fr.). 

The direct road to Pozzuoli leads by the Chiaia, then to the 
r. by the Str. di Piedigrotta and the grotto itself to the village 
of Fuorigrotta (p. 80). At the extremity of the village the 
high-road to Bagnoli leads to the 1. (that to the r. to the Lago 
d'Agnano, p. 81). The high-road then passes between a suc- 
cession of gardens, presenting no objects of interest, and leads 
to the coast (4i/ 2 M.), where the beauty of the scenery begins 
to develop itself. In the foreground is the island of Nisida 
(p. 79). Bagnoli possesses warm springs containing salt and 
carbonic acid gas, and baths of considerable repute. Beyond it 
are other springs containing sulphur and iron. The road then 
skirts the sea for I1/2 M - Near Pozzuoli, in the lava rocks 
projecting towards the sea, are extensive quarries, where about 
200 galley-slaves are employed. 

Pozzuoli (Ponte di Caligola, in the Piazza, the landlord 
F. Terracina is recommended as a guide ; Bella Italia and Forticna 

8S Route 6. POZZl'OLI. Environs 

on the quay; charges in ;t 1 1 according to bargain), originally the 
Greek colony Dicneurchin. subdued by the Romans in the Sam- 
mite wars and named by them Puteoli , afterwards became the 
most important commercial city in Italy, and the principal depot 
for the traffic with Egypt and the East , whence Oriental forms 
of worship were introduced here at an early period. St. Paul 
once spent seven days here (Acts, 28). It is now a dull town, 
situated on a promontory in the Oolfo di Pozzuoli (part of the 
bay of Naples) , opposite the Cape of Miseno , and its ruins are 
the only indication of its ancient importance. 

As the traveller enters the town, he is immediately besieged by guides 
and dealers in spurious antiquities, which are manufactured at Naples, and 
after a certain period of interment re-appear with the requisite coating 
nf rust, verdigris, and dirt. If a guide is engaged, his terms should be pre- 
viously ascertained : for the visit to the town, amphitheatre, and temple 
of Serapis 1 fr., with the addition of the Solfatara and Lago d'Agnano 
MJ2 — 2 fr. Pietro Roca, who speaks French, may be recommended. The 
traveller who intends to prolong his drive should order his carriage to 
meet him at the Temple of Serapis. The guides usually conduct visitors, 
on the way to the amphitheatre, to the magazine of antiquities of Oiuseppe 
Criscio, whose relics though exorbitantly' dear are probably genuine. 

The town itself presents few attractions. 

In the Principal Piazza rises the statue of a senator, bearing 
the name of Q. Flav. Mavortius Lollianus, discovered in 1704. 
The head, though also ancient, is not the original, but was 
added at a later date. Opposite to it is the statue of Bishop 
Leon y Cardenas. Viceroy of Sicily under Philip III. 

At the Quay are the remains of the ancient pier , called by 
Seneca Pilae, by Suetonius Moles Puteolanae, now Ponte di 
Cnligola. Of the original twenty-five buttresses, which supported 
twenty-four arches, sixteen are left, three being under water. 
They are constructed of bricks and puzzolana or volcanic earth, 
and bear an inscription recording that the pier was restored by 
Antoninus Pius. A common, but erroneous impression is, that 
they were connected with the bridge of boats which Caligula 
threw across the bay of Baiw, in order that, clad in the armour 
of Alexander the Great , he might there celebrate his insane 
triumph over the Parthians. 

The f'dttedrale S. Proculo, in the upper part of the town, 
occupies the site of a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Cal- 
purnius. In one of the lateral walls are still preserved six Co- 
rinthian columns from the ancient temple. The church contains 
the relics of St. Proculus and two other saints, and the monuments 
of the Duke of Montpensier and Giovanni Battista Pergolese of 
Jesi. the talented composer of the original Stabat Mater, who 
died in 1736 at the early age of 2(5. 

At the W. end of the town a narrow street (bearing the 
inscription T.agni e Tempio di Serapide') leads from the sea 
to the *Temple of Serapis, or Serapeum (fee l'/sfr.J, known as 

of Naples. POZZCOLI. 5. Route. 80 

early as 1538, but not completely excavated till 1750. It con- 
sisted of a square court, enclosed by forty-eight massive marble 
and granite columns , and with forty-three small chambers ad- 
joining. The portico rested on six Corinthian columns (three of 
which remain), bearing a rich frieze. In the centre of the court 
stood a circular temple, surrounded by a peristyle of sixteen 
Corinthian pillars of African marble , which have been trans- 
ferred to the theatre of the palace at Caserta (p. 10), the bases 
alone being left. The interior was approached by four flights of 
steps. The pavement declined inwards towards the centre, where 
the statues of Serapis , now in the museum at Naples , were 
found. Two inscriptions found here mention the restoration of the 
temple by Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. The lower 
parts of the ruin are under water, but the level of the ground has 
recently been raised, in order to prevent unhealthy exhalations. 

In the course of centuries a species of shellfish (lithodomus, or modioly 
lithophaga, still found in this vicinity) had undermined the bases of the 
central columns, whilst the upper parts remained intact. Interesting obser- 
vations may be made here with respect to the changes which have taken 
place in the level of the sea at different periods. That it had risen con- 
siderably, even in ancient times , is proved by the fact that mosaics have 
been found 6 ft. below the present level of the pavement. After the decline 
of heathenism the sea continued to rise, as the different watermarks testify. 
Subsequently the lower part of the edifice was buried to a depth of 12 ft., 
probably by an eruption of Solfatara, and thus protected against the farther 
invasions of the Crustacea. These extend to a height of 9 ft., so that at 
one period the sea-level must have been at least 20 ft. higher than at 
present. This great change was caused by the convulsion connected with 
the eruption of Monte Nuovo (p. 91) in 1538. Since the last century the 
ground has again been gradually sinking. The salt springs in the ruins 
were called into existence by the last eruption. 

The Temple of Neptune is a name applied to another ruin. 
to the W- of the Serapeum. consisting of a few pillars rising 
from the sea. In the vicinity, also under water, is situated the 
so-called Temple of the Nympks, from which a considerable num- 
ber of columns and sculptures have been recovered. A little 
farther on, a few fragments indicate the site of Cicero's Puteo- 
laneum, a villa delightfully situated on the coast, with shady 
avenues, which the orator in imitation of Plato called his 
Academy, and where he composed his 'Academica' and 'De Fato . 
Hadrian, who died at Baise, A. D. 138, was interred within the 
preoincts of Cicero's villa, and Antoninus Pius afterwards erected 
a temple on the spot. 

The most interesting and perfect of all these ruins is the — 

* Amphitheatre (fee >/2 fr- )< situated on the eminence behind 
the town (the route thither is by the farther angle of the prin- 
cipal piazza, to the r. ; we then pass through an archway, ascend 
the street, and turn to the 1.). 

It rests on three series of arches, which were surrounded by 
an external court; the two principal entrances were adorned with 
triple colonnades. The interior contained four tiers of seats in 

90 Route 5. SOLFATARA. Environs 

several compartments (cunei), connected by flights of steps. The 
imperial seat was distinguished by Corinthian columns of black 
marble. The arena, 369 ft. long, 216 ft. broad, was excavated 
in 1838, when a number of subterranean passages and receptacles 
for the wild beasts, etc., 98 paces long and 53 broad, were dis- 
covered , which convey a distinct idea of the arrangements and 
machinery of the ancient amphitheatres. By means of a water 
conduit (1. of the principal entrance) the arena could be laid 
under water when naval combats were to be represented ; the 
outlet is in the principal passage. The entrances for the gla- 
diators, and the air holes and outlets of the dens of the animals 
are easily recognised. The celebrated gladiator-combats under 
Nero, when he received Tiridates, King of Armenia as a guest 
at his court, took place here, and even the emperor himself 
entered the arena. Under Diocletian St. Januarius and his 
companions were thrown to the wild beasts here in vain, as an 
inscription on the chapel dedicated to him records, before they 
were put to death near the Solfatara. The high ground near 
the amphitheatre commands a fine view in the direction of 

Above the amphitheatre was situated a theatre, the ruins of 
which have not yet been excavated. Other ruins in the vicinity, 
externally of square, internally of circular construction, are be- 
lieved to have been either Baths or a Temple of Diana. The 
Villa Lusciano contains the so-called Labyrinth, really a piscina, 
or ancient reservoir. The Piscina Grande, with vaulted ceiling, 
resting on three rows of ten columns each , still serves as a 
reservoir, and was doubtless once connected with the ancient 
Julian aqueduct from the Pausilypon to Misenum. 

Roman Tombs have been discovered in great numbers on the 
old roads, the Via Cumpana leading to Capua, the Via Puteolana 
to Naples , and the Via Cumana to Cumae , but are now mere 
shapeless ruins. — On the hill, half-way between Pozzuoli and the 
Solfatara, where St. Januarius was beheaded in 305, stands a 
Capuchin Monastery, erected in 1580, whence there is a magni- 
ficent prospect of the bay. 

The puzzolana or volcanic earth, which yields an indestruc- 
tible cement, derives its name from Pozzuoli. 

Near the amphitheatre a path to the r. leads to the *Solfatara 
(donkey from Pozzuoli 1 fr., but walking far preferable; ad- 
mission to the Solfatara i/ 2 fr- eacn person, according to tariff), 
the crater of a half extinct volcano, an oblong space enclosed 
by hills of pumice-stone, from fissures ('fumaroli') in which 
vapours and sulphureous gases ascend. The ground is hollow 
in every direction. The ancients (Strabo) called this crater Forum 
Vulcani, and believed it to be in communication with Ischia and 
the Campi Phlegrai. The only eruption from it of which we 

of Naples. LACUS AVERNUS. 5. Route. 91 

know, attended with an emission of lava, took place in 1198. 
A manufactory of alum , founded here during the last century, 
soon failed, and the site is now occupied by a stucco manu- 
factory. Above it, towards the E., rise the Colles Leucogaei, 
the white hills whose light coloured dust was so highly prized 
by the ancients for colouring groats and other kinds of grain. 
Several small brooks containing alum have their source here, called 
I Pisciarelli, the Fontes Leucogaei of the ancients (Plin. Nat. 
Hist, xxxi, 2) , which fall steaming into a ravine between the 
Solfatara and the Lago d'Agnano , and are frequently used as a 
remedy for cutaneous diseases. The ground is warm and saturated 
with gas in every direction. The margin of the crater may be 
crossed on the E. side, and the Lago d'Agnano (p. 81) reached 
by footpaths in */ 2 hr. ; but the latter is most conveniently visited 
on the way from Naples to Pozzuoli (p. 87). 

The high-road which leads towards the W. from Pozzuoli divides near 
the Monte Nuovo (l 1 ^ 31.) , to the r. to the Lacus Avernus, Arco Felice, 
and Cumse , to the 1. to Baise and Misenum. One-horse carr. from Pozzuoli 
to Cumse or Baise 3 — 4 fr., to both places 5—6 fr. The donkeys of Pozzuoli 
cannot be recommended (2 — 3 fr. for the afternoon). Passage by boat to 
Baise in */a — 1 hr., 1 fr. for 3 — 4 pers. according to tariff. 

Leaving Pozzuoli by the villa of Cicero, and proceeding W. 
by the shore of the bay, we reach the (l 1 ^ M.) Monte Nuovo 
(456 ft.), a volcanic production of comparatively recent origin. 
Its upheaval took place on 30th Sept., 1538, after a violent 
earthquake. The hill is in the form of an obtuse cone, in the 
centre of which is an extinct crater of considerable depth, en- 
closed by masses of pumice-stone, trachyte, and tufa, distinctly 
indicating its origin. The ascent is interesting. 

The road to Baise, diverging to the 1. near Monte Nuovo, 
traverses the narrow strip of land which now separates the 
Lacus Lucrinus from the sea. 

The Lacus Lacrinus was celebrated for its oysters in ancient 
times. It was separated from the sea by a breakwater, called 
the Via Herculea , from the tradition that the hero traversed it 
when driving the bulls of Geryon across the swamps. It after- 
wards fell to decay and was again repaired , but was seriously 
damaged by the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. A portion 
of it, 250 yds. in length, is still visible beneath the surface of 
the water, where remains of the Portus Julius, or harbour con- 
structed by Agrippa , are also distinguishable. At the present 
day , instead of the once famed oysters , the lake yields the 
spigola, a fish considered a delicacy by the Neapolitans. 

A little inland, bounded on three sides by chestnut and 
vine - clad hills , lies the celebrated *Lacus Avernus , regarded 
by the ancients as the entrance to the infernal regions on account 
of its sombre situation and environs. Tradition affirmed that no 
bird could fly across it and live, owing to the poisonous exhala- 

92 Route 5. OliOTTO OF THE SIBYL. Environ* 

tions, and that the neighbouring ravines were the abode of the 
dismal, sunless Cimmerii, mentioned by Homer (Odyss. xi). 
Virgil, too, represents this as the scene of the descent of ^Eneas, 
conducted by the Sibyl, to the infernal regions (JEn. vi, 237). 
Augustus, by the construction of the Julian harbour, and by 
connecting this lake with the Lacus Lucrinus , was the first to 
dispel these gloomy legends. Horace and Virgil accordingly extol 
the harbour as a prodigy. The canals and wharves of Agrippa 
were still in existence in 1538, but the upheaval of the Monte 
Nuovo destroyed every vestige of them , half filled the Lucrine 
lake, and so altered the configuration of the neighbourhood that 
the two lakes are now quite separate, and the intervening space 
is completely overgrown with underwood. 

The Lacus Avernus is of circular form, now about l'/2 M. in 
circumference, 4 ft. above the level of the sea, and 200 ft. in depth. 
In 1858 the plan of connecting it with the bay of Baia; by 
means of canals, in order to afford a secure harbour for vessels 
of war, was again revived, but two years later abandoned. 

The grottoes and cuttings observed in the S. side of the 
lake, hewn in the tuffstone rock, were probably connected with 
the works of the Portus Julius. One of these caverns, now 
called the Grotto of the Sibyl, is entered by a gateway of brick, 
and consists of a long, damp passage hewn in the rocks and 
ventilated by vertical apertures. About midway between the two 
lakes a narrow passage to the r. leads to a small square cham- 
ber, the 'Entrance to the Infernal Regions'. Near it is a cham- 
ber with mosaic pavement and arrangements for a warm bath. 
It contains luke-warm water , 1 ft. in depth , which flows from 
a spring in a neighbouring chamber, and is styled by the guides 
the 'Bath of the Sibyl\ The grotto is 280 paces in length, and 
blackened with the smoke of the torches. 

A visit to these grottoes is anything but attractive, and should not lie 
attempted by ladies. Visitors . are carried by the guides. Torches neces- 
sary, the proximity of which is disagreeable, 1 fr. each ; admission to the 
grottoes 1 fr. lor each person: bargaining necessary, as the custodian 
frequently demands 2 — 3 t'r. 

On the W. side of the Lacus Avernus is another long passage. 
which served to connect the lake with Cumie (p. 96). On the 
E. side are the interesting ruins of once magnificent Baths, 
sometimes called a Temple of Apollo, or Pluto, or Mercury. 

We now return to the high-road to Baia. Beyond the Lucrine 
lake are situated Le Stufe di Tritoli, the ruins of ancient baths. 
In the immediate vicinity a path on the slope of the mountain 
leads to the Bagni di Nerone, a long, narrow, dark passage in 
the rock . at the farther extremity of which rise several warm 
springs , named Thermae Neronianae by the ancients . and in 
modern times sought by invalids. The water is sufficiently 
warm to cook eggs (for which, 1 fr.; access to the baths 1 / 2 f r J- 

of Naples. BAIA. 5. Route. 93 

These passages contain no object of interest, and are so satur- 
ated with water and so hot that a visit to them is anything 
but pleasant. 

As Baia (Hotel della Begina , a restaurant, commanding a 
charming view , a suitable place for breakfasting ; Albergo del 
Castello, at the foot of the castle, unpretending; guide I1/2 — 2 fr. 
for the afternoon, according to agreement), the ancient Baiae, 
the most famous and magnificent watering-place of ancient times, 
is approached, numerous fragments of ancient masonry, passages, 
colonnades, mosaic pavements, etc., now overgrown and buried 
in rubbish, are observed on the hill to the right. 

The splendour of Baiae rapidly declined after the fall of the Koman. 
empire. In the 8th cent, it was sacked by the Saracens, and in 1500 entirely 
abandoned by its inhabitants. Shortly afterwards the viceroy Don Pedro 
de Toledo erected a Fort here, to which a lighthouse on the promontory 
was subsequently added. Baiae as a Koman watering-place is very fre- 
quently spoken of in the time of Cicero, Augustus, Nero, and Hadrian. 
'Nothing in the world can be compared with the lovely bay of Baite 1 , 
exclaims the wealthy Roman in one of Horace's Epistles (i, 85), who is 
desirous of erecting for himself a magnificent villa there. As a foundation' 
for such edifices, vast piers, of which traces may still be distinguished, 
were thrown out into the sea. Luxury and profligacy soon took up their 
abode here, and the desolate ruins which now alone encounter the 
eye point the usual moral. Three of the larger colonnades belonged to 
different Baths. 

First , in a vineyard to the r. of the road , stands a large 
circular building, with a vaulted ceiling open in the centre, and 
four recesses in the walls, evidently a bath, but styled a *Temple 
of Mercury , and by the peasantry il troglio (trough). Remar- 
kable echo in the interior (fee 30 — 50 c. ; old women here 
offer to dance the tarantella for the entertainment of travellers). 

A little farther on, to the r., is the Hotel della Regina. 
About 100 paces beyond, to the 1. by the small harbour where 
the boats from Pozzuoli land , is situated an octagonal structure 
with vaulted ceiling, in the interior circular, and 25 paces in 
diameter , with remains of the ancient lateral chambers , and of 
the windows and staircases , somewhat resembling the Minerva 
Medica at Rome, now called the *Temple of Venus. (As this is 
a public thoroughfare , no gratuity need be given ; but in the 
environs of Baiae the peasantry frequently levy toll on persons 
passing through their fields, and the traveller should therefore 
be well provided with change.) 

The third ruin, in a vineyard to the r., a massive octagon, 
circular in the interior, and with four recesses and traces of a 
water-conduit, is now called a,*Temple of Diana (fee 30 — 50 c. ). 

From the harbour of Baiae an excursion may be made by boat (3 — 4 fr. ) 
to the Cento Camerelle (see below), Piscina Mirabilis, and Misenuin. 

The high road skirts the bay, and then ascends a slight emi- 
nence (several columbaria close to the road, to the 1.), passing 
the fort of Bai« on the left. 

94 Route 5. BAC0L1. Environs 

Between the fort and Capo Miseno, 1 M. from the former, 
above the Mare Morto , lies the village of Bacoli [Trattoria del 
Monte di Procida, good wine, bargaining necessary), which 
derives its name from the ancient Villa Bauli. The traveller leaves 
his carriage on the high road at the lower end of the village, 
and ascends by a new field-path in 4 min. to the Piscina Mira- 
bilis situated above it. If time be limited, a visit to the Cento 
CameTelle and other relics may well be omitted. (Guide 
V'2-l fr.) 

The Villa Bauli is celebrated in history as the frequent residence of 
distinguished Romans. It was here that Nero planned the murder of his 
mother Agrippina, March, A. D. 59. The horrible crime was afterwards 
perpetrated at her villa on the Lucrine lake. The tomb of Agrippina, of 
humble pretensions as Tacitus informs us (Ann. xiv, 9), was situated on 
the height by the road to Misenum, near the villa of Csesar. The spot 
can no longer be exactly determined. What is commonly named the 
Sepolcro (f Agrippina, on the coast below the village, a semicircular pass- 
age with vaulted ceiling, reliefs, and paintings, is really the ruins of a 
small theatre. Extensive ruins near this, partly under water, helong, it 
is said, to the villa of the eminent orator Hortensius, and may be visited 
by boat. Even the pond in which he reared his favourite lampreys is 
alleged to be visible. In this villa Nero is said to have sanctioned the 
proposition of his freedman Anicetus, commander of the fleet, to drown 
his mother Agrippina by sinking her in a ship. The attempt , however, 
failed, as she succeeded in escaping in a small boat. 

The Villa of Julius Caesar, on the height near Bauli, was afterwards 
the property of Augustus, and was occupied by his sister Octavia after the 
death of her second husband M. Antony; and here she lost her hopeful 
son the youthful Marcellus, whom Augustus had destined to be his suc- 
cessor. It is believed by many that the subterranean chambers, known as 
the Cento Camerelle, or Carceri di Nerone , or the Labyrinth , belonged to 
the basement storey of this villa (fee '|2 fr.). They are sometimes 
visited by torchlight, but the view from them is the chief attraction. 

On the height between Bacoli and the marshy Mare Morto 
is situated the *Piscina Mirabilis (fee 1/2 fr. ; custodian's house 
on the r. , near the Piscina; vases and other antiquities may be 
purchased of him at reasonable prices), a reservoir at the ex- 
tremity of the Julian Aqueduct, 230 ft. in length, 85 ft. in 
width , with a vaulted ceiling supported by forty-eight massive 
columns, admirably preserved. From the roof of a cottage (good 
wine) a little higher , a fine view is obtained , which , though 
inferior to that from the Capo Miseno, is well worthy of notice. 

From Bacoli we drive in 5 min. to the bridge by the har- 
bour of Misenum , beyond which carriages are not allowed to 
proceed. The Capo Miseno is an isolated mass of rock rising 
from the sea. Its remarkable form once gave rise to the belief 
that it was an artificially constructed tumulus of very ancient 
origin. Thus Virgil [JEn. vi, 232) describes it as the burial- 
place of the trumpeter Misenus : — 

At pins jEnais inrjenti mole sepulcrum 
Inponit, suctque anttft viro remumque ttibfimqnc 
Monte sub aereo, qui nunc Misenus ab illo 
Dicilur aeternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 

of Naples. CAPO MISENO. 5. Route. 95 

The promontory was originally only connected with the main- 
land by the narrow Spiaggia di Miniscola, which runs towards 
the Monte di Procida. An embankment bearing the road now 
forms an additional link. It separates the Mare Motto from 
the harbour, and has rendered the former so shallow that it 
was recently used in the preparation of sea-salt. In ancient times 
a wooden bridge was occasionally erected on the site of this 
embankment. In connection with the works at the Lacus Avernus 
and the Lacus Lucrinus, a vast war harbour was constructed at 
Misenum by Agrippa by order of Augustus, in order to serve as 
a receptacle for the Roman fleet on this coast, like Ravenna in 
the Adriatic. It consisted of three basins, two outer, one on 
each side of the promontory called Forno, and one inner, the 
present Mare Morto. The Punta di Pennata, which bounds the 
harbouT of Misenum on the N., was penetrated by a double 
subaqueous passage for the purpose of preventing the accumu- 
lation of sand at the entrance. A pier was also constructed on 
pillars, thTee of which are still visible under water. Other rel- 
ics of antiquity abound in the neighbourhood, but it is a difficult 
matter now to ascertain to what they belonged. Even the situ- 
ation of the town of Misenum is not precisely known, although 
it probably lay near the modern village of that name. Scanty 
remnants of a theatre are still traceable near the small pro- 
montory II Forno. Some ruins on the height above are sup- 
posed to belong to the once famous villa of Lucullus, afterwards 
the property of Tiberius, who died here, and subsequently that 
of Nero. The Grotta Dragonara, a long subterranean passage on 
the W. side of the promontory, with vaulted roof, supported by 
twelve pillars, is variously conjectured to have been a naval 
depot or a reservoir for water. 

Misenum was indebted for its importance to the fleet stationed 
here, which in the year A. D. 79 was commanded by the Elder 
Pliny, who perished during the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius (p. 107]. 
In 890 the town was destroyed by the Saracens. 

A walk to the summit of the promontory and back occupies 
about l 4 /2 hr. , an d ls somewhat fatiguing for ladies. The road 
leads from the bridge, past the white powder-mill, to the church 
of Misenum. Ruins of ancient buildings are observed in every 
direction. A boy may be engaged in the village as a guide for a 
few soldi ('in coppa' signifies 'to the top'). The main road to the 
Tenuta is followed , but shortly before reaching the latter we 
ascend to the r. and traverse woods and vineyards by means of 
narrow and precipitous paths. The summit is crowned with a 
ruined castle. Towards the sea is situated a picturesque mediaeval 
watch-tower; another similar tower has recently been compelled 
to make way for a lighthouse. The **View hence is one of the 
most remarkable in the environs of Naples. It embraces the 

96 Route 5. ARCO FELICE. Environs 

bays of Naples and Gaeta with the surrounding heights. The 
peculiarity of the scene consists in the fact that the spectator 
appears to stand in the midst of a complicated assemblage of 
straits, p 'ninsulas, bays, lakes, and promontories. The bay of 
Naples resembles a vast lake ; the eye reaches the open sea on 
the farther side alone, between the islands of Capri and Ischia. 

To the W. of Capo Miseno and the Mare Morto rises the 
Monte di Procida, a volcanic rock, covered with vineyards, yield- 
ing excellent wine, and fragments of ancient villas. 

The long, narrow strip of land between Capo Miseno and 
the Monte di Procida, which separates the Mare Morto, or old 
harbour, from the sea , is called Miniseola , or Miliscola, said to 
be contracted from Militis Schola , an ' exercising-ground for 
soldiers'. A boat for crossing the Canale di Procida to Ischia 
(p. 99) or the less distant Procida may generally be obtained 
here ( i >/-2 — ~ f >'-)- 

Where the road to the 1. near the Monte Nuovo leads to 
Baia, that to the r. gradually ascends to Cumae. The Lacus 
Avernus soon becomes visible to the 1. below. Where the road 
divides, we follow the field-road to the 1. and soon reach (3 M. 
from Pozzuoli) the *Arco Felice, a huge structure of brickwork, 
64 ft. in height, 19 ft. in width, situated in a deep gully. On 
the summit are traces of a water-conduit. The arch may have 
been exclusively destined for the latter purpose, or it may also 
have carried a road over the higher ground. About 400 paces 
beyond the Arco Felice, on the road to Cumae, an ancient paved 
way diverges to the 1. to a vaulted passage, styled La Grotta 
delta Pace (after Pietro delta Pace, a Spaniard who explored 
it in the 16th cent.), constructed by Agrippa, and affording the 
most direct communication between Cumae and the Lacus Avernus. 
This tunnel, upwards of 1 /2 M- ln length, is lighted at intervals 
by shafts from above. Travellers from Cumse, or those who wish 
so to combine the excursion to Baia with a visit to the Lacus 
Avernus as not to be obliged to traverse the same ground twice, 
may avail themselves of this vast tunnel (for pedestrians only) 
in order to reach the N.W. bank of the lake. 

The scanty ruins of the ancient Cunue are II/2 M- distant 
from the Arco Felice. (Road bad; driving practicable for a short 
distance only.) About mid-way, where the road to the 1. di- 
verges to the Lago del Fusaro, is situated an Amphitheatre with 
twenty-one tiers of seats, partially concealed by earth and under- 
wood. On both sides of the road, and at the foot of the rock of 
Cum*, numerous tombs have been discovered, many of which 
were examined by the Count of Syracuse, and yielded a valuable 
collection of vases and precious relics of every description. Some 
of these are now preserved in the museum at Naples (raivolta 

of Naples. CUALE. 5. Route. 97 

Cumana, p. 71), others, formerly in the collection of the Marchese 
Campana, are now in the museums of Paris and St. Petersburg. 
Cumse, or Cyme, the most ancient Greek colony in Italy, was 
situated near the sea on a volcanic eminence (trachyte), which 
rises from the extensive plain between the Monte di Procida and 
the mouth of the Volturno. 

The town is said to have been founded by yEolians from Asia Minor 
B. C. 1050, or at an even earlier period. Cumee in its tarn founded 
Dicsearchia, the modern Pozzuoli, and Palseopolis, the modern Naples, and 
exercised the most widely extended influence on the civilisation of the 
Italian peninsula. All the different alphabets of Italy were derived from 
the Cumeean ; and Cumse was the centre whence the Hellenic forms of 
worship, and with them Hellenic culture, became gradually diffused aiming 
the aboriginal tribes. Home received the mysterious Sibylline books from 
Cumse, and the last of the Tarquinii died here in exile. The city, which 
once boasted of great wealth and commercial prosperity, was frequently' 
seriously imperilled by the attacks of the neighbouring tribes, especially 
the Etruscans, who were signally defeated in a naval battle near Cumse, 
by Hiero of Syracuse, the ally of the citizens, B. C. 474. Pindar 
celebrates this victory in the first Pythian ode , and a helmet of the 
enemy dedicated at Olympia as a votive offering from the spoil was found 
there (now in the British Museum). At the close of the 5th cent. Cumse 
participated in the general decline of the Hellenic towns. In 420 it was 
stormed by the Sainnites, and in 337 taken by the Romans, after which 
it became a Roman municipium of little importance. Under the emperors 
it fell entirely to decay, but was restored by the Goths. In the 9th cent. 
it was burned by the Saracens , and in the 13th it was finally destroyed 
as a stronghold of pirates by the inhabitants of Xaples and Aversa. 

Fragments of the huge external walls of the lofty *Acropolis 
are still standing. Beautiful prospect thence towards the sea, 
Gaeta, and the Ponza Islands, and (to the 1.) of the Lago Fusaro, 
Ischia, etc. Considerable remains of the ancient fortifications 
are preserved, especially on the E. side and by the S. entrance. 
The rock on which this castle stands is perforated in every 
direction with passages and shafts. One of these, with numerous 
lateral openings and subterranean passages, is thought to cor- 
respond with the description which Virgil (^En. vi, 41) gives of 
the Grotto of the Sibyl, which had a hundred entrances and as 
many issues, ' whence as many voices resound, the oracles of 
the prophetess'. The principal entrance is on the side of the 
hill towards the sea, but most of the passages are blocked up. 
It is believed that one of the passages leads to a large, dark 
cavern in the direction of the Lago del Fusaro, but investigations 
have been abandoned as dangerous. — Few traces are now left 
of the temples of Apollo, Diana, the Giants, and Serapis, where 
recent excavations have brought to light a number of sculptures 
and columns. The scanty ruins are concealed among vineyards 
and underwood. 

To the S. of Cumse is situated (l'/o M.) the Lago del Fusaro, 

perhaps once the harbour of Cuma?, to which the poetical name 

of the Acherusian Lake is sometimes applied. It is still, as in 

ancient times, celebrated for its oysters. In the centre is a 

Baedeker. Italy III. 5th Edition. 7 

98 Route 6. PROCIDA. Environs 

pavilion, elected by Ferdinand 1. The lake is believed to be 
the crater of an extinct volcano, and as lately as 1838 emitted 
such volumes of mephitic gases that the oysters were destroyed 
by them. At the S. end of the lake is a Roman 'emissarius', the 
Foce del Fusaro, which connects it with the sea. To the N. of 
the emissarius, on a projecting tongue of land, stands the Torre di 
(j'aveta, with extensive ruins of the villa of Servilius Vatia, who 
retired hither when Nero's folly and tyranny at Rome had be- 
come insufferable. ■ — A rough road leads from the Lago del 
Fusaro, passing numerous relics of ancient tombs, to (1 M.) Baia. 

6. Procida and Ischia. 

Comp. Map, p. 86. 

A visit to these charming islands requires two days. The easiest mode 
of reaching them varies according to the season and the weather. In 
summer, from the beginning of June, when the mineral baths of Casa- 
micciola (p. 101) in Ischia are much frequented, steamboats (English and 
Italian companies) ply between the mainland and the islands (offices, 
Mulo Piccolo 36). They generally start at 8. 30 a. m. and 2 p. m. for 
Procida, Ischia, and Casamicciola, which last they reach in 2'|2 hrs. ; 1st 
cl. 5, 2nd cl. 3 l lz fr., return-ticket 6 fr. ; embarkation or landing at Naples 
20 c. , at Procida and Ischia 10 c, at Casamicciola 20 c. for each person. 
The boatmen are of course rarely satisfied with these charges (fixed by 
tariff), but no attention need be paid to their gesticulations. The stea- 
mers are small, unpunctual, and occasionally crowded. When the traffic 
is dull they sometimes reduce their fares ; return-tickets (6 and 5 fr.) are 
generally available during the season. In winter the communication is 
maintained by steamboat once weekly. Unattractive as these vessels are, 
they afford the easiest means of reaching the islands. Market-boats to 
Procida Oh fr- each pers.) perform the passage of 14 M. in 2 hrs. if the 
wind be favourable, but they sometimes take 5 — 6 hrs. A market-boat 
also starts from Pozzuoli (p. 87) ; rowing-boat thence to Procida 6 fr. The 
passage is shortest from Jliniscola (p. 96), about l'|2 M. (2 fr.), but boats 
are not always to be had. 

1st Day. A visit to Procida, which may be paid either in going to or 
returning from Ischia, occupies a few hours only. In the former case 
we land at the town of Procida on the N. side, ascend to the fort for the 
sake of the view, and then traverse the island lengthwise to the creek of 
Chiaiolella (2 31.), where boats are found for the crossing to Ischia (l 1 ^ fr.). 
After landing in Ischia we proceed on foot (or donkey l'Ja fr.) to Casamic- 
ciola, and pass the night there. On the 2nd Day we may ascend the Epomeo 
(p. 101), and either return to Casamicciola or descend to Forio, and take 
the steamboat thence to Naples , or only to the town of Ischia if we con- 
template a visit to Capo Miseno and Pozzuoli before returning to the city. 
Good inns at Procida, Ischia, and Casamicciola; the last is preferable on 
account of its delightful situation. The passage from Ischia to Capri may 
be accomplished by rowing-boat in 6 hrs. in favourable weather (20 fr.). 

Procida, the Prochyta or Prochyte of the ancients, is, like 
its sister island Ischia, with which it appears once to have been 
connected, of volcanic origin, being composed of pumice-stone 
and lava. It consists of two contiguous craters, which now form 
two semicircular bays, their S. margins having been destroyed 
by the action of the sea. A third and smaller crater forms 
the creek of Chiaiolella, and a fourth the neighbouring island 

of Naples. ISCHIA. 6. Route. 99 

of Yivtira, which has been separated from Procida by some con- 
vulsion of nature. The island is 3 M. in length, varying in 
width, in some places very narrow; population 13,810, whose 
occupations are fishing, the cultivation of fruit, and the production 
of wine. The surface is somewhat flat compared with that of 
its more majestic sister isle. 

As it is approached, the most conspicuous object is the 
fort, situated on the Punta di liocciola, the N.W. extremity. 
Beneath lies the town of Procida, extending along the N. coast, 
partly built on the higher ground above , and stretching thence 
towards the S. side. The white, glistening houses with tlieir 
flat roofs present a somewhat oriental aspect. On festivals, 
especially that of St. Michael (29th Sept.), the women in com- 
memoration of their ancient origin assume the Greek costume 
(red upper garment with gold embroidery) , and perform their 
national dance, the tarantella. 

The principal landing-place is on the N. side. The steam- 
boats, however, occasionally pass on the S. side in unfavourable 
weather. From the N. landing-place we ascend by the Cafe del 
Cvmmercio, and follow a street to the 1. leading to the Piazza, 
whence a pleasing prospect towards the S. is enjoyed. A memo- 
rial tablet was placed here in 1863, recording the names of 
twelve inhabitants of the island who were executed at the time of 
the reaction of 1799. (About '/ 2 M. farther, in the Str. Beneficio 
to the r., is a *Trattoria di Vampayna, which also affords quar- 
ters for the night.) The route to the fort, situated on a preci- 
pitous rock which commands a magnificent view , ascends to 
the left. 

A road from the town leads S., passing numerous groups of 
houses, to the creek of Chiaiolella (23/4 M.), below the ancient 
castle of S. Margarita, and near the small olive-clad island of 
Vivara. The passage from this creek to the island of Ischia is 
made in 3 / 4 hr. As the latter is approached it presents a most 
beautiful picture, with its picturesquely shaped hills, commanded 
by the lofty Epomeo, and luxuriantly clothed with vegetation. 
Along the shore extends a row of white houses , situated on 
streams of lava which descend to the sea, and commanded by 
the imposing fort. Towards the N. E. the sharply defined 
outlines of the mountains of Terracina may be distinguished ; 
more to the E. the broad, pyramidal mountain of Gaeta; to the 
S. E., beyond Procida, rises Vesuvius. 

Ischia, the Pithecusa, JEnariu, or Inarime of the ancients, 
the mediaeval Iscla, the largest island near Naples, is upwards 
of 15 M. in circumference, not taking the numerous indentations 
into account, and has 28,000 inhabitants, who are principally 
engaged in fishing and the culture of the vine (white wine, light 


100 Routefi. ISCHIA. Environs 

and slightly acid) and other fruit. The climate is genial, the soil 
extremely productive ; the scenery almost everywhere singularly 
beautiful, for which it is indebted to its volcanic origin. Monte 
Epomeo (the ancient Epomeus, or Epopeus) was an active volcano 
at a much earlier period than Vesuvius, and in consequence of 
its eruptions the island was deserted in B. C. 474 by the greater 
number of the Greek inhabitants. Eruptions also took place in 
B. 0. 92, and under Titus, Antoninus Pius, and Diocletian. 
According to the ancient poets , the giant Typhoeus , transfixed 
by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, lay buried beneath this mountain, 
like Enceladus under yEtna , periodically groaning and causing 
fearful eruptions of fire. The last eruption recorded took place in 
1302. The stream of lava which on that occasion descended to 
the sea near Ischia is not yet covered with vegetation , and 
resembles a black seam athwart the landscape. 

After the fall of Rome Ischia suffered many attacks and devastations 
at the hands of the different lords of Italy, especially the Saracens in 813 
and 847, the Pisans in 1135, and the Emp. Henry VI. and his son 
Frederick II. In 1282 it revolted with Sicily against the Anjou dynasty, 
but was subdued by Charles II. of Naples in 1299, and has since been 
united with the kingdom and shared its vicissitudes. The celebrated 
general, the Marchese Pescara, was born in 1489 at the castle of Ischia, 
which was afterwards gallantly defended by his sister Constance against 
the forces of Louis XII. of France. As a reward, her family were invested 
with the governorship of Ischia, which they retained till 1734. In 1525 
Pescara's widow, Vitloria Golonna, celebrated alike for her talent and 
beauty, the poetical friend of Michael Angelo, retired to Ischia to mourn 
her husband's loss. So too Maria of Arragon in 1548, widow of the Mar- 
chese del Vasto. 

The charming situation of this island has attracted numerous 
visitors in all ages, and its influence is as fascinating as ever. 
A sojourn here during the height of summer is strongly recom- 
mended on account of the refreshing coolness of the air. The 
N. side, having been most exposed to volcanic action, is far 
more beautiful than the S. The principal towns are Ischia, 
C'asamicciola, and EorTo. 

Ischia (Locanda Nobile of Michele Tiuono in the Piazza, 
tolerable; Trattoria of Giuseppe Buono), the capital of the island, 
with 6545 inhab. , and the seat of a bishop, contains nothing 
to interest the traveller. The view from the lofty isolated Fort, 
erected by Alphonso I. of Arragon, and connected with the land 
by a stone pier, is very fine ; but access to it can only be 
obtained by permission of the commandant, which is sometimes 
refused. The town, picturesquely situated on the coast, extends 
from the fort to the Punta Molina. 

The route to Casamicciola (4'/.> M.J is at places very 
beautiful. It leads to the baths in the environs, crossing the 
Lava deli Arso, or lava-stream of 1302, which, however, did not 
descend from Epomeo, but from an inferior crater in the vicinity, 
where slag and pumice-stone are still observed. The neigh- 

of Naples. ISCHIA. 6. Route. 101 

homing Luke of Ischia, about 1 '/ 4 M. from the town, an ancient 
crater filled with salt water, has in modern times been connected 
with the sea in order to afford refuge to vessels overtaken by 
stormy weather. To the 1. of the lake is situated the royal Ca- 
sino or villa, with beautiful grounds. 

The road then ascends inland to the loftily situated - — 

Casamicciola (landing-place l'/ 4 M. distant; boat to or from 
steamer 20 c. each person; donkey to the hotel </ 2 fr- i tne 10a d 
from the landing-place thither, ascending to the r., cannot be 
mistaken ; order strictly maintained at the landing-place by the 
authorities), a village with 3690 inhabitants, and in summer 
(May to September) a much frequented watering-place on account 
of its numerous thermal springs (containing salt, soda, carbonic 
acid, and sulphur). Other visitors also frequently take up their 
summer quarters here. Lodgings may be procured here or at 
Forio (see below). 

The hotels arc also adapted for a stay of some duration ; for passing 
travellers the charges are as high as those of first, class hotels, although 
not warranted by the accommodation. They are all detached, situated in 
gardens , and commanding beautiful views. - Hotel Bellevue , the 
yellow house farthest to the r. with the finest view , visited by Gari- 
baldi in 1863 ; La Gran Sentinella , a grotesque - looking , pink house, 
delightfully situated; previous understanding necessary; pension about 6 fr.; 
:: Villa de Rivaz, pension 8 fr. — Lower down : "Hotel des Etkangers, a 
comfortable house, English landlady, pension 7 fr. ; Villa Sauve (French), 
pension 8 fr. ; Pension Villa Pisani ; Gran Bretagna , still lower, to 
the 1. by the public rooms. 

Many delightful walks and excursions may be taken from 
this point. Thus to the village of Lacco, situated on the lava- 
stream which forms the N.W. extremity of the island. Here 
are situated the church and monastery of St. Kestituta, the pa- 
troness of the island, on the occasion of whose festival (17th May) 
numerous Greek costumes and dancers of the tarantella are ob- 
served. Near the monastery and in the garden attached to it 
are the sources of hot springs, used for vapour-baths. 

Forio, the most populous place in the island after Ischia, 
with 5791 inhabitants, and scattered irregularly along the W. 
coast, is 3 M. distant. The Franciscan monastery by the sea 
merits a visit on account of the beauty of its situation. 

The ascent of the mountain **Epomeo (2782 ft.), or Monte 
8. Nicola, the finest of all the excursions, may be undertaken 
from any of the principal towns, and occupies 5 — 6 hrs. A 
direct , but precipitous and fatiguing path ascends from Casa- 
micciola. Donkeys are generally used for the ascent (3—4 fr.; 
at the hotels 5 fr. are demanded). Those who desire to return 
by the steamboat the same day should descend to Ischia or 
Forio, and thus become acquainted with the greater part of the 
island. The whole excursion from Naples, the ascent of Epomeo, 
and return to the city, can be accomplished in a single day if 

102 Routed. ISCHIA. Environs 

necessary ; but it need hardly be added that such a hurried expe- 
dition cannot afford much enjoyment. The afternoon and evening 
light is the most favourable for the view. 

The route from Casamicciola first descends to the 1. by the 
public rooms and follows the road to Ischia. The footpath then 
ascends to the r., occasionally traversing precipitous ravines. 
The vegetation changes ; below are vineyards, above them chest- 
nut-woods, and then barren, rocky ground. Beyond the culminating 
point of the pass, the path skirts the S. side of the mountain, 
beneath the principal peaks , and ascends in long zigzags to 
the hermitage (donkey in 2 | /. 2 hrs. ; on foot by the more direct 
path in 2 hrs.). 

On the summit are a Hermitage and a chapel dedicated to 
S. Nicola, hewn in the volcanic rock. Wine and bread may be 
obtained here, and in any case a trifling donation is expected. 
Passages and steps out in the rook ascend to the **Belnedere, 
commanding a singularly magnificent panorama, embracing the 
three bays of Gaeta, Naples, and Salerno. At the feet of the 
spectator lies the island of Ischia itself; to the W. the open 
sea; to the E. the coast of Italy from Terracina, the promontory 
of Circello, and the Ponza islands to Capo Miseno, Vesuvius, the 
Capo Campanella, and Psestum ; in the foreground Procida , the 
indentations of the Bay of Naples, to the r. the island of Capri ; 
towards the N. the distant snowy peaks of the Abruzzi. 

The descent by the villages of Fontanel, Moropano, and Casa- 
bona, and lastly across a desolate field of lava to Ischia, occupies 
2'/4 hrs. ; by Panx-a to Forio about the same time. The ascent 
and descent are equally interesting, affording the most charming 

The following extracts from the writings of Xicolovius, an eminent 
German author, and husband of Gcethe^s niece, although dating from 1792, 
are in most respects still applicable to Ischia. 

'The climate of this charming island is genial, the sky rarely overcast, 
the winters mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied by nature with the 
necessaries of life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs, and 
all kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in the rich volcanic soil. Here and 
there are observed groves of young oaks and chestnuts. Orange, pome- 
granate, fig, and arbutus trees are the most common in the gardens ; the 
myrtle and mastich-tree form the most frequent underwood in the unculti- 
vated parts. The inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar dialect, 
costume, and figure. Fashion is unknown. The island cannot boast of a 
single carriage or horse. The king himself on landing here must, like the 
humblest inhabitant, have recourse to a donkey, unless he prefers to 
walk .... Nowhere have we seen the tarantella, or national Neapolitan 
dance, in greater perfection than here. It is usually performed by two 
girls ; a third plays on the tambourine and sings. The woes of an absent 
or unhappy lover are usually the theme of the song. In many of them 
the Madonna and Cupinto (Cupid) are depicted as in perfect harmony with 
each other. The dancers stand opposite to each other, grasp the corners 
of their broad aprons, and commence their evolutions. They place their 
anus alternately akimbo, while the disengaged hand grasping the apron 
raises it high in the air, and occasionally draws it tightly across the knee. 
The posture and the manipulation of the apron changes incessantlv. At. 

of Naples. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 103 

one time they flit past each other, at another with a slight curtsey and 
sweep of the foot give the sign to meet again, whereupon they relinquish 
their hold of the aprons and career round in a circle, striking their casta- 
nets with upraised hands, or imitating the sound with their fingers. The 
caprice of the dancer is capable of imparting an entirely different character 
to the dance, which is generally intended to manifest the state of the feel- 
ings. Fortunata, a relative of our host, performed the dance one evening, 
at our request, with an uncouth Lombard youth, and the expression of the 
dance was one of bitter derision. 1 

7. Mount Vesuvius. Herculaneum. 

Compare Map, p. 86. 

The "Ascent of Mount Vesuvius may be undertaken from Resina near 
Portici, or from Pompeii. The whole excursion occupies about 7 hrs., but 
one clear day should be allowed, in order to leave sufficient margin for 
rest, refreshment, and the journey from Naples and back. Or the ascent 
may be combined with a visit to Herculaneum or to the garden of La 
Favorita. Licensed guides are to be found at Portici, Resina (32), and Pom- 
peii (9), without one of whom the excursion should not be attempted. 
From Pompeii the expedition is less costly and the traveller is less exposed 
to annoyance, but the ascent is less interesting , somewhat longer , and 
generally more fatiguing owing to the loose sand which has to be tra- 
versed. The route from Resina is also preferable as it passes the chief 
lava-streams of the eruption of April, 1872. Guides are to be found at 
the railway station at Pompeii, and at the Offlcina delle Guide del Vemirio 
at Resina, to the 1. in the principal street, about l \-z M. from the station. 
A Carriage-Road ascends Vesuvius as far as theOsservatorio and the ta- 
vern called the 'Hermitage 1 . Carriage with three horses thither from Naples 
25 — 30 fr. ; thence to the summit an ascent of l 3 |i hr., the last part being 
very fatiguing, especially since the late eruption, which has covered the 
whole mountain with scoriae and ashes. This mode of making the excur- 
sion is recommended to good walkers , who will find guides awaiting 
their arrival ; or they may prefer to order horses beforehand. Riding, 
however, is not always practicable here, and it frequently happens that 
the whole of Hie latter part of the ascent must be made on foot. A 
single traveller will always find Resina the most convenient starting 

The Expense for a single traveller is about 15 fr. , for members of a 
party somewhat less : guide 6 fr. (one sufficient, even for a party), horse 5 fr. 
(generally good), donkey 4 fr. (rather slower). Assistance by means of a 
strap in the ascent of the cone, 2 fr. (unnecessary except for delicate 
persons). Cliaise-a-porteurs ('portantina') with eight bearers from Resina to 
the summit 60, from the Hermitage 40, from the foot of the cone 30 fr. 
All these charges have been fixed by a tariff of the Municipio. A stick 
will be found almost indispensable to walkers, and one may be hired at 
the office for 25 c. The charges from Pompeii are : guide 5, horse 5, holding- 
horse 2, portantina from the foot of the cone to the top 20 fr. 

Numerous attacks are of course made on the traveller's purse en route. 
At almost every cottage on the way the genuine 'Lachrimse Christi' is 
offered for sale, and the traveller will often be amused to observe the 
telegraphic signals which pass between the guides and the innkeepers. 
The wine here is generally good, but had better not be partaken of before 
the ascent. The hermit usually charges 2 fr. per bottle, but it may be 
purchased of the peasants for 1 fr. (about double the market-price). Near 
the top the traveller is generally importuned to buy wine and other re- 
freshments at an exorbitant price, or to allow himself to be assisted to 
the top by a strap; but all necessary arrangements having been previously 
made, no attention should be paid to these oll'ert. Oranges or other fruit 
should lie brought by the traveller from Resina. Eggs for cooking at the 
crater may also be brought, or purchased on the mountain itself (generally 

104 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environs 

1J2 fr. each). It may also be mentioned hero that the people at the office at 
Resina occasionally have the effrontery to thrust, several guides , who are 
sometimes even mounted, on the inexperienced traveller. This is a gross 
imposition, which the traveller should resist by every means at his disposal. 
In such cases the 'tariffa' should be consulted as to the proper charges. 
At the end of the expedition the guide expects a gratuity in addition to 
his regular charge, if the traveller has been satisfied with his services. 

The ascent of the steep cone, which consists of slag and loose ashes, 
is hardly practicable for ladies, especially since the last eruption, but they 
may engage a portantina to carry them up, in which case the descent 
should also be expressly stipulated for. The porters expect a fee of 2 — 3 fr. 
in addition to their regular charge. If the ascent of the cone be thought 
too fatiguing, the traveller is recommended at least to drive as far as the 
Osservatorio, where a view of the lava-fields will be found very interesting. 
Large parties are recommended to order their horses and guides on the 
previous day if possible. In winter, when the mountain is covered with 
snow, the ascent is more difficult. In summer the start should be made 
as early as possible, in order that the summit may be reached before the 
sun becomes unbearably hot. The view is finest about sunrise and sunset. 

As every fresh eruption causes changes in the direction of the bridle- 
path, an elaborate description of the route would soon be rendered useless. 
The following sketch of an ascent made in Sept., 1871, will convey to 
the traveller a general idea of the nature of the expedition. 

'Took one-horse carriage (2 fr. according to bargain) at 8. 40 a. in. 
from the Villa at Naples, reached Porta del Carmine at 9. 20 (several 
stoppages), and the office of the guides at Resina at 10. 10. Started on 
donkey-back at 10. 25 (no horse to be had, because too late) ; 10. 30, left 
the town behind and followed a rough road through vineyards; 11, road 
turns to the N., fine view ; lava-stream of 1868 becomes visible ; still nearer, 
that of 1858. At 11. 15 passed the huge lava wall of 1858, which the 
carriage-road also crosses ; then followed the latter. Passed the Hermitage 
and the Osservatorio at 12 ; at 12. 10 had to dismount. Crossed the lava 
field of 1871 on foot in 20 min. ; lava still hot, though seven months old ; 
passage laborious and requiring much caution. At 12. 45 reached the Atrio 
del Cavallo at the foot of the cone, to which point riding is generally 
practicable. Declined the 'aiuto 1 offered by two men with straps. Mounted 
without difficulty to the new crater which has been formed on the N. 
side of the cone, reaching it at 1. 30. The crater, a miniature Vesuvius in 
itself, presented the most fantastic shapes and the most brilliant colours 
(yellow, green, and white), and was smoking densely. Guide offered to 
conduct us to brink of crater, and the attempt was made with bandaged 
mouth and nose, but fumes of sulphur too overpowering. Then a very 
fatiguing scramble of 10 min. over loose debris to the top. The great 
crater formerly here is now divided into three smaller craters, all of which 
were smoking. Prevailing colour sulphur-yellow. Craters inaccessible. 
Stones thrown in made a strange unearthly noise. View clouded. Started 
on descent at 2. 15, waded through black sand more than ankle-deep, but 
fortunately not very long; regained donkey at 2. 45. In order not to have 
to cross lava of 1871 a second time, and for the sake of returning a shorter 
way, had directed donkey-attendant to take it round to a point farther S. 
(for which he got J fr. extra, according to stipulation). Then rode 
along the lava wall of 1867. At 3 p. m. passed along a ridge between two 
craters of 1861, and soon reached lava wall of 1822. At 3. 10 saw first 
vegetation which has inserted itself between the lavas of 1822 and 1858. 
Next crossed the lava of 1858; 3. 20, reached vineyards; 3. 45, halted at a 
cottage above Resina, enjoyed some delicious grapes, and paid 1 fr. for a 
bottle of good red wine. Reached Resina at 4. 20, and paid fee at office 
of guides. Took walk in the Favorita, drove back in one-horse carriage 
to Naples in time for supper at 7. Expenses : Carriage and fee 2>|i, guide 6, 
fee l'| 2 (because well satisfied with him), donkey 4, attendant for care of 
donkey 3, stick i| 4 , wine and grapes l'|i, gratuity at La Favorita i| 2 , car- 
riage i>ack to Naples 2 1 | l 4 fr. ; total for whole excursion 21 fr. 1 

of Naples. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 105 

The following ascent by two ladies and two gentlemen was made in 
Sept., it>73, from Pompeii, with the excellent guide Luigi Auriemma: — 
'Started slowly on horseback at 2. 30 p. m.; reached Bosco tre Case at 3. 
The dusty road leads for more than a mile through vineyards, but the 
view gradually improves. The lava here dates from 1822. Farther up, 
where the ascent becomes steeper, the lava dates from 1848 and 1868. 
Beached foot of cone at 1. 20. Ascent, more laborious than it used to be, 
accomplished in 3 |4 hr. ; the chaises-a-porleurs with the ladies took no 
longer. The crater, divided into two basins, presented a most imposing 
appearance. Impossible now to descend into it as formerly. At one place 
the lava is still burning and set a stick on fire which was applied to it. 
Enjoyed a most beautiful sunset, the weather calm and cloudless. Slid 
down the cone in a few minutes with the aid of the guide; rode to Bosco 
by torchlight, and drove back thence to our hotel in a carriage pre- 
viously ordered. Cost : two portantinas 40 fr. , four horses 20 , guide 5, 
for holding horses 2, torches 2, torch-bearers 2, extra fee to portantina 
bearers 5, to guide 5, bottle of wine 1 fr., in all 82 fr. 

Railway to Portici 14 trains daily in 16 min. ; fares 75, 55, or 30 c. On 
arriving at the station guides offer their services, which should be declined. 
The road to the r. leads to ( 3 l* 31.) Eesina, where the guides' office (p. 
103) is on the 1. in the principal street. 

Railway to Portici, see p. 114. 

The High Road is also still much frequented, as the distance 
to and from the different railway stations is inconvenient (one- 
horse carr. to Resina 2 fr., or in some cases 2 fr. 60c; comp. p. 26 ; 
omnibus from the Largo del Castello every 1/2 ' ir - 50 c -, not to 
be recommended). It quits Naples by the Porta del Carmine, 
traverses the Marinella, crosses the river Sebeto by the Ponte 
delta Maddalena, passes the barracks of the Granili to the r., 
then leads along the coast, which, however, is so covered with 
villas and other houses that the route resembles a long, dusty 
street, rather than a country road. The first village reached is 
S. Giovanni a Teduccio, which on the 1. is adjoined by the 
small town of La Barra. Portici (Pension du Ve'suve), a large 
village with 11,228 inhab., is next reached, through the castle 
of which, erected by Charles III., the road leads. Then Resina 
(12,557 inhab.), built on the lava-stream which overwhelmed 
Herculaneum. The entrance to the excavations (2 fr. ; on 
Sundays gratis) is to the r. in the principal street, 2 min. 
walk beyond the office of the guides (comp. p. 103). About 
l li M. farther, on the r., is situated the royal chateau of La 
Favorita (permesso to be obtained in the Pal. Reale at Naples, 
p. 40; gratuity ^2 &•)• The interior hardly merits a visit, but 
the garden contains pleasant grounds extending under the railway 
and down to the sea. A casino in the grounds affords a fine 
view of the peninsula of Sorrento. The green vegetation and 
the quiet of the garden will be found most grateful after a hot 
and exciting day spent on Mt. Vesuvius. 

Mount Vesuvius , sometimes called Vesevus by ancient poets 
(e. g. by Lucretius and Virgil), rises in isolated majesty from the 
Campanian plain , near the sea. The height varies , according 

106 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environs 

to the different effects of the eruptions, from 3900 to 4300 ft. ; 
in 1845 the height was 3900 ft., and in 1868 it had increased 
to 4255 ft., but since the eruption of 1872 it has somewhat di- 
minished. The N. B. side of the mountain is named Monte Somma, 
of which the highest peak is the Punta del Nasone (3642 ft.). 
A deep sickle-shaped valley, the Atrio del Cavallo, separates 
Somma from Vesuvius proper, which consists of a cone of ashes 
with the crater in the centre, the 'Forge of Vulcan'. The sum- 
mit is also liable to constant change after eruptions, having some- 
times a single crater with an opening in the middle, and some- 
times two or three craters adjacent to each other. The mountain 
rises from the sea at an angle of 10°, while the cone itself has 
a gradient of 29 — 30°. Monte Somma descends almost perpen- 
dicularly to the Atrio del Cavallo , but slopes very gradually 
down to the plain (3°). 

Vesuvius in Ancient Times. Vesuvius forms the S. E. 
extremity of a highly volcanic district, of which Ischia, Procida, 
the Solfatara, and the Monte Nuovo were formerly active craters, 
but have been extinct for the last three centuries. The 
case was reversed in ancient times, as we are informed by the 
geographer Strabo (v, 4), who lived under Augustus: 'Mount 
Vesuvius is covered with beautiful meadows, with the exception 
of the summit. The latter is indeed for the most part level, 
but quite sterile ; for it has an appearance like ashes , and 
shows rugged rocks of sooty consistency and colour, as if they 
had been consumed by Are. One might conclude from this that 
the mountain had once burned, and possessed fiery abysses, 
and had become extinguished when the material was exhausted. 
And just from this cause its fertility may arise, as in the case of 
Catania the eruption of ashes from ^Etna renders it so productive 
of wine'. About fifty years later, in the time of Nero, A. D. 63, 
the volcanic nature of the mountain manifested itself by a fearful 
earthquake , which destroyed a great part of the prosperous 
environs, and seriously damaged Herculaneurn and Pompeii. This 
was repeated at Naples in 64, and again at intervals till the 
reign of Titus, when, on 24th Aug., 79, the first (recorded) 
eruption took place with appalling fury, and devastated the 
country far and wide, covering it with showers of ashes and vast 
streams of lava. On that occasion, it would appear, the peak 
now called Vesuvius was formed. Previously it had been a 
rounded crater; the S. side, where Vesuvius now rises, being 
the lowest. The crater-like form of M. Somma is still distinctly 
recognisable, although somewhat concealed by the more recent 
deposits of ashes. In those days of terror, Pompeii, Hercula- 
neurn, Stabiie, and other villages of this smiling district were 
overwhelmed. The naturalist Pliny, then in command of a sec- 
tion of the fleet stationed at Misenum, also perished on this 

of Naples. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 107 

occasion. -He had ventured too near the scene of desolation, both 
as an observer and for the purpose of rendering aid to the 
distressed, when he was suffocated near Castellamare by the 
ashes and exhalations. His nephew, the younger Pliny, in two 
letters (Epist. vi, 16, 20) to his friend the historian Tacitus, 
gives a graphic description of this fearful phenomenon. He 
mentions the premonitory earthquakes, day turned into night, 
the extraordinary agitation of the sea, the dense clouds over- 
hanging land and sea, and riven by incessant flashes of light- 
ning, the emission of Are and ashes, the descent of streams of 
lava, and the universal terror of men, who believed the end of 
the world had arrived. A similar description is given of an erup- 
tion in the reign of Alex. Severus, A. D. 222, by Dio Cassius 
(lxvi, 23), who describes two fearful colossal figures which hovered 
over the mountain. Herculaneum and Pompeii were thus lost 
to the world for seventeen centuries. The eruptions of Vesuvius 
have been repeated at intervals with varying violence , down to 
the present day. The next took place in 203, under Septimius 
Severus, and another in 472, from which showers of ashes were 
carried as far as Constantinople. 

Vesuvius in Modern Times. Down to the year 1500 nine 
eruptions are recorded , and from that date to the present time 
fifty. The mountain has been known to be quiescent for centuries 
in succession, while at other periods its activity has been al- 
most uninterrupted, e. g. from 1717 to 1737. From 1500 to 
1631 Vesuvius was quiescent, while in 1538 the Monte Nuovo 
was upheaved near Pozzuoli, and ^Etna was labouring without 
intermission. During that period Vesuvius was entirely covered 
with wood and bushes, like the deer park of Astroni at the 
present day, and cattle grazed peacefully within the crater. After 
this lull, on 16th Dec, 1631, came a most terrific eruption, the 
first of which we possess detailed accounts. A huge cloud of 
smoke and ashes rising in a conical form , cast a profound 
gloom over Naples in the middle of the day , and extended 
with incredible rapidity over the southern portion of Italy , as 
far as Tarentum. Heavy stones were thrown to a distance of 
15 M. (one which fell at the village of Somma was 25 tons 
in weight) , while the earth was convulsed by a violent earth- 
quake , and seven streams of lava poured from the summit, 
overwhelming Bosco, Torre dell' Annunziata, Torre del Greco, 
Resina, and Portici. No fewer than 3000 persons perished on 
that occasion. The following year an eruption of vEtna also 
took place, although that mountain is usually quiescent when 
Vesuvius is in an active state. An eruption in 1707 was of a 
very alarming nature, lasting from May to August, arid covering 
Naples with dense showers of ashes, to the terror of the cit- 
izens. The eruptions of 1737, 1760, and 1767 emitted consider- 

108 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environs 

able quantities of lava and scoria 1 , which descended on Portici, 
and in that of 1767 even to Naples. One of the most stupendous 
of these phenomena took place in August, 1779, when a vast 
number of red-hot stones were hurled to a height of 2000 ft., 
some of them exceeding 100 lbs. in weight, spreading terror 
among the inhabitants far and wide. The lava eruption of 1794 
was even more fatal in its effects ; the streams precipitated 
themselves into the sea by Torre del Greco, heating the water 
for a considerable distance; upwards of 400 lives were lost, 
and the ashes were carried as far as Chieti and Taranto. Erup- 
tions during the present century took place in 1804, 1805, 
1822, Feb. 1850, and May 1855; in June 1858 the upper 
crater sank about 195 ft. below its former elevation ; and on 8th 
Dec, 1861, an outbreak remarkable for its violence, and in- 
teresting from the circumstance of its having been witnessed 
by Humboldt and other men of science , devastated Torre del 
Greco. After this the mountain remained quiescent until 1865. 
In November of that year the lava began to overflow, but at length 
in November, 1868, it forced a passage for itself through a fissure on 
the side of the cone, after which no change took place till 1871. 
Eruption of 1872. The most recent period of activity be- 
gan in January 1871, when the mountain showed renewed symp- 
toms of internal disturbance by the emission of a stream of lava 
through a Assure on the N.E. side. This was followed by an- 
other on the W. side about the end of October, and early in 1872 
these phenomena gradually increased in violence, until at length 
they culminated in the great eruption 24th-30th of April of that 
year. During that time the lava burst forth on every side — on the 
N.E., S.W., and more particularly at the Atrio del Cavallo (p. 106), 
from which a huge stream issued with such suddenness on 26th 
April as to overtake and destroy 20 persons out of a crowd of 
spectators who were watching the spectacle , while others were 
injured by the stones thrown from the summit. The torrent 
descended to Massa and 8. Sebastiano, and passed between these 
villages, which it partially destroyed , in a stream upwards of 
1000 yds. wide and 20 ft. deep. This overflow ran to a distance 
of 3 M. in 12 hours. At the same time, amidst terrific thunder- 
ing, the crater poured forth immense volumes of smoke mingled 
with red-hot stones and lava to a height of 4000 ft., whilst clouds 
of ashes, rising to double that height, were carried by the wind 
as far as Cosenza. The lava emitted during this eruption covers 
an area of 2 sq. M., and averages 13 ft. in depth. The damage 
it occasidned was estimated at upwards of 3 million francs. A 
visit to S. Sebastiano is admirably calculated to convey to the 
traveller an idea of the effects of this stupendous convulsion of 
nature. (One-horse carr. thither from Naples 4 — 5 fr., from 
Portici 3 fr. ; numerous beggars.) 

of Naples. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 7. Route. 109 

Volcanic Phenomena. Notwithstanding the long series of 
porks on the subject which have appeared since 1631, the 
ause of these phenomena is still to some extent a matter of 
nere conjecture. It is highly probable that they are intimately 
onnected with the water of the sea, near which all the prin- 
ipal volcanoes are situated. There is reason to believe that the 
mormous clouds of steam generated during eruptions are due to 
ome temporary communication of the water with the burning 
iquids of the interior of the earth, and that the premonitory 
iarthquakes are occasioned by the vapours and gases as they expand 
ind endeavour to find an outlet. The red-hot fluids expelled from 
he volcano by means of these vapours are called lava. When, 
lowever, they are broken by the vapours into fragments, the 
arger of these are known as lapilli (rapilli) or scoria, whilst the 
ninute portions form volcanic sand or ashes. When freed from the 
pressure of the lava, the vapours rise to a height of 10,000 ft., 
in form , as Pliny has aptly described it , resembling a pine, 
carrying dense masses of rapilli and ashes along with them ; they 
ire then condensed in the air, and descending give rise to one of 
those formidable streams of mud (lave d'acqua) which proved so 
destructive to Herculaneum. Vesuvius has of late been active in 
the manner described, although to a very limited extent, ejecting 
vapours and stones with a roar resembling that of distant artillery; 
but the effects of this action have been confined to the formation 
of the cone in the crater. More serious eruptions are accompanied 
by loud subterranean noises, earthquakes, and flashes of lightning 
and peals of thunder, owing to the electricity produced by the 
unwonted pressure of the air. The temperature of the lava as it 
descends occasionally exceeds 2000° Fahr. The volume of the 
streams, as well as their velocity, depends on a variety of external 
circumstances. The surface of the lava ultimately becomes disinte- 
grated into black sand. The smoke which ascends from the 
crater is more or less dark in colour, according to the quantity 
of ashes ejected by the steam mingled with it. The appearance 
of Are at night is not flame, but the reflection of the molten 
lava in the interior of the crater on the rising clouds of vapour 
and ashes. 

Of the Minerals ejected by the volcano, most of which are 
found in the older lava of M. Somma, or in masses of rock 
thrown up during eruptions, about 40 species, according to the 
investigations of Professor Soacchi of Naples, are at present 
known. In the lava stream of 1855 the remarkable cotunnite, 
a chloride of lead, was detected in great abundance. Most of 
these minerals are sold by the guides at Resina (e. g. Andrea 
Anastasio , with the sobriquet 'Maccarone'^ ; a small box of the 
commonest , which may be purchased for 1/2 — 1 fr- > forms an 
appropriate souvenir of the mountain. The well known, so-called 

110 Route 7. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Environs 

lava articles of Naples do not consist of lava at all, but of a kind 
of limestone thrown up by Mt. Vesuvius or Mte. Somma at some 
remote period. It resembles marble , and is of a whitish grey, 
and sometimes greenish or reddish colour. 

A Meteorological Observatory, erected in 1844 above the 
so-called Hermitage (now a tavern), 2218 ft. above the level 
of the sea , contains , in addition to the usual instruments , a 
'sismograph', or apparatus for recording the phenomena of earth- 
quakes. The first director of the observatory was the celebrated 
Melloni. The present director Palmieri has published an in- 
teresting account of the recent eruption (Incendio Vesuviano 
del 26 Aprile 1872, con Illustrazioni). Beyond the observatory 
there is a guard-house with gensdarmes, whose duty is to protect 
the interests of travellers. On the lower slopes of Vesuvius is 
produced the celebrated 'Laehrima; Christi' wine. The name is 
applied indiscriminately to the produce of the whole district. 
The wine is generally rich and full-bodied, and varies little in 

The Ascent of Vesuvius is unquestionably an excursion of 
extreme interest, though not to be accomplished without fatigue. 
It should not be attempted in stormy or rainy weather. The only 
danger the traveller incurs is in approaching the crater without 
proper precautions, or, when in the interior, in being exposed to 
sulphureous vapours and occasional showers of stones. Thus in 
1854 a young German, incautiously approaching the aperture of 
the active cone, lost his footing, was precipitated into the interior, 
and killed by the fall. As the mountain was in a quiescent 
state, his body was recovered. The guides are in the habit 
of making impressions on the hot lava with copper coins, roasting 
eggs, and exhibiting other experiments. The only risk in 
approaching near enough to follow their example is that of da- 
maging the soles of one's boots. 

The ascent is most interesting when the mountain 'labours', 
or ejects scoria?, etc., a condition indicated by the smoke during 
the day and the reflection of fire at night, which may be observed 
from Naples. Even if its state is that of perfect repose, which is 
not often the case, the fatigue of the ascent is repaid by the 
imposing appearance of the crater and the extensive prospect 
commanded by the summit, extending as far as the Ponza Is- 
lands and Mte. Circello. 

The Monte Somma (3642 ft. J also affords a fine view, and 
is interesting to geologists and botanists. The ascent may be 
made from Massa or from Somma. 

Herculaneum lies beneath the modern Kesina (p. 105). A 
visit to the remains of this ancient town occupies about an hour. 

of Naples. HERCULANEUM. 7. Route. lit 

The town, the Heracleia of the Greeks, Herculaneum of the Romans, 
derived its name from the worship of Hercules peculiar to the place. 
Tradition attributed its foundation to the hero himself, who during his 
wanderings in the West visited this district. It was inhabited by Oscans, 
the aboriginal natives of the country, by Etruscans, and by Samnites, 
before it became subject to Rome. Owing to its salubrious situation on a 
height, between two rivers, and being near the sea and the harbour of 
Resina, it became a favourite site for Roman villas (thus that of Servilia, 
sister of Cato of Utica). The spot retained its name even after the total 
annihilation of the town by the eruption of 79. A number of poor families 
then took up their abode here, but in 472 their village was again destroyed 
by an eruption, which altered the configuration of the whole coast. Sub- 
sequent eruptions increased the depth of ashes and lava beneath which the 
old town was buried to 40 — 100 ft. , that being the depth of the remains 
at the present day below the level of the soil on which Portici and 
Resina stand. The discovery of Herculaneum took place in 1719. Prince 
d'Elbceuf of Lorraine, whilst erecting a casino at Portici, caused a well to be 
dug to supply it with water. This led to the discovery, at a depth of about 
90 ft., of the ancient theatre, where a number of statues were found. Two 
of these, beautiful portrait-statues of an old and a younger woman, are now 
in the museum at Dresden. During the next 30 years the excavations were 
discontinued, but in 1737 Charles III., when engaged in erecting a palace at 
Portici, recommenced operations, which were unfortunately directed by 
unskilful hands and led to no satisfactory result; nor was it an easy task 
to remove the huge masses of tuil'stone and lava which covered the ruins, 
the more so as the buildings and streets of Portici and Resina were thereby 
undermined. In 1750 a long, narrow passage was hewn through the rock, 
leading to the theatre, which lies 69 ft. below the level of the street, and 
this is the entrance at the present day. In 1755 the Accademia Ercolanese 
was instituted for the investigation of the antiquities discovered, and 
under their auspices was published the 'Pitture d'Ercolano' in 9 vols. 
(Napoli, 1757), which caused a very great sensation in the learned world. 
The excavations during the next 50 years were conducted too superficially 
and unsystematically, but progressed more favourably under the French 
kings Joseph Napoleon (1806—1808) and Joachim Murat (1808—1815). Under 
the Bourbons operations were suspended till 1828. Many of the most in- 
teresting objects were excavated and again covered; thus the theatre, a 
portion of the forum with its colonnades, a basilica similar to that of 
Pompeii, private houses, etc. Although the works were carried on without 
any definite plan, the yield was remarkably rich and has furnished the 
museum of Naples with a large proportion of its most valuable treasures: 
statues, busts, mural paintings, inscriptions, utensils of all kinds, etc. In 
the chamber of one house the extensive papyrus library of 3000 rolls was 
discovered. The excavations were recommenced with great ceremony in 
1868, but as they are conducted on a limited scale no great results have 
yet been obtained. In due time, however, a number of interesting dis- 
coveries may confidently be expected. This is all the more likely as the 
ancients appear soon to have given up their search for objects of value 
here as being unprofitable; and while Pompeii was thoroughly explored 
and ransacked, the treasures of Herculaneum have been preserved for the 
benefit of posterity by the mantle of lava with which they are enveloped. 
The interest which Herculaneum at present offers to the traveller is 
limited, but an opportunity of visiting it should not be neglected. 

The excavations are situated 1 M. from the railway-station of 
Portici (p. 114). We follow the main street to the r. for about 
7 min., and then the road to the 1. ascending to Resina. In 6 min. 
we reach the long street which forms the principal part of the 
contiguous villages of Portici and Resina, and follow this to the r. 
for 7 min. (guides, who importune travejlers by the way, entirely 
superfluous), to the point where a viaduct carries the road over a 

112 Route 7. HERCULANEUM. 

lower street (Vicolo di Mare). At the corner to the r., indicated 
by an inscription on the side towards the Vicolo, is the entrance 
to the Theatre (admission to this and the other excavations 2 fr. 
each person, entitling the visitor to a guide ; Sundays gratis ; no 
fees), to which a long flight of 100 or more steps descends. 
The light of the flickering candle is inadequate to enable the 
visitor to form an accurate idea of the structure. Owing to the 
buttresses built to support the rock above, the place rather 
resembles a subterranean labyrinth of profound darkness than a 
theatre. It contains nineteen tiers of seats in six compartments 
(cunei) : between these, seven flights of steps ascended to a broad 
corridor, above which was situated a colonnade with three more 
tiers of seats. The number of spectators it could contain has been 
variously computed at from 8000 to 30,000, the latter number 
being certainly too high. The orchestra lies 85 ft. below the 
level of the modern Resina, and is faintly lighted from above 
through the shaft of the well which was the occasion of the dis- 
covery. One inscription records that L. Annius Mammianus Rufus 
erected the theatre, another that Numisius, son of Publius, was 
the architect. Pedestals for statues, with inscriptions, are situated 
on either side of the proscenium. 

A visit to the buildings brought to light by the Scavi Nuovi 
of 1828 to 1837, and resumed in 1868, is of far higher interest. 
We descend the above mentioned Vicolo di Mare for 4 min. ; 
the entrance is by an iron gate to the 1. (fee !/'2 ?*■)■ ^ street, 
part of a large private house, and several houses used for trading 
purposes have been excavated here. They lie 40 ft. below the 
present level of the surface , and the different layers of the 
superincumbent lava are readily distinguished. The houses with 
their fittings and decorations resemble those of Pompeii. The 
building-material is a yellow tuff-stone from Monte Somma, of a 
very soft consistency, which accounts for the thickness of the walls. 
The objects found at Heroulaneum prove that it was a much 
more wealthy town than Pompeii, and this is also obvious 
from the more regular and substantial construction of the build- 
ings. The garden of the principal house, that of the Argus, 
is one of the most interesting objects. It is enclosed by an 
arcade of twenty columns and six buttresses. To the r. of it is a 
triclinium with a painting (not now visible) of Argus and Ino, 
from which the house derives its present name. Towards the 
sea, the proximity of which at that period is indicated by the 
rapid descent of the street, are situated magazines, three storeys 
in height, and well preserved. 


8. Pompeii. 

Compare Map, p. 86. 

Railwat from Naples to Pompeii in 50 min., 4 trains daily (one every 
3 hrs.) ; fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 10 c. (return tickets also issued). The 
time devoted to the ruins must depend on the inclination of the traveller. A 
superficial inspection may be accomplished in 3 hrs. ; but in order to sum- 
mon up from these mutilated walls a tolerably accurate picture of ancient 
times, frequent and prolonged visits and patient observation are indispen- 
sable. The enthusiasm called forth by the discovery of Pompeii and the 
l'ascination attaching to the name are calculated to raise the expectations of 
the non-archseologist to too high a pitch. The remains are simply the ruins 
of a town destroyed by lire, which have been extricated from the rubbish 
accumulated during seventeen centuries. The moveable objects found here 
and the principal mural paintings have been removed to the Museum at 
Naples. That this was a most desirable course is obvious from the injury 
which exposure to the air has caused to those left behind. A museum in 
the town itself (Porta Marina) contains no objects of artistic value, but many 
which will interest the visitor to the ruins. The restoration of a whole 
house in the ancient style is also contemplated, and would doubtless be 
most instructive. (The museum at Naples contains a good model of a 
house, p. 7G). 

Admission to Pompeii on Sundays gratis, on other days 2 fr. (if the 
ruins be quitted and re-entered the entrance-money is exacted a second 
time). A guide is then assigned to the visitor (but not on Sundays, when 
one cannot even be had by payment of a fee), and is bound to accompany 
him and pilot him through the ruins during any number of hours be- 
tween sunrise and sunset. These guides are 32 in number, and each is 
provided with a badge (numbered according to the seniority of the 
wearers , No. 1 being the oldest). One of those who speak French 
will be assigned to the traveller on application. They are strictly for- 
bidden to accept any gratuity, but the otter of a cigar or other refreshment 
will ensure their civility. The guide-books, drawings, and photographs 
which they offer for sale are of a very inferior description and should at 
once be declined. Complaints made to the inspectors (soprastanti), or 
better still to the director, Coram,. Giuseppe Fiorelli at Naples, are sure to 
be attended to. The discipline and order maintained by the latter are 
deserving of the highest commendation. Permission to draw, take meas- 
urements , etc. , is obtained at the Segreteria of the Museum at Naples 
(comp. p. 62), where the applicant must show his passport. Artists or 
students who desire to make lengthened studies may, on application at 
the office and production of their passports, obtain a free ticket of admis- 
sion available for a fortnight, which they are most liberally permitted to 
renew as often as they desire. Permission to visit tue ruins by moon- 
light is only accorded to persons with special introductions to the director. 

Before visiting Pompeii the traveller should acquire some previous 
acquaintance with the place from books and plans. The more familiar 
the objects are to him, the greater will be his enjoyment. Implicit conli- 
dence cannot be placed in the guides for anything beyond mere technical 
explanations. Those who visit the ruins once only should avoid occupying 
much of their time with the minutiee, as the impression produced by the 
whole is thereby sacrificed, or at least diminished. On account of the phy- 
sically and mentally fatiguing nature of the expedition, the stay should not 
be extended much beyond 3 hrs. In summer the streets of Pompeii are 
often insufferably hot ; the evening is therefore the most enjoyable time lor 
the visit, when the lights and shades on the surrounding mountains and the 
illumination of the ruins by the declining sun invest the place with magic 
fascination. The traveller should, if possible, contrive to visit it at least 
twice. On Sundays he will be at liberty to rumble amon^ the ruins 
without a guide. 

Bakukkek. Italy III. 5tli Edition. tj 

1 I 1 Route 8. TORRE DEL GRECO. Environs 

From the railway-station Pompeii is reached in 5 min. by the Porta 
della Jlarina. This route, according to which the following description is 
arranged, leads direct to the Forum in the centre of the town. Some 
travellers, however, prefer to make a circuit of l \i hr., so as to com- 
mence with the Street of Tombs, outside the Gate of Herculaneum, in 
which case the principal points are visited consecutively, the Amphitheatre 
forming the termination. A drive from Naples to Pompeii by the high 
road, occupying '1 hrs., is not unpleasant (carr. about 20 fr.), except in hot 
weather when the road is disagreeably dusty (as indeed are all the 
roads around Pompeii). As far as Torre del Greco (see below) the road 
is flanked with houses on both sides , beyond which it is enlivened with 
busy traffic. At Pompeii the traveller alights at the street of tombs, 
and orders the carriage to meet him at the Amphitheatre. 

Ho^ls at Pompeii. Opposite the entrance to the railway-station, 
Hotel Diomei>e (tolerable, colazione 3, pranzo 4 fr., and 25 c. for atten- 
dance); 7 min. walk farther, opposite the 3rd entrance to the town (Porta 
di Stabia), Hotel di Raffaele Cristiano, a very unpretending inn (pension 
\ fr.); adjoining the latter, Hotel des Etrangehs, kept by Prosperi, the 
landlord of the Diomede, good rooms, pension 6 fr. ; a little farther on, 
Hotel du Soleil, pension i'ls fr., chiefly frequented by artists. 

The Railway from Naples to Pompeii , and thence to Sa- 
lerno and Eboli (best views to the right), traverses the suburbs 
and crosses the insignificant Sebeto, a stream which bounds the 
city on the E. The extensive red buildings on the r. are the 
Granili, used as barracks and (as their name imports) corn-maga- 
zines. Shortly after passing these, a retrospect is obtained of 
S. Elmo, crowning the heights above the city. This district is 
densely peopled ; the first village is the straggling 8. Giovanni 
a Teduccio. To the right the view becomes less circumscribed ; 
Naples, the Posilipo, beyond which rise the mountains of Ischia, 
the island of Capri opposite , and the peninsula of Sorrento 
beyond it are now visible. Stat. Portici, with 11,228 inhab., 
lies on a small harbour, formed by a molo. A line view is now 
enjoyed from the railway of the Bay of Naples with the Castello 
dell' Ovo and Pizzofalcone , commanded by Camaldoli ; in the 
background the Capo Miseno and the mountains of Ischia. 

Farther on, to the 1., Vesuvius and Resina (p. 105). The line 
skirts the coast and intersects the huge lava-stream of 1794, 
•i Oft. in thickness and 2000 ft. in breadth, near stat. Torre del 
Greco, a flourishing town of 9294 inhabitants, erected on the 
lava-stream of 1631, which destroyed two-thirds of the place. 
The lava-streams of 1737 and 1794 also caused great damage. 
The earthquake of 1856, and especially the eruption of 8th Dec, 
1861. proved still more destructive. A series of eleven small 
openings were formed immediately above the town, whence 
vast showers of ashes were precipitated, while the shore in the 
vicinity was upheaved to the extent of 3 ft., causing the ruin of 
many houses. Although the entire base of Vesuvius as far as 
Torre dell' Annunziata is covered with traces of similar cata- 
strophes, yet the inhabitants appear never to be deterred from re- 
building their dwellings, a circumstanoe which has given rise to 

<Jrrjf»raph AiLHtiUt vtui 

°f X"Ples. POMPEII. 8. Route. 115 

the jesting saying of the Neapolitans, -AapoU fa i peccnti e la 
Torre U paya.' 

The line intersects Torre del Greco (to the r. a small har- 
bour), and then skirts the sea. To the 1. the monastery of Camal- 
doli is visible, standing on an isolated volcanic peak at the base 
of Vesuvius, and secured by its situation against the intrusion of 

After passing another stream of lava, the train reaches Torre 
dell' Annunziata, a prosperous town with 15,480 inhabitants, 
situated on a small creek. Here a beautiful glimpse is disclosed 
of the bay of Castellamare with the town, commanded by Monte 
S. Angelo, the summit of which is crowned by the chapel of S. 
Michele; beyond it Vico Equense , in the distance Sorrento. 
Beyond the town the line skirts the shore, which is much frequented 
by fishermen ; the line to Castellamare then diverges to the r. 
(the trains to which may be taken by travellers bound for Pom- 
peii as far as Torre dell' Annunziata, as the latter is onsly 1 3 / 4 M. 
from Pompeii; one-horse carr. 1 fr.). The Pompeii line now 
proceeds inland; to the 1. the partially overgrown heaps of ashes 
thrown up by the excavations become visible. 

Pompeii. About 200 paces from the station we reach the high 
road, opposite the Hotel Diomede (p. 114). Crossing the road 
and ascending the steps to the r. of the hotel , we soon reach 
the ticket-office , and after paying for admission are provided 
with a guide on entering. The direction of the road is now 
being altered , as excavations of the town on the side next the 
sea are contemplated. 

Those who prefer to commence with the Street of Tombs 
(p. 127) proceed to the 1. by the hotel along the road for 8 miu., 
diverge to the r. by a small house, ascend after 4 miu. to the 
r. by two cabarets, and in 3 min. more reach this entrance to 
the ruins. 

The guide should be informed of the points which the tra- 
veller contemplates visiting, in their consecutive order. The most 
interesting objects are indicated by the heavier type. Of the re- 
mainder as many may be visited as time and inclination allow. 
Where time is limited, the Amphitheatre may best be omitted. 

From the Gate of Stabiae the route is by the theatres, the 
triangular Forum, the Temple of Isis, the Stabian Thermae and 
through the street of Abbondanza to the Forum (pp. 135 and follg.). 
From the Gate of Herculaneum the route begins with the 
Street of Tombs , and leads to the Therms;, Forum , and Street 
of Mercury , whence the order is the same as that of the sub- 
joined description (pp. 129 and follg.). 

Pompeii is mentioned in history for the first time in B. C. 310* but 
its monuments, such as the wall of the town and the so-called Greek 
Temple clearly prove it to lie of much greater antiquity. Founded by the 
Oscans it soon became imbued with the elements of Greek civilisation, like 


116 Route 8. POMPEII. Environs 

the other towns of this extensive tribe. Being situated near the sea on 
an ancient volcanic eminence, it carried on extensive commerce with the 
inland Campanian towns by means of the navigable river Sarnus, and 
enjoyed an uninterrupted, though not brilliant share of prosperity. (The 
sea and river were separated from the town by subsequent convulsions of 
nature.) After the Samnite wars, in which Pompeii had also participated, 
the town became subject to Rome. It united with the other Italians in 
the Social war. The rebels were defeated in the vicinity of Pompeii by 
Sulla, who attacked the town itself, but unsuccessfully. After the termi- 
nation of the war, however, B. C. 82, a colony of Roman soldiers was sent 
thither, and the inhabitants were compelled to cede to it one-third of their 
arable land. In course of time Pompeii became thoroughly Romanised, 
and was a favourite retreat of Romans of the wealthier classes, who (e. g. 
Cicero) purchased estates in the vicinity. It was also favoured by the em- 
perors. Tacitus records a serious conflict which took place in the amphi- 
theatre, A. D. 59, between the Pompeians and the neighbouring Nucerines, 
in consequence of which the former were prohibited from performing 
theatrical pieces for a period of ten years. A few years later, A. D. 63, a 
fearful earthquake occurred, evidencing the re-awakened activity of Ve- 
suvius, which had been quiescent for centuries. The greater part of Pom- 
peii, its temples, colonnades, theatres, and private houses were ruined on 
that occasion, and the Roman senate even contemplated prohibiting its re- 
construction. Permission, however, having been granted, the town was re- 
erected in a style more conformable to the improved architecture of im- 
perial Rome. The new town had not long been completed, although through 
the liberality of private individuals it had been restored in a remarkably 
short period, when it was overtaken by the catastrophe of 24th Aug., 79. 
The first premonitory symptom was a dense shower of ashes, which covered 
the town with a stratum, about 3 ft. in depth, and allowed the inhabitants 
time to escape. Many of them, however, returned, some doubtless to rescue 
their valuables, others paralysed with fear and uncertain what course to 
pursue. In the years 1861 — 72 were found eighty-seven human skeletons, 
and those of three dogs and seven horses. The whole number of those 
who perished is estimated at 2000. The ashes were followed by a shower of 
red hot rapilli, or fragments of pumice-stone of all sizes, which covered the 
town to a depth of 7 — 8 ft., and was succeeded by fresh showers of ashes 
and again by rapilli. The present superincumbent mass is about 20 ft. in 
thickness. Part of this was formed by subsequent eruptions, but the town 
had already been completely buried by the original catastrophe, and was 
entirely lost to view. Its name, however, was long preserved by a small 
village, which sprang up near the site. In ancient times excavations were 
made, owing to which many valuable relies are probably lost to us, but 
during the middle ages Pompeii was entirely consigned to oblivion. In 
1592 the architect Fontana constructed a subterranean water-conduit in 
order to supply Torre dell' Annunziata from the Sarno, actually intersecting 
the ruins, and to this day in use; yet no farther investigations were then 
attempted. In 1748 the discovery of statues and bronze utensils by a pea- 
sant attracted the attention of Charles III., who caused excavations to be 
made. The amphitheatre, theatre, and other parts were then disinterred. 
The enthusiasm called forth by the discovery has been the frequent theme 
of poetical and other compositions by such celebrated authors as Bulwer, 
Schiller, etc. 

What wonder this ? — we ask the lymphid well, 
O Earth ! of thee — and from thy solemn womb 

What yield' st thou? — Is there life in the abt/ss - 
Doth a new race beneath the lava dwell'! 
Returns the Past, awakening from the tomb ? 

The earth, with faithful icalcli, has hoarded all .' 
ruder the Bourbons the excavations were continued in a very unsatis- 
factory manner. Statues and valuables alone were extricated, whilst the 
ruins were either suffered to fall to decay or covered up again. To the 
reign of Murat, however, we are indebted fur the excavation of the Forum, 

nf Naples. POMPEII. S. Route. 117 

the town-walls, the Street of Tombs, and many private houses. The political 
changes of 1860 have likewise exercised a beneficial effect. Under the able 
superintendence of M. Fiorelli, instead of the former predatory operations, 
a regular plan has been adopted, according to which the ruins are systema 
tically explored and carefully preserved, and highly satisfactory results thus 
obtained. A local museum and library have been instituted, a dwelling- 
house erected for students supported by government, and a railway con- 
structed for the removal of the debris. The workmen employed in the 
excavations average eighty in number, but several hundreds are at times 
engaged. If the works continue to progress at the same rate as at present, 
the complete excavation of the town, according to Fiorelli\s calculations, 
will occupy seventy-four years more, and will cost about 5 million francs. 
A sum of 30 — 40,000 fr. is realised yearly from the money paid by visitors 
for admission. 

Pompeii was once a prosperous provincial town , with 20 — 
30,000 inhabitants. The original Oscan inhabitants had at the 
close of the republic become completely Romanised , and after 
the earthquake of 63 the town was re - erected in accordance 
with the new cosmopolitan-Eoman principles founded on a 
union of Greek and Italian elements. Although Pompeii, there- 
fore, represents but one definite epoch of antiquity, yet on the 
other hand it is the most important and almost the only source of 
our acquaintance with ancient domestic life. To investigate the 
various phases of this life, even in its minuter details, affords 
a pursuit of inexhaustible interest. 

Town Walls. The town is built in the form of an irregular 
ellipse, extending from E. to W. The circumference of the walls 
amounts to 2925 yds. There are eight gates, to which the 
following names have been given: Porta di Ercolano, delta 
Marina, di Stabia, di Nocera, del Sarno, di Nolo, di Capoa, del 
Vesuvio. In consequence of the prolonged peace, however, the 
walls had entirely lost their importance. Towards the sea they 
had been demolished, and outside the Gate of Herculaneuni a 
considerable suburb had sprung up, called Pagus Augustus Felix, 
after the settlement established by Augustus. 

Plan of the Town. The excavated portion (down to 1872 
iihout 275.000 sq. yds.) embraces about one-third only of the 
town, but probably the most important part, including the Forum 
with the contiguous temples and public buildings, two theatres 
with large porticoes, the amphitheatre, and a considerable number 
of handsome private dwellings. The principal streets are : 1 . The 
Consular Street, or Via Domitiana, which, prolonged by the Stradn 
de' Sepolcri, or Street of Tombs, leads to the Porta di Ercolano, 
and thence in several ramifications to the Forum ; 2. The Street 
of Mercury (named Street of the Forum as far as the Temple 
of Fortuna), from the Forum to the N. extremity of the town; 
3. The street leading from the sea, past the Thermae and the 
Temple of Fortuna, to the Porta di Nola (called successively the 
•Street of the Thermae, Fortuna, and Nolii); 4. Strada dell' Ab- 
bondanza, leading apparently from the Forum to the Porta del 

1 1 8 Route 8. POMPETI. Environ* 

Sarno ; 5. Strada Stabiana, from the Porta di Stabia to the Porta 
del Vesuvio. The entrances to the houses have recently been 
numbered, and the different quarters (regio), and each block of 
houses bounded by four streets (insula), named in a somewhat 
arbitrary manner. 

The streets, bordered by pavement, are straight and narrow, 
not above 24 ft. in breadth, the narrower lanes 14 ft. only. They 
are admirably paved with large polygonal blocks of lava. At in- 
tervals, especially at the corners, are placed high stepping-stones, 
leading from one side of the pavement to the other, intended for 
the convenience of foot-passengers in rainy weather. The waggons 
have left deep ruts in the causeways, which do not exceed 4'A> ft. 
in width ; and the horses' hoofs have made impressions on the 
stepping-stones over which they were occasionally obliged to pass. 
At the corners of the streets are public fountains, decorated with 
the head of a god, a mask, or similar ornament. 

In the streets are frequently seen notices painted in red let- 
ters, referring generally to the election of the municipal authori- 
ties, and recommending some particular individual as aedile or 
duumvir. Trade-signs, like those of the present day, are very- 
rare. On the other hand an occasional 'phallus' is seen, for the 
purpose of averting the evil eye; and one or two large snakes, 
the emblems of the Lares, the gods of the hearth and of cross- 
ways, are very common. 

Construction. The houses are slightly built of concrete 
( small stones consolidated with cement) or brick, and sometimes, 
particularly the corner pillars, of blocks of tuff stone. The hasty 
and patched character of the construction is accounted for by the 
earthquake of 63. The numerous well-preserved staircases prove 
that the houses must uniformly have possessed a second and per- 
haps also a third storey. These upper portions consisting chiefly 
of wood, have, with a single exception fp. 135), been destroyed 
by the red-hot scoria; of the eruption. 

(Shops. In traversing the streets of Pompeii, we soon ob- 
serve a difference between the various houses, which were shops 
or dwelling-houses according as their rooms are turned to or from 
the street. The former belonged to the large dwelling-houses, and 
were let to merchants and shopkeepers, in the same way as the 
ground-floors of the palazzi in Naples are occupied by shops at 
the present day. These shops were generally in no way connected 
with the back part of the house, and presented their whole fron- 
tage to the street, from which they could be separated by large 
wooden doors. Many of the shop-tables, covered with marble, 
and once fitted up with large earthen vessels for the sale of 
wine, oil, etc., are still preserved. At the back of the shop 
tliere was occasionally a second room, probably occupied by the 
shopkeeper, who in other cases must have lived in the upper 

of Naples. POMPEII. 8. Route. 1 1 9 

part of the house, or in a different part of the town. The nu- 
merousness of these shops affords proof of the importance of the 
retail traffic at Pompeii. Where the street was not thus enli- 
vened , it was flanked by bare walls , adorned here and there 
with a painting. The absence of glass forms one of the chief 
differences between an ancient and a modern dwelling. The 
ancients therefore concentrated their domestic life in the interior 
of their houses, which presented to the street a blank wall with 
as few openings as possible , and these covered with an iron 
grating. A distinct idea of this mode of building, so different 
from that of the present day , and without parallel except in 
some oriental countries , is best obtained in the more recently 
excavated and better preserved streets between the Forum and 
the Stabian Street, and to the E. of the latter. 

Plan of the Houses. The dwelling-houses of Pompeii vary 
greatly in size, and have obviously been very differently fitted up, 
in accordance with the nature of the situation, or the means and 
taste of their owners. Their chief peculiarity is the internal court, 
which provided the surrounding chambers with light, and was the 
medium of communication between them. Most of those Pom- 
peian houses which belonged to the wealthy middle class are 
entered from the street by a narrow passage (vestibulum) leading 
to the court (atrium), surrounded by a covered passage, with the 
impluvium, or reservoir for rain-water, in the centre. The roof 
sloped inwards and had an opening in the centre (compluvium) 
which afforded light and air to the court and the adjoining 
rooms. Beyond the atrium is a large apartment opening on to 
it , called the tablinum. This front portion of the house was 
devoted to its intercourse with the external world ; and it was 
here that the patron received his clients and transacted business. 
The other part of the house was destined solely for the use of 
the family. Its centre also consisted of an open court, enclosed 
by columns, and thence termed the Peristylium, the middle of 
which was laid out as a garden. Sometimes beyond the peristyle 
lay a private garden (Xystus), surrounded by columns. At the 
back of the peristyle were sometimes several business rooms, 
called CEci. Around these principal apartments , in which the 
magnificence of the house is concentrated, are situated the sleep- 
ing and eating-rooms, slaves' rooms, kitchen, cellar, etc. The 
upper floor was destined principally for the slaves. Most of the 
apartments are very small, but the family worked and spent 
most of their time in the light and airy courts. 

Decoration. Marble is rarely met with in the public, or 
domestic architecture of Pompeii , the columns being invariably 
constructed of tuffstone or bricks, cemented by mortar. They 
were then covered with stucco, which took the place of marble, 
and afforded ample scope for decorative painting. It is in fact 

120 Routes. POMPEII. Temple of Venus. 

hardly possible to imagine a gayer or more richly decorated town 
than Pompeii must have been. The lower halves of the columns are 
generally red, the capitals tastefully painted ; the walls, too, where 
undeoorated, are painted with bright, and almost glaring colours, 
chiefly red and yellow, harmonising well with the brilliancy of a 
southern sun. The extreme delicacy and variety of the mural deco- 
rations are worthy of especial notice. The centre of the walls is 
generally occupied by an independent painting. The best of these 
were removed to the museum at Naples, before they had suffered 
from exposure to the elements ; many, however, of those left 
merit inspection. The scenes present a uniformly soft, erotic 
character, corresponding to the peaceful and pleasure-seeking taste 
of the age (comp. Introd., p. xliii). 

We now proceed to details. 

From the ticket-office near the Hotel Diomede we pass between 
mounds of ashes, and reach the Porta della Marina, a vaulted 
passage under ancient magazines, which in modern times have 
been covered in. The street now ascends rapidly, like all the 
other approaches to the town, which lies on an eminence. The 
passage, 17 J /2 ft- i" width and 75 Y2 ft- i" length, has a path 
for foot-passengers on the left. To the r. in this passage is 
the entrance to the *Museum, recently established here, con- 
taining casts and models of doors, windows, shop-shutters, and 
other objects in wood. In glass cases are preserved casts of 
corpses of eight of the ill-fated inhabitants. 

Although the soft parts of the todies had decayed in due course of 
time, their forms frequently remained imprinted on the ashes, which 
afterwards hardened. In 1863 Fiorelli made the ingenious experiment of 
carefully removing the bones of a body thus imbedded and filling the, 
cavity with plaster, and he has succeeded admirably in preserving the 
figures and attitudes of the deceased after their death-struggle. On the 
point of flight, many of them had divested themselves of most of their 
clothing. Among the figures are a young girl with a ring on her finger, 
and two women, one tall and elderly, and the other younger. 

There are also amphora?, vases, rain-spouts, etc. in terracotta, 
vessels in bronze, skulls, and skeletons of men and animals. 

On the r.. as we ascend, is a wall, on the 1. are uninter- 
I'sting shops. We then enter the Basilica (PI. 64), which opens 
on to the Forum, by a side approach to the right. It is an oblong 
edifice, 220 ft. long, 8972 ft. broad. The facade towards the Forum 
was richly decorated. A passage round the interior consists of 
twenty-eight brick columns with tuffstone capitals ; the space 
in the centre was perhaps not roofed in. On the walls are half- 
columns, all covered with stucco. At the extremity of the build- 
ing was the elevated tribunal, or seat of the presiding magistrate, 
accessible probably by moveable steps. In front of it a pedestal 
for a statue; beneath it vaulted prisons, reached by a stair. 

Also on the W. si.le of the Forum, to the 1. of the Str. della 
Marina, is situated the so-called Temple of Venus (PI. 63), 

Forum. POMPEII. 8. Route. 121 

which was still uncompleted when the catastrophe occurred. The 
temple is surrounded by a spacious, irregular quadrangle, 17H ft. 
long, on the S. side 1031/2 ft- and on the N. side 10972 ft- broad. 
As the side towards the Forum was not parallel with it. the 
wall , in order to prevent the eye being offended by this irre- 
gularity, was furnished in the interior with eight buttresses at 
intervals , each projecting farther than the last. The portico is 
borne by forty-eight columns, originally Doric, which had been 
converted by means of stucco into Corinthian; but this coating 
has now fallen off. The temple itself rises in the centre of the 
court, on a basement 65'/2 ft- i n length, 39 ft. in width, and 
8 ft. in height, and is approached by thirteen steps. Facing 
these stands an altar, bearing an inscription of the dedicators, 
the quatuorviri of the town. The still visible traces show that 
it was employed for bloodless offerings of incense, such as were 
usually presented to Venus. To the r. in the colonnade is a 
statue of unknown import. The temple itself was surrounded by a 
colonnade, and had a facade of six columns. Within the vestibule 
was the shrine, where the figure of the goddess stood on a lofty 
pedestal. A much mutilated statue of Venus was found here. Fine 
view of M. Santangelo from this point. — Behind the court of the 
temple are chambers for the priestesses, decorated with paintings. 
The *Forum, or Forum Civile (PI. 57), forms the central point 
of the town (109 ft. above the sea-level). On the N. side, 
detached, stands the temple of Jupiter (p. 123); the other 
sides are enclosed by an arcade. The Area, or open space in 
the centre, is 515 ft. in length and 108 ft. in breadth, and is 
paved with large slabs. Six streets converge here, but the 
forum was protected against the trespass of riders or waggons 
by pillars of stone round the margins, and could even be entirely 
shut off by gates. In the area are twenty-two bases for statues, 
erected in honour of emperors and other illustrious men, five of 
which (four on the W. side, one at the S.E. corner) still bear 
incriptions, dedicated to officials of high rank, the duumviri (sim- 
ilar to the consuls of Rome) and quinquennales (censors) of the 
town. The extensive basements on the S. side were destined for 
equestrian statues, most of the pedestals never having been com- 
pleted. The colonnade which surrounds the Forum varies in 
breadth from 26 to 45 ft., a number of the buildings which ad- 
join it having been erected at a date prior to the construction of 
the Forum. Above the lower columns of the Doric order rose a 
second series of the Ionic, thus constituting an upper, covered 
passage, approached by steps, several of which are still preserved. 
The whole was in an unfinished condition at the period of the 
destruction of the town ; portion? of the frieze, consisting of 
limestone, placed round the colonnade, are still in a rough state; 
on the 8. and E. sides are older columns of tuffstone. 

122 Route 8. POMPEII. Temple of Mercury . 

To the r. of the Basilica, on the S. side of the Forum, are 
situated the Tribunals (PI. 66), three adjacent chambers, each 
with a semicircular extremity, handsomely constructed in brick 
which was once covered with marble. Their use is not distinctly 
ascertained ; but they seem to have been minor courts of justice. 

To the 1., by the tribunals, the Street of the Schools di- 
verges, pursuing an E. direction as far as the Forum Triangulare 
(p. 135 J. The excavated houses are again partially covered with 
rubbish, and therefore devoid of interest. 

On the E. side of the Forum, at the corner of the handsome 
Str. dell' Abbondanza, is a square hall, erroneously supposed to 
be a school. 

On the opposite side of the street is situated the "Chalcidi- 
cum (PI. 62), erected by the priestess Eumachia, and perhaps 
employed as an exchange. On the frieze of the portico facing 
the Forum, and still more fully over the entrance in the Str. 
dell' Abbondanza, may be read the following inscription : "Eumachia 
Lucii filia sacerdos publica nomine suo et M. Numistri Frontonis 
fili chalcidicum cryptam porticus, Concordiae Augustae Pietati sua 
pecunia fecit eademque dedicarit." The interior is separated from 
the portico by a number of small chambers, which were used as 
a kind of magazine , where a great number of marble slabs, 
destined for the completion of the edifice, were found. In the 
interior is an open court, 123 1 /.) ft. in length, 63 ft. in width, 
surrounded by fifty-four columns of Parian marble, of which, 
however, three only are left, and these in a mutilated con- 
dition. This colonnade (chalcidicum) is surrounded by a covered 
passage (crypta), which afforded protection against the weather. 
At the back of this, in a niche, stands the statue of Eumachia 
(a copy, the original is at Naples), erected by the fullers (fullones) 
of Pompeii. 

On the external wall of the Chalcidicum is the copy of an 
inscription found here, dedicated to Romulus. The visitor next 
reaches the so-called *Temple of Mercury (PI. 61), 837-2 ft- i" 
length, 54 ft. in breadth. A number of the objects discovered 
in the course of the excavations have been placed here: vases, 
spouts of fountains, rain-gutters, capitals, stone-weights with iron 
handles, mortars, earthenware, etc. To the 1. of the entrance 
are vessels nf lead, fragments of glass, bone articles, iron gra- 
tings, fetters, tires of waggon-wheels; to the r. earthenware and 
fragments of marble. In the centre an *altar in marble with 
reliefs : on the front victims, on the sides the utensils employed 
in connection with the sacrifice. 

The form of this temple is very irregular. At the extremity 
nf the area is the small shrine with a pedestal for the statue of 
thi' god. 

Temple of Augustus. POMPEII. 8. Route. 123 

Contiguous to the latter is the Curia (PI. 59), where, as is 
generally believed, the town-council held their deliberations. It 
is a square hall, 6572 ft. long, 59 ft. broad, with hemicyclical 
termination and several niches, but greatly damaged. 

Opposite, on the N. side of the Forum and in the most con- 
spicuous part of it, rises the *Temple of Jupiter (PI. 60), on a 
basement 10 ft. in height. At the time of the eruption it was 
in process of being restored. The Pronaos is approached by eigh- 
teen steps, and has a facade of six columns with three on each 
side. Apertures in the ground admit light to the underground 
chambers, which were used as a magazine for building materials, 
having originally been probably a treasury. The whole length 
of the temple is 100 ft. Behind the Pronaos is the shrine, with 
two series of columns, eight in each, arranged close to the walls, 
which are painted in the brightest colours. At the back are 
three chambers. At the farther end, to the 1., a stair ascends 
to the upper storey of the temple, which the visitor should not 
omit to see, as it affords a fine *panorama of Pompeii, M. Sant- 
angelo crowned by the chapel of S. Michele, the castle of Quisisana, 
and the chain of the Apennines. 

On the W. side, passing by the Temple of Venus, we 
observe at the end of the latter a niche , in which , as an in- 
scription found here informs us, the public weights and measures 
were kept. Then follows a stair, which led to the arcade, and 
formed an approach to the Temple of Venus. Adjoining the 
latter is the so-called Lesche, a hall apparently for public pur- 
poses. Beyond this is a public latrina, and then a building, 
which from its narrow, gloomy cells appears to have been a 
prison. An adjacent wall separated it from the Forum. In the 
vicinity, adjoining the Temple of Jupiter, is a triumphal arch. 

At the E. end of the Forum, contiguous to the Curia, stands 
the so-called Temple of Augustus (PI. 58), sometimes named 
the Pantheon, an edifice whose object is involved in mystery. 
In front of it are pedestals for statues; on the exterior, shops 
possibly occupied by money-changers. The temple is entered by 
two doors ; the interior consists of a rectangular court , 123 ft. 
in length, 88'/2 ft- in width , the walls decorated with frescoes 
(those to the 1. of the entrance , the best preserved , represent 
Argus and Io, Ulysses and Penelope). The court was still unfin- 
ished when the catastrophe took place ; it was destined to be 
enclosed by a colonnade, but the limestone slabs of the pavement 
have been laid on the N. and W. sides only, while on the other 
sides the enclosure is formed by tuffstone blocks. A dodecagon is 
formed in the centre by twelve pedestals for statues. To the r. are 
eleven chambers simply painted red; at the extremity an egress 
into a back street. To the 1. is one of the principal outlets to 
the Street of the Augustales (named after this edifice). On the 

121 Routes. POMPEII. Thermae. 

E. side, opposite us as we enter the building, rises the shrine. On 
the principal pedestal stood the statue of the emperor, in the side 
niches Livia and Drusus (here replaced by copies). To the 1. of this 
shrine -was another with an altar, which perhaps was employed 
in the celebration of the sacrificial banquets; the gallery by the 
lateral wall is believed to have been an orchestra. To the r. a 
larger apartment with stands of masonry with a slight inclination, 
and furnished with gutters below to carry off blood or water, 
is supposed to have been a kitchen. The whole establishment was 
probably used by the college of Augustales. The arrangements 
recal the Serapeum at Pozzuoli (p. 88). 

Adjacent to the Temple of Augustus rises a Triumphal Arch, 
which forms the boundary of the Forum in this direction. It is 
constructed of brick , and is now divested of its former marble 
covering. Under it terminates the Street of the Forum, or as 
it is called in its prolongation, the Street of Mercury. The first 
transverse street is that of the Augustales. At the corner, is a 
relief with figures of two men carrying a wine-jar : the sign of a 
wine-merchant. We now follow the Street of the Forum. To 
the r. a small Museum, a repository of objects in bronze, iron, 
lead, terracotta, and colours, a number of loaves, etc. 

The Street of the Forum then leads to the Temple of Fortuna 
(PI. 49), to the r. at the corner of the first transverse street, erected 
according to the inscription by M. Tullius. It is approached 
by thirteen steps; length 79'/ 2 ft-, breadth 30 ft. Two portrait- 
statues found in the Cella are believed to have belonged to the 
Gens Tullia. 

At the beginning of the Street of Mercury rises an arch of 
brickwork, on which the pipes of a water-conduit are visible. 

We now turn to the 1. into the Strada delle Tbrme. The 
2nd door to the 1. is the entrance to the * Thermae (PI. 39), 
which occupy nearly a whole insula, i. e. the space enclosed 
by four streets ; breadth 162 ft., depth 170 '/a ft- The exterior was 
surrounded by shops, which had no connection with the interior. 
Entrances six in number. A great part of the establishment 
is now employed as magazines, and the public are admitted to 
one half of the actual baths only. A passage leads first to the 
chamber for undressing (apodytermm) , 37'/2 ft- long, 22 ft. 
wide, surrounded by benches. Beyond this is the cold bath (frigi- 
darium), a rotunda with four niches. The vault .above was pro- 
vided with a glass window. In the centre the basin, H l /i ft- 
in diameter, with a marble ledge surrounding it. From the un- 
dressing room to the r. the warm bath (tepidarium) is entered, 
an apartment 33 ft. in length, 18 ft. in breadth. A frieze 
running round it is furnished with niches for depositing clothes and 
articles of the toilet, and is supported by figures of Atlas in terra- 

House of Pansa. POMPEII. 8. Route. 125 

cotta. The vaulting was richly decorated, partly with stucco figures 
in relief. This chamber was heated by means of air-pipes, and 
by a large brazier of bronze. Adjacent is the hot air bath (cali- 
darium or sudatorium), 53 ft. long, IT'/s ft. broad. A niche at 
the end contains a marble basin for washing the hands and 
face with cold water; it bears an inscription recording that it 
was erected at a cost of 5250 sesterces (39 I. sterling). At the 
other end is the basin for warm baths. The apartment had 
double walls and floor, between which the steam diffused itself. 
— The baths also possessed an extensive colonnade, now con- 
verted into a garden, besides several other chambers and baths 
for women, none of which are at present open to the public. 

Nearly opposite to the Thermae is situated the *House of 
the Tragic Poet (PI. 38), one of the most elegant in Pompeii, 
so called from two representations found in the tablinum, a poet 
reading, and a theatrical rehearsal (these, together with beautiful 
paintings of subjects from the Iliad, are now in the museum at 
Naples) ; but it was more probably the house of a goldsmith, if 
we may judge from the trinkets discovered in the adjoining shop. 
This is represented by Bulwer in his 'Last Days of Pompeii' 
as the dwelling of Glaucus. On the threshold was a dog in 
mosaic, with the inscription 'Cave Canem' (p. 64), now in the 
Museum. The peristyle of seven columns is closed at the back 
by a wall, on which is a small shrine of the Lares. In a room 
to the 1. of the latter, Venus and Cupid fishing, and the deserted 
Ariadne. In the triclinium on the r., Leda presenting Tyndarus 
with Castor, Pollux, and Helen in a nest, Theseus abandoning 
Ariadne, and Diana with Orion. 

We continue to follow the Str. delle Terme. To the r. is the 
House of Pansa (PI. 37), one of the largest in Pompeii, 
occupying a whole insula, 321 1/2 ft- long, 124 ft. broad. It 
comprises sixteen shops and dwellings , facing the different 
streets. On the threshold was found a mosaic with the greeting 
'Salve'. This house affords a normal specimen of a palatial re- 
sidence of the imperial epoch, complete in all its appointments : 
atrium, tablinum, peristyle, cecus (to the 1., contiguous, kitchen 
with the snakes), and lastly the garden or Xystus. 

We proceed hence towards the Porta di Ercolano, diverging 
to the right. At the picturesque corner opposite is a tavern, 
to the 1. of which the street leads to the gate. This was a 
business street, and contained few superior residences. 

To the 1. is a house fitted up for a Library, containing an ex- 
tensive collection of archaeological works on Pompeii, and for 
the reception of students supported by government (Scuolti Poin- 

Un the r. is the House of Sallust (PI. 33), with gaily 
painted atrium, behind which are the tablinum and a small 

126 Routes. POMPEII. Town-wall, 

irregularly shaped garden, with a dining-room (triclinium) in 
the corner. The place of the peristyle is in this case occupied 
by a small court enclosed by pillars, to the r. of the atrium, 
which has been, though without good reason , styled the Vene- 
reum. On the wall opposite , *Actaeon converted into a stag, 
and torn to pieces by his own dogs for watching Diana at the bath. 

The following door leads to a Bake-house, with ovens and 
different mills for grinding the corn. The latter were probably 
turned by asses, or in some cases by slaves. 

At the corner of the street, a fountain; behind it a cistern. 
The street of Narcissus here diverges to the r., leading to the 
town-wall, but contains no object of interest. 

The houses to the 1., on the slope of the eminence on which 
the town stood, frequently consisted of several storeys, and had 
extensive vaults, used as magazines. 

A large, open hall to the r. was a kind of Custom-house 
(PI. 27), where a number of weights and measures were found, 
one of which had been stamped in the Capitol at Rome. 

A little farther, to the r., is situated the House of the Surgeon 
(PI. 26), so called from the discovery of a number of surgical 
instruments. It is remarkable for its massive construction of 
limestone blocks from the river Sarno, and is probably the most 
ancient house in the town. To the r. the extensive House of 
the Vestals (PI. 25) is next reached. 

To the 1. , opposite, is a large Tavern, with a phallus towards 
the street, intended to avert the evil eye. It contains two 
wine-tables, and has an entrance for waggons. From the cham- 
bers in the rear , as well as from the preceding and following 
houses on this side, a charming glimpse is obtained of the bay 
with the island of Capri ; near the land is the picturesque little 
rocky island of Eevigliano ; to the r. Torre dell' Annunziata. 

To the r. is a tavern , and beyond it the Porta di Ercolano 
(136 ft. above the sea-level), to the r. of which a stair ascends to 
the *Town-wall, which should be visited for the sake of the view. 
This wall, the most ancient structure in Pompeii, is 2843 yds. in 
circumference, and consists of an external and internal wall, 
the intervening space being filled with earth. The height of 
the external walls varies according to the ground from 26 to 
33 ft., that of the internal is uniformly 8 ft. greater. Originally 
constructed of large blocks of lava and limestone, it was subse- 
quently strengthened by the addition of towers, perhaps during 
the Social war. It must then, whether from the siege of Sulla 
or other causes , have been considerably damaged , and seems to 
have been hastily restored about the'! time ot tne war between 
C;esar and Pompey, the gaps being;' filled with concrete. The dif- 
ference between the ancient and later mode of building is well 

Street of Tombs. POMPEII. 8. Route. 127 

illustrated by this part of the wall near the Herculanean Gate. 
During the undisturbed peace of the imperial period, the walls 
on the side towards the sea were probably removed , and their 
site built over. The Gate of Herculaneum is one of the most 
recent structures. It consists of three series of arches, of which the 
central and largest has fallen in. The depth of the passage is 
59 ft. 

Outside this gate lay a considerable suburb, the Pagus 
Augustus Felix, named after the military colony of Augustus. 
Of this only one street has been partially excavated, from 
which, however, several others diverged on either side. This 
is the so-called * Street of the Tombs, the great military road 
from Capua to Naples, Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Reggio. The 
ancient Roman custom of burying the dead by the side of a 
high road is well known. It has been ascertained that rows 
of graves, similar to those discovered here, exist beyond the 
other gates also. The Street of Tombs is in point of situation 
the most beautiful part of the town. 

To the r. stands a large pedestal in an unfinished state. 

To the 1. the Tomb of Cerinius (PI. 22), a recess with seats. 
It has been said that this was a sentry-box, and that the skel- 
eton found in it was that of the sentinel who expired at his post ; 
but this must be regarded as a mere fiction. 

To the 1. a semicircular seat with the tomb of the duumvir 
A. Veius. 

To the 1. the *Tomb of Mamia (PI. 20); in front a seat like 
the above, with the inscription : '■Mamiae Publii ftliae sacerdoti 
publicae locus sepulturae datus decurionum decreto'. At the back, 
enclosed by a low wall, is the columbarium, with niches for 
cinerary urns. A solitary cypress adorns the tomb. The view 
from this seat of the bay and the mountains of Castellamare 
is singularly beautiful. 

A street diverges to the r., by the side of which is the 
Tomb of Terentius (PI. 18). Beyond it, to the r., the Tomb of 
the Garlands (PI. 16), so called from its decorations; name un- 
known. To the r. a tomb with open recess and seat. 

On the 1. is the so-called Villa of Cicero (PI. 13), again 
covered up. The buttresses visible belong to a colonnade which 
lay parallel to the street. 

To the r. two shops, then the House of the Mosaic Columns 
(PI. 14), in a very dilapidated state. The entrance leads into 
a garden, at the extremity of which is a recess inlaid with mosaic, 
destined for a fountain. To the 1. a court with private chapel 
and altar. The two stairs ascended to the upper floor. 

Beyond the villa of Cicero several handsome monuments will 
be observed. First that of Servilia (PI. 11). Then that of Scau- 
rus (PI. 10), with reliefs in stucco, representing the gladiatorial 

128 Route*. POMPEII. Villa of Diomedes. 

combats celebrated in honour of the deceased, but in a very im- 
perfect state. The columbarium with niches for the urns should 
be visited. 

To the r. is a long arcade, at the back of which there were 
shops. From the skeleton of a mule found here it has been 
suggested that this was a resort of peasants on market-days. In 
the last shop is a stove, the upper part of which consisted of 
earthenware vessels fitted together. Several ancient tombs of 
limestone have recently been discovered here, belonging to the 
remote Oscan period, when the dead were buried instead of 
being burned, and painted vessels of terracotta were interred 
with them. — The street which diverges here has not yet been 

To the r. several ruined tombs, the first of whieh is supposed 
to have been an ustrinum (place where the dead were burned). 

To the 1. a circular monument, name unknown. 

To the 1. the * Tomb of the Augustalis Calventius Quintus 
(PI. 6); beneath the inscription is represented the bisellium 
(seat of dignity) accorded to him in recognition of his liberality. 

To the r. *Tomb of the Libella family (PI. 7), of travertine, 
and well preserved, with inscriptions. Beyond, to the r. , are 
several other ruined tombs, the inscriptions on which are partially 

To the 1. the *Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche (PI. 5), with chamber 
for cinerary urns. The deceased was a freedwoman, who, ac- 
cording to the inscription, destined this tomb for herself and 
C. Munatius Faustus, chief official of this quarter of the town, 
and for their freedmen ; a relief below refers to the con- 
secration of the tomb; on the 1. side is the bisellium, or ma- 
gisterial seat of Munatius, on the r. a vessel entering the har- 
bour, a symbol of human life. 

To the 1. is next observed a Triclinium, destined for funeral 
repasts. Then the *Villa of Diomedes (PI. f), arbitrarily so 
called from the opposite tomb of the family of Arrius Diomedes 
(PI. 2). The arrangement of this , like that of other villas, 
differs considerably from that of the urban dwellings. A flight 
of steps with two columns leads at once to the peristyle of 
fourteen Doric columns, whence the bath is entered to the 
left. Opposite are terraces, which rise above the second and 
lower portion of the house. The garden, 108 ft. square, with 
a basin for a fountain in the centre, is surrounded by a colon- 
nade. From the terrace a stair descends to the 1. (another, from 
the entrance from the street, to the r.). Below this colonnade, 
on three sides, is situated a vaulted cellar which merits a visit, 
lighted by small apertures above, and approached by stairs de- 
scending at each end. Seventeen bodies of women and children, 
who had provided themselves with food , and sought protection 

House of Meleager. POMPEII. 8. Route. 129 

in tMs vault against the Eruption, were found here. But the 
impalpable ashes penetrated through the openings into the interior, 
and too late the ill-fated party endeavoured to escape. They were 
found with their heads wrapped up, half buried by the ashes. The 
impression made on the ashes by a girl's breast is now in the 
museum at Naples. The probable proprietor of the house was 
found near the garden-door (now walled up), with the key in 
li Is hand: beside him was a slave with money and valuables. 

We now re-ascend the Street of Tombs to the Gate of Her- 
culaneum, and return thence by the Vicolo di Mercurio, the first 
transverse street to the left. The third street, intersecting the 
latter at right angles , is the important Strada di Mercurio, 
leading from the town-wall to the Forum (p. 121 ). 

In the direction of the town-wall: r., Nos. 10, 11, House 
of Castor and Pollux (PI. 46 j, two distinct houses, but connected. 
No. 10 is simple and homely. It is connected with the neigh- 
bouring house by a large peristyle, adorned with paintings all 
round; at the extremity a basin destined for a fountain ; beyond 
it a hall. From the peristyle the atrium of the other house is 
entered to the 1., beyond which are the tablinum and a garden 
with lararium. The best preserved of the frescoes is one of 
Apollo and Daphne in a chamber to the 1. of the garden. 

Right, Nos. 12, 14, House of the Centaur (PI. 45), two different 
houses, connected by a door. No. 11 has an underground dwell- 
ing, the vaulting of which has fallen in. 

R., No. 15, *House of Meleager (PI. 44}. Within the 
doorway, to the r., Mercury handing a purse to Fortuna. The 
richly decorated atrium contains a marble table , borne by grif- 
lins. Contrary to the usual arrangement, the peristyle does not lie 
behind, but to the 1. of the atrium. This is the finest peristyle 
which has been discovered at Pompeii, being 79 ft. in length, and 
66 ft. in breadth. The porticus is borne by twenty-four columns 
(lower part red, upper white), and adorned by a graceful fountain. 
Adjoining the peristyle at the back is an cecus, enclosed on 
three sides by twelve yellow painted columns. The frescoes 
are also yellow; among them, to the r., a young satyr startling 
a Bacchante with a snake. To the 1. of the oecus a hall with 
frescoes: on the transverse wall to the 1. the Judgment of Paris. 

Left, No. 20, House of Apollo (PI. 43), so named from the 
numerous representations of that god which were found here. 
Behind the tablinum a fountain of grotesque style. To the r. is 
an adjoining court, at the end of which is a handsome sleeping- 
chamber (for two beds ) ; on the external wall a landscape with a 
Bacchanalian, and a mosaic of Achilles in Scyros; among the 
weapons which Ulysses offers him is a shield, on which Achilles 
anil Chiron are represented. 

Bakdhkgu. Italy III. 5th Edition. i| 

130 Routes. POMPEII. Fulloniea. 

L., No. 25, House of the Wounded Adonis (PI. 42). In the 
Xystus, to the r., a fresco, above life-size, of *Adonis wounded, 
tended and bewailed by Venus and Cupids; at the sides, 1. 
and r. Achilles and Chiron. In a room to the 1. of the garden, 
'Toilet of the Hermaphrodite'. 

At the corner which the Vicolo forms with the Strada di 
Mercurio, to the r., is the fountain with the head of Mercury 
whence these streets derive their name. 

L., No. 9, a*Tavern; towards the street a table covered with 
marble and a fire-place. A door leads from the shop to the 1. 
into a small room adorned with various allusions to drinking : 
a waggon with a wine-cask, players and drinkers, eatables, etc. 
In the corner to the 1. a soldier is being served; above him is 
scribbled : 'da fridam pusillum' (a glass of cold). To the r. 
two other chambers, out of the first of which a door leads to the 
neighbouring house No. 8, the Casa dei Cinque Scheletri (so called 
from the live skeletons found here), which was perhaps used as 
a lodging-house. 

From the corner of the Vicolo di Mercurio a digression may 
be made in the adjacent street to the 1. to the House of the 
Labyrinth (opposite side of first side-street, immediately to the 1. ; 
PL 47), a roomy dwelling with two atria; principal entrance 2nd 
door to the right. In the passage leading to the peristyle, imme- 
diately to the 1. and opening on the latter, is a window of 
terracotta with six small apertures, resembling pigeon-holes. In 
the room beyond the peristyle, to the 1. a mosaic pavement: 
Theseus killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. The house to 
the 1. was destined for the menage; it contains three rooms, 
with a finely decorated bath and large bake-house. 

We now return to the Str. di Mercurio. 

R., No. 35, *House of the Small. Fountain (della fontanel pic- 
cola, PI. 41); to the r. of the entrance a stair ascends to the 
2nd floor. At the farther extremity of the house a *Foiintain 
of gaily coloured mosaic , adorned with a small and grace- 
ful bronze : Boy with a goose (a copy, original at Naples). The 
walls are decorated with landscapes, among which to the 1., a 

R., No. 36, House of the Large Fountain, at the end of 
which is a mosaic *Fountain similar to the above. 

R., No. 38, the Fulloniea (PI. 40), or fuller's establishment. 
The large atrium, supported by square pillars (on one of which 
were frescoes alluding to the fuller's art, now in Naples), was 
perhaps covered in and used as a magazine. Around it are 
chambers for the workmen. At the end of the house are four 
basins on different levels, destined for washing the cloths, which 
were afterwards stamped with the feet in the small stands to 
the right. One egress leads to the Strada della Fulloniea. Adjacent 

House of the Faun. POMPEII. 8. Route. 131 

to these premises, and connected with them by a door, was the 
dwelling-house of the proprietor, No. 37. 

R., No. 44, Barbers Shop, very small. In the centre a 
seat for customers ; to the r. a bench and two recesses. 

L., No. 4, House of Pomponius, with an oil-mill to the right. 

L., No. 3, House of the Anchor (PI. 48), named after the 
anchor in mosaic on the threshold, a spacious dwelling. By the 
tablinum a stair descends to a peristyle on the level of the Str. 
della Fortuna, surrounded by a cryptoporticus. 

Having reached the archway of the Str. di Mercurio, wc 
now turn to the 1. into the Str. della Fortuna, a prolongation 
of the Str. delle Terme, and leading to the Gate of Nola 

L., No. 55, *House of the Faun (PI. 50), discovered in 1830 
in presence of Goethe's son, was entirely excavated during the 
two following years. The name is derived from the bronze 
statuette of a dancing Faun found here (p. 69). The house occupies 
a whole insula, and is the handsomest in Pompeii, 288 ft. long, 
126 ft. broad. The style of its decoration proves it to date from 
the republican era. It contained beautiful mosaics , but hardly 
any mural paintings. The stucco on the walls is an imitation 
of incrustation in coloured marble (comp. p. xlv). On the 
pavement in front of the house is the greeting 'have'. It 
possesses two entrances and two atria. The 1. atrium (35 ft. 
by 37'/o ft.) is in the Tuscan style, i. e. the roof was borne 
by cross-beams without vertical support. On each side of it 
there are four rooms. The 4th on the 1. contains a *mosaic re- 
presenting doves by a casket. In the centre of the impluvium 
stood the bronze statuette already mentioned. The simpler atrium 
on the r. is an atrium tetrastylum, i. e. the roof-beams were 
borne by four columns near the impluvium. The peristyle 
contains twenty-eight Ionic columns of tuffstone coated with 
stucco. In the exedra, which opens on the peristyle, was found 
the celebrated mosaic of the Battle of Alexander (p. 68). At the 
back is a garden 105 ft. long, 115 ft. broad, enclosed by fifty- 
six columns of the Doric order. Numerous amphorse were found 

R., No. 4, Casa della Pareta Nera (PI. 51), so called from 
the black wall in the exedra, covered with representations of 
erotic scenes, beautifully executed , but unfortunately in bad 

R., No. 6, Casa dei Capitelli h'igurati (PI. 52). named after 
the capitals of the entrance-pillars, adorned with heads of Bac- 
chantes and Fauns. From the peristyle a sugar-bakehouse is 
entered, its use having been conjectured from the nature of the 
objects found there ; the stove is still in existence. 

R., No. 7, House of the Orand-Duke of Tuscany (PI. 53 j, 
small, with mosaic fountain. 


132 Routes. POMPEII. House of M. Lucretius. 

R., No. 11, House of Ariadne (PI. 54), extending as far as 
the Street of the Augustales, and containing towards the latter 
an additional atrium. The atrium towards the Str. delta For- 
tuna possesses twenty columns, the peristyle sixteen, the lower 
part yellow, the capitals painted with variegated colours ; in the 
centre a fountain. Various representations. 

R., No. 14, House of the Chase (PI. 55). In the peristyle 
(which has columns on two sides only and a basin in the centre), 
on the opposite side : wild beast fights, whence the name of the 
house ; to the r. landscapes. Excavations had already been made 
here in ancient times ; a portion of the passage made by the 
workmen, in a room to the 1., is still to be seen. 

By this house the Vico Storto diverges to the r., so oalled 
trom its curve; to the 1. several unexcavated lanes. If we follow 
the Str. della Fortuna for a short distance, we reach the broad 
Strada Stabiana, leading to the r. to the gate of that name, and 
formerly extending in the opposite direction as far as the Porta 
di Vesuvio. The Str. della Fortuna is now prolonged under the 
name of the Str. di Nola, towards the gate of that name. The 
houses on each side are excavated in front only. At the point 
of intersection of the streets a fountain, 1. an altar of the Lares, 
and adjacent the pillars of a water-conduit. From this point the 
Gate of Nola, the most ancient in the town, is reached in 5 min. 

We, however, now enter the Vico Storto, leading to the 
Street of the Augustales. The portion of the latter, to the r., 
leading to the Forum, presents no object of interest. We there- 
fore turn to the 1., this part of the street traversing the most 
recently excavated quarter of the town. 

At the corner to the r. a Soap-manufactory, as has been 
concluded from the articles found; it contains a large stove. 
Numerous bakers lived in this street. L., the House of the Bear 
(PI. Sf>), named from the mosaic on the threshold, with the 
greeting Have'; it contains a fountain at the back, adorned with 

Opposite, the Str. del Lupanare diverges to the right. 

R., No. '2'2, House of the Dolphin (PI. S8), named from the 
mosaic on the door, sometimes called" the House of Mars and 
Venus from a painting to the r. in the atrium. Spacious peri- 
style with fourteen columns. This house has a cellar. Nos. 24, 
25, linke-house; at the back a number of corn-mills, and an 
oven in which eighty-one loaves were found. 

We now reach the Strada di Stabia, and follow it to the left. 
No. 33 , immediately to the r. , is the *Houne of Marcus Lucre- 
tius (PI. 50), once richly fitted up, although with questionable 
taste (shown at the request of the visitor). Behind the atrium 
is a small *garden, laid out in terraces, with a fountain and 
a number of" marble figures. The best of the paintings are 

Siabian Thermae. POMPEII. 8. Route. 133 

preserved at Naples. This is almost the only house in Pompeii 
the proprietor of which is known by name. This was furnished 
hy a letter found with the painted address: M. Lucretio Flam. 
Martis decurioni Pompei. 

Descending the Str. Stabiana towards the gate, we now reach 
(1.) No. 52, the tablinum of which contains frescoes, represent- 
ing Pietas and the forsaken Ariadne ; then (r.J No 57, Casu 
dei Principi di Russia, with a handsome marble table in the 
atrium. From the peristyle a stair leads to the house of Siricus 
(p. 134). 

Farther on, to the r., are the Thermae (see below) at the cor- 
ner of the Strada hell' Abbondanza (from which they arc 
entered). This broad street ascends from the Str. Stabiana 
(78 ft. above the sea-level) to the Forum. On the other side, 
towards the Porta del Sarno , the portion as far as the next 
street (Vico di Tesmoj only is excavated. At the corner here is 
the buttress of an aqueduct, leaden pipes connected with which 
are observed on the pavement farther on. 

To the 1. in the street leading to the Porta di Sarno is the 
Casa dei Diadumeni (PI. 90), sometimes called that of Epidius 
Rufus , with a small platform in front of the facade , and a 
handsome atrium with fourteen columns. Within it is a lararium 
on the r., bearing the inscription, L Oenio Marci nostri et Laribus 
duo Diadumeni liberti' . At the back is a garden, to the 1. in which 
is the vaulted kitchen. — The atrium of the next house on 
the 1. contains a well preserved Lararium, with now almost 
obliterated paintings at the back. These houses have been brought 
to light since 1866. The excavations have been carried as far 
as the farm-house called Casino dell' Aquila, but have not yet 
been completed as far as the old Porta Stabiana, which lies lower 
down, towards the S. The Vico di Tesmo affords a good example 
of the monotonous character of the more remote streets. At the 
corner we observe the Tannery (PI. 92), and also the atrium 
(PL 91 ), the compluvium of which was covered with an iron 
grating (restored) to exclude thieves. 

We now retrace our steps and continue to ascend the Strada 
dell' Abbondanza in the direction of the Forum, near which this 
handsome street, with its numerous shops, was closed by means 
of stone pillars, in order to exclude waggons. 

L.. No. 15, *House of Cornelius Rufus (PL 72). The atrium 
contains two handsome pedestals for tables, and a bust with the 
inscription : C. Cornelio Rufo, whence the name of the house. 

In the Str. deH'Abbondanza, to the r.. No. 23, is the prin- 
cipal entrance to the *Stahian Thermae (PL 69), so called to 
distinguish them from the Therm* at the back of the Forum. 
They are larger and older than the latter, dating from the Us- 
can period, after which they were extended and redecorated. 

134 Routes. POMPEIT. House of Siricw. 

We enter a spacious court , flanked by pillars on two sides, 
which was employed for palaestric exercises. On the wall on the 
1. stucco ornaments in relief. Two rooms situated here were 
perhaps intended for undressing. Then a basin for eold baths, 
sixteen paces long , nine paces broad , 5 ft. deep , and another 
vaulted room. In the wing opposite, which has a side entrance 
from the street, to the 1. four baths for single bathers. 

In the upper part of the wing to the r. the women's bath. 
By the door above, a vestibule is entered, into which the dress- 
ing-room opens to the 1. ; from the street two separate en- 
trances. The vaulted hall contains niches on every side for 
clothes ; in the corner a basin enclosed by masonry. Adjacent 
is the warm bath, a vaulted saloon with double walls. Then the 
sudatory, the vaulting of which has fallen in ; at one end a 
marble basin, at the other a fountain for cold water; the walls 
double. Behind these chambers were placed the stoves. 

The men's bath, to the r. near the entrance, is similar. 
From the large dressing-room the first door to the 1. leads to 
the cold, the second to the warm bath; beyond is the sudatory. 
The two latter greatly dilapidated. 

L. , No. 4, House of Holconius (PI. TO), with handsome 
peristyle, rich in paintings, but somewhat faded. In the cecus 
to the r., Ariadne and Bacchus ; 1., Hermaphrodite; in the room 
to the r., Rape of Europa; in the room to the 1., Achilles in 
Scyros, and Judgment of Paris. 

A few paces farther the Street of the Theatre diverges to 
the 1., and to the r. the Strada del Lupanare, which we now 

R., No. 16, *House of Siricus (PL 71). On the threshold 
the inscription: '■Salve lueru (m)' ; to the same proprietor the 
large adjacent bake-house, No. 17, also belonged. To the 1. of 
the atrium a room with fine paintings : to the 1. Neptune and 
Apollo aiding in the construction of the walls of Troy ; opposite, 
Hercules intoxicated ; and to the r. * Vulcan presenting Thetis 
with weapons for Achilles. The columns of the peristyle are 
painted green. 

To the 1. on the wall are snakes, with the inscription: 'Otiosis 
locus hie non est, discede morator' . 

To the 1. at the corner of the second lane, the Vic.olo del 
Balcone Pensile, is No. 25. the Lupanare (PI. 83; closed); at 
the sides Ave sleeping places ; in front, the seat of the hostess. 
The bad character of the house is sufficiently indicated by the 
paintings and inscriptions. A separate entrance from the street 
ascended direct to the upper floor. 

We now turn to the 1.. through the Vicolo del Balcone 

1!., No. 7. with fine frescoes at the back, to the left. 

Forum Triangulare. POMPEII. 8. Route. 135 

R., No. 9, *House with the Balcony, or Casa del Baleone 
Pensile (PI. 84). The atrium to the r. contains a fountain with 
marble figures. In this house the attempt has been successfully 
made, although a laborious and costly undertaking, to preserve 
three rooms of the upper floor by carefully replacing the charred 
woodwork by new beams. The projecting wooden structure is 
similar to that frequently seen in old continental towns , and 
appears to have been common in Pompeii. 

The Vicolo del Baleone Pensile terminates in the Vicolo di 
Eumachia, which extends behind the buildings of the Forum. 
Entering this street, we proceed to the 1., towards the Str. dell' 

L., in the Vicolo, No. 9, House of the New Chase, with well 
preserved frescoes; in the tablinum, to the r., Bacchus finding 
the sleeping Ariadne; in the peristyle, to the 1., animal pieces. 

At the corner of the Str. dell' Abbondanza a fountain with 
head and cornucopia of Abundantia, whence the name of the 
street. The wall of the Chalcidicum was employed for public 
advertisements which were painted here (album), but little of 
them now remains. 

On the opposite side, No. 8, House of the Wild Boar Hunt 
(PI. 67), deriving its name from the mosaic in the passage: Boar 
attacked by two dogs. The peristyle contains sixteen Ionic col- 
umns. The border of the large mosaic in the atrium represents 
an ancient town-wall. 

On the wall of No. 10 (PI. 68), next to the Vicolo, are 
represented the twelve gods with their attributes, almost effaced. 

We now continue to descend, and enter the Street of the 
Theatre to the r., leading to the Forum Triangulare. In front 
of the latter a porticus with six Ionic columns. The street to 
the 1., which leads to the Str. Stabiana , is the Street of Isis 
(p. 137). which should now be visited before the theatres by 
those who purpose omitting the amphitheatre. 

This last quarter is the most ancient in the town, and has 
preserved many of its characteristics. 

The Forum Triangulare (PI. 75) is bounded on three sides by 
a porticus of a hundred columns of the Doric order, destined 
principally for the frequenters of the theatre. On the N. side a 
pedestal for a statue, with inscription referring to it. The side 
towards the sea was open. Here rose, on a basement approached 
by five steps , a *Temple in the ancient Greek style (said, 
without the slightest foundation , to have been dedicated to 
Hercules), 102 ft. in length, 67 ft. in breadth. It was surrounded 
by columns , had eight columns in front, and the shrine in the 
centre; all of the ancient Doric order. At the present day a few 
capitals and the fragment of a column are the sole remains of 

136 Route H. POMPEII. Great Theatre. 

this once imposing structure. It was doubtless overthrown by 
the earthquake of 63, and probably no idea of restoring it in 
its massive and simple dignity ever occurred to the inhabitants, 
as it would have presented too marked a contrast to the stuc- 
coed buildings of the imperial age. 

In front of the temple is an enclosed space which was prob- 
ably used for the slaughter of the victims. To the 1. three altars. 

At the back a *Bidental, a relic perfectly unique of its kind. 
It consists of the large embouchure of a fountain (puteal), serv- 
ing to enclose a spot struck by lightning, which was deemed 
sacred, and called for atonement. Around it was erected a small, 
circular temple, 12 ft. in diameter, with eight Doric columns. 

On the other side of the temple is a semicircular seat with 
a sun-dial, now much decayed. 

Below the Theatre (a stair descends from the Forum Trian- 
gulare) lies the so-called Gladiutor.i' Barrack, the real object of 
which is not ascertained. The court is surrounded by a porticus 
of seventy-four columns, length 152 ft., breadth 114 ft. Around 
it a number of detached cells. The edifice had a second floor, 
as the imitation on the S. side shows, which contained apart- 
ments for the custodians and a small chapel. In a chamber used 
as a prison were found three skeletons and iron stocks for the 
feet ; sixty-three bodies in all were discovered in this building. 

Adjoining the Forum Triangulare is the *Great Theatre 
(PI. 77), the enclosing walls of which protruded from the rubbish 
even before its discovery. It is situated on rising ground, and 
was restored after the earthquake of 63 by the architect M. 
Artorius, at the expense of M. Holconius Rufus and M. Hol- 
oonius Celer. The restoration, however, was far from complete 
at the time of the final catastrophe. The space for the specta- 
tors consists of three ranks (ima, media, and summa cavea); the 
first contains four tiers for the chairs of persons of rank , the 
second twenty, and the third four. Corridors and stairs led to the 
different parts of the building. It is estimated that 5000 spec- 
tators could be accommodated. Behind the orchestra is the long 
and narrow stage, in front of which is an opening in the ground 
for the rising and falling of the curtain. The posterior wall of 
the stage, once adorned with statues, is provided with three doors, 
according to the rules of the ancient drama; behind them the 
actors' room. On the summit of the enclosing wall are seen the 
stone rings for the poles which supported the awning used 
as a protection against the sun. Behind the theatre a square 
reservoir , the water of which was used in hot weather for 
refreshing the spectators by means of a slight sprinkling. 

The contiguous *Small Theatre (PI. 78) is better preserved 
than the above. An inscription records that it was roofed in 
(theatrum tectum, probably a wooden roof). Number of specta- 

Amphitheatre. POMPEII. 8. Route. 137 

tors 1500. The seats are cut out in such a way that the feet 
of the spectator did not inconvenience the person sitting on the 
tier below him. The building dates from the period of the re- 
public. The marble pavement of the orchestra was, according 
to an inscription, presented by M. Olconius, a duumvir. 

From the Small Theatre we emerge on the Str. Stabiana, 
re-ascending which we next reach, to the 1., at the corner 
of the Street of Isis, the *Temple of JEsculapius (PI. 79"), 
the smallest in Pompeii, 69 ft. long, 23 ft. broad. The an- 
terior court contains a peculiar altar of tuffstone, recalling the 
sarcophagus of Scipio in the "Vatican. The cella is approached 
by nine steps. It is not known with certainty whether the temple 
was really dedicated to ^Esculapius or not. 

Nearly opposite the temple is No. 110, the Casa del Citarista 
(PL 89), named after the Apollo of Pasiteles found here (p. 69). 
This is one of the largest houses at Pompeii , comprising two 
atria and three peristyles. 

We now enter the Street of Isis to the left. 

Here, to the 1., stands the *Temple of Isis (PI. 73), which, 
as the copy of the inscription over the entrance informs us, 
was restored after the earthquake of 63 by N. Popidius Celsinus, 
a boy six years of age, at his own expense, who in recognition 
of this service was received into the rank of the decuriones. 
Length 98 ft., width 60 ft. The court is surrounded by a 
porticus ; between the columns are several altars, also an ancient 
aperture, destined for the reception of the remnants of sacrifices, 
now employed as an air-shaft of the Sarno tunnel. To the 1. a 
small shrine, the so-called Purgatorium, in which ablutions were 
performed ; a staircase here descended to a well ; the walls are 
tastefully adorned with reliefs in stucco. Within the temple 
itself was found the Isis, now in the museum. The chambers 
adjoining the wall on the 1. formed a dwelling for the priests; 
several bodies were found here ; on the fire-place were re- 
mains of food. 

By the next door in the Street of Isis, to the 1., we enter 
a court, surrounded by columns, with a curious balustrade in the 
centre, the object of which is involved in mystery. The place 
was a palastra of the Oscan period, and was afterwards shortened. 

We now return to the Stabian Street, cross it, and proceed 
to the last important relic of ancient Pompeii, the ^Amphitheatre 
(PI. 81), situated at the S. E. extremity of the town, and de- 
tached from the other ruins. From the Stabian Street it is at- 
tained in about 8 min., the route traversing the unexcavated 
quarters of the town , the surface above which is still used 
as arable land. The guides are generally averse to taking this 
additional walk , but the traveller whose time and strength 
permit should not allow himself to be dissuaded. The external 

1 38 Route 9. CASTELLAMARE. Environs 

appearance of the amphitheatre is somewhat insignificant, as, in 
order to facilitate the construction, a considerable portion of it, as 
high as the second storey, was formed by excavating the earth. 
An uncovered gallery runs round the exterior, to which stairs 
ascend for the use of the spectators in the upper places. The 
principal entrance descends considerably. Whole length 142, 
width 111 yds. Number of spectators 20,000. Three different 
series of seats are distinguished, the first with five, the second 
with twelve, and the third with eighteen tiers ; above these was 
also a gallery. The seats are cut out in the same manner as in 
the small theatre. It was constructed shortly before the birth 
of Christ, and in 79 had not completely recovered from the 
effects of the earthquake of 63. 

Excavations of last century led to the discovery of other 
important buildings near the amphitheatre, but these, according 
to the irregular manner of prosecuting the work at that period, 
were afterwards again covered. 

From the Amphitheatre the traveller may return to modern 
Pompeii either by the high road, or by traversing the mounds of 
ashes and skirting part of the town-wall. The station is reached 
in '/4 hr. Those who make the excursion by carriage should 
order the driver to wait for them at the Amphitheatre. 

9. Castellamare, Sorrento, and Capri. 

Comp. Map, p. 86. 

Railway from Naples to Castellamare, 17 M., by Poriici, Torre del Greco, 
and Torre Annum iala (comp. p. 114) in 1 hr. ; fares 3 fr. , 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 
20 c, and 85 c. ; in summer nine trains daily, in winter fewer. — Small 
coasting Steamboats also ply between Naples, Castellamare, and Sorrento ; 
fares to Castellamare 2 or 1 fr. , to Sorrento 3 or l 1 ^ fr. ; Office,, JIolo 
Piccolo 36. These vessels, however, make very few trips in dull seasons. 
During the last few summers there has been only one steambout weekly 
to Sorrento. jVIarket-boat from Naples to Sorrento three times weekly, 
in about 3 hrs. , fare i fr. — Carriage from Castellamare to Sorrento, 
according to tariff, 6 fr., with one horse 3 fr. and gratuity. Persons tra- 
velling alone may often obtain a single seat ('un posto') for 1 — I'fc fr. 

Those whose time is limited should spend a short time only at Cas- 
tellamare, which may be employed in visiting the quay, in order to arrive 
at Sorrento early enough to leave time for an excursion to the Deserto 
or other interesting point in the environs. The night should be spent at 
Sorrento, and Capri visited the following day \ Naples may then be regained 
on the third , or , if necessary , on the evening of the second day. This 
route may also be combined with the following by proceeding either at 
once by boat from Capri to Amalfi (5 — 6 hrs.), or by the road over the 
mountains to (2>|2 hrs.) Scarieatojo (p. 160), or still further to Positr no 
(p. 160). A carriage-road from Sorrento to Positano is in process of con- 
struction. From Scaricatojo or Positano to Amalfi by boat (not always 
to be procured) in 2 hrs. (7 — 8 fr.). The footpath from Positano to Amalfi 
(5 — 6 his.) cannot be recommended in the present state of the country. 
The traveller is recommended to begin with the followimi route, taking 
La Cava or Salerno :is a <tarting-]»oint (comp. p. 149|. 

of Naples. CASTELLAMARE. 9. Route. 139 

Railway-journey to Torre dell' Annunziata, see p. 114. Here 
the Castellamare line diverges from that to Salerno. Skirting 
the coast, it crosses the Sarno (to the r., in the vicinity, the 
rocky islet of Rovigliano, with an ancient fort), and in 12 min. 
reaches the station at the E. end of the town. 

Castellamare. -Hotel Royal, near the station; Antica Stabia, on 
the quay, second class; adjacent to it, the Caf6 delV Europa (good ices I : 
Trattoria Toscana, also on the quay, "Hotel (Quisisana (formerly 
Grande Bretagne), beautifully situated 'I? 31. above the town, on the 
road to Quisisana, commanding a charming view of the bay, pension 
12 fr. — Cabs according to tariff: in the town, per drive, l 2 fr. with one 
horse, 1 fr. with two or three horses ; to Sorrento 3 or 6 fr. : Torre An- 
nunziata l'J2 or 3 fr. ; Pompeii 1 '/j or 3 fr. ; Naples 6 or 12 fr. ; in the 
case of the longer drives the vehicle may be kept for 3 hrs., after which 
the return-fare is the same as that for the single journey. 

Boat to Capri in about hrs., 30 fr. 

Castellamare, a town with 21,794 inhab., lies on a spur 
of Monte Sant' Angela, the ancient Mons Uaurus, on the Bay 
of Naples, the site of the ancient Stabiae, which was destroyed 
at the same time as Pompeii. It was here that the elder Pliny 
perished, A. D. 79, whilst observing the eruption (Plin. Epist. 
vi, 16). Excavations of the ruins of Stabiae, which lay to the 
left, by the entrance to the town, towards the heights, have not 
been undertaken since 174:"). 

The Castello, whence the town derives its name, was erected 
by the Emp. Frederick II. in the 13th cent., and was streng- 
thened by Charles I. of Anjou by additional towers and walls. 

The town, a favourite summer resort of the Neapolitans, 
owing to its N. aspect, its sea-baths, and its mineral springs, 
consists of a long main street skirting the sea , from which 
narrower streets extend up the hill. With the exception of the 
beauty of its situation and the busy harbour traffic, it contains 
nothing to detain the traveller. There is also a government 
dock-yard here. 

Beautiful walks intersect the chestnut plantations on the hill 
rising behind the town (well-kept donkeys, 4 — 5 fr. per day). 
Here stands the Casino Reale, on the site of a house (Casa Sana) 
erected by Charles II. of Anjou, and occupied by King Ladislaus 
and his sister Johanna II. during the prevalence of the plague at 
Naples. Ferdinand I. of Bourbon restored the edifice, and styled 
it Quisisana ('here one becomes healthy'). Behind the chateau 
paths ascend through the park (bosco). affording fine views of 
the bay. Permission to visit the gardens and the interior (unin- 
teresting) must be obtained from the Intendant at the Pal. Reale 
at Naples (p. 40) (fee 1 fr. ; gardener 25 c. ; admission to the park 
gratis; donkey I fr.) ; this excursion requires 1 — 2 hrs. Ascend- 
ing farther to the 1., the traveller may visit Monte Coppola (2 hrs. 
at least necessary; donkey 2 fr.). To descend from Ouisi- 
sana the route by the monastery of Puzzuno. founded by Gon- 

I 10 Route 9. MONTE S. ANGELO. Environs 

salvo da Cordova, may be taken (1/2 hi'- more), commanding fine 

Other short excursions to Gragnano ( '/o hi.) and Lettere (8/4 hr. 
farther), beautifully situated on the slope of the mountains which 
once bore the name of Monies Lactarii, with a ruined castle and 
magnificent prospect. Finally to the summit of the — 

*Monte Sunt' Angelo, the ancient Gaurus (ascent 4 hrs. ; guide 
and donkey 5 fr.), 5000 ft. above the sea-level, the highest point 
near the bay, commanding a noble prospect, stretching from Monte 
Circello far into Calabria and to the Abruzzi. 

Monte Sant' Angelo is clothed to the summit with wood, chiefly 
chestnut-trees. Fragments of pumice-stone (rapilli) from eruptions of 
Vesuvius are occasionally observed. 

The ascent (not without guide) requires 4 hrs. (donkey 3 hrs.). It 
should he expressly stipulated that the guide conduct the traveller to the 
highest peak crowned liy the chapel. If not, the guide will ascend 
another peak, where there are extensive deposits of snow, the view from 
which is partially intercepted by the higher summit. From the chapel an 
uninterrupted panorama is enjoyed. The path leads past the chateau of 
Quisisana, through the park, and by Monte Coppola to the mountain village 
of Piemonte (1>| 2 hr.), whence the ascent of the Mte. S. Angelo begins. The 
traveller should not fail to start early, so as to return to Castellamare 
before dusk. The excursion occupies 7 — 8 hrs., but is not always safe 
(comp. p. 160), as the upper regions of the peninsula are occasionally the 
resort of deserters from the conscription. Previous enquiry on this point 
should therefore be made. 

From Castellamare to Amalfi by the lesser Monte Sant' Angelo, 
see p. 160. 

From Castellamare to Sorrento (?'/2 M. ; by carriage 
in 1 ' /a lir . ) . The route by land, as well as by water, is one 
of the most beautiful excursions in this delightful district (car- 
riages, see p. 138). We pass below the monastery of Puz- 
zano to the Capo d' Orlando. The three rocks on the coast are 
1 Tre Fratelli. The small villages of Vico and Equa, together 
called Vico Equense, the ancient Vicus JEquensis, are next passed. 
Vico was erected by Charles II. on the ruins of the ancient vil- 
lage, and was frequently visited by him. The Cathedral contains 
the tomb of the celebrated jurist Gaetano Filangieri fd. 1788). 
Beyond Vico is a deep cutting, crossed by a bridge ; then to the 
r. by La Marina di Seiano, a village with a handsome campanile, 
between vineyards and olive plantations, to the summit of the 
Punta di Scutolo, whence the road descends to Meta. Here be- 
gins the celebrated Piano di Sorrento, a plain sheltered by the 
surrounding mountains, and intersected by numerous ravines, 
remarkable for its salubrity and luxuriant vegetation. Orange 
and olive groves , mulberry-trees , pomegranates , figs, and aloes 
are beautifully intermingled. This has been a favourite retreat 
of the noble and wealthy from a very early period. Augustus, 
M. Agrippa, Antoninus Pius, and others frequently resided here, 
and at the present day visitors of all nationalities are met 
with. The space is limited, the villages neither extensive nor 

of Naples. SORRENTO. 9. Route. 141 

imposing, but the district generally is pervaded with an air of 
tranquillity and enjoyment. 

Meta (^Trattoria della Villa di Sorrento, see below) is a town 
possessing two small harbours. The church of the Madonna del 
Lauro, in the street, occupies the site of a temple of Minerva. 
The Ponte Maggiore leads across the deep ravine of Meta. 
The next village is Carotto ; then Pozzo Piano, surrounded by 
beautiful orange gardens; lastly Sant' Aniello (*Albergo della 
Cocumella, on the quay, with beautiful view, pension 7 fr.). 
The road leads to the left, passing the Villa Guarracino, now Hotel 
Belvedere, and soon reaches — 

Sorrento. *La Sirena , :: Albergo del Tasso , both between the 
small and the large Marina, and "Belvedere, all belonging to the Fratelli 
Gargiulo, situated on rocky eminences, charges as at the lirst class hotels 
at Naples. "Villa Nardi and Hotel Tramontano, also beautifully situat- 
ed on the coast, between the small and large Marina, similar charges. To 
the E. of the small Marina: Vittoria (in the market-place, recently en- 
larged) and Gran Bretagna, both with several dependencies, kept by the 
brothers Fiorentino, the proprietors of the Hotel de la Ville at Naples ; R. 
from 2'| 2 , L. and A. li| 2 , B. 1>| 2 , D. 4, bath >| 2 , pension 9 fr, — In a si- 
milar situation, Croce di Malta (Piccola Sirena), with dependencies, well 
spoken of. All these hotels are situated in gardens and have private stairs 
descending to the sea, and small bathing-establishments (also warm baths), 
and command magnificent views of the bay. Previous enquiry as to charges 
had better be made; pension at a reduced rate for persons making a pro- 
longed stay. A room towards the N. with a balcony and unimpeded view 
should be obtained if possible. Above the town , on the side of the 
gorge, Hotel du Club, containing the insignificant Club des Etrangers 
(1 fr. per day, 5 fr. per week, etc.). Then Corona di Ferro, outside the 
town ; Rosa Magra, tolerable. Opposite the latter a good trattoria. Villas 
and furnished apartments may also be procured for a lengthened stay. 
Pension Anglaise (Villa Ritbinacci), 10 fr. per day. At Meta (see above) : 
Trattoria della Villa di Sorrento, in the main street. 

Cafe's, two in the Piazza. 

Sea-Baths on the Piccola Marina, 3 \i M. distant, '| 2 fr. — Pliysieiim, 
Dr. L. Galano, Corso Duomo. 

Silk Wares (in imitation of the Roman) and Carved Wood may be 
purchased here at moderate prices. The latter, sold by tiargiulo in the 
main street, are well adapted as souvenirs of the place. 

Steamboat from Naples by Sorrento to Capri, see p. 144. 

Boats, carriages, and donkeys may be hired at the hotels at nominally 
fixed charges , which may generally be reduced by arrangement. Fees 
extra. Those acquainted with the language and customs of the country 
will prefer to apply to the boatmen, coachmen, etc. in person. The char- 
ges demanded at the hotels for a boat to Capri are : with 2 rowers 8, 3 — 4 
rowers 12, 5 — 8 rowers 16 fr. ; to Castellamare about the same (Coppola 
Oennaro on the Piccola Marina is recommended). Donkeys and carriages 
in the piazza: donkey to Scaricatojo (p. 160) 2 fr. and gratuity. Car- 
riage to Castellamare, p. 138. 

Sorrento, the ancient Surrentum, a small episcopal town 
with 6686 inhab., stands on rocks rising precipitously from the 
sea, and is enclosed on the other sides by deep ravines which 
popular superstition has peopled with dwarfs (monaeelli). The 
E. ravine, across which the road leads from the suburb to the 
Piazza, terminates in the Piccola Marina, or small harbour. The 
W. ravine opens into the Marina Grande, or large harbour. 

11*2 Route it. SORRENTO. Environs 

which is frequented by tlie numerous fishing-boats of the town. 
The walls and towers have long since fallen to decay; and 
nothing remains of the Roman Surrentum except a few frag- 
ments and substructions, to which such names as the 'Temple of 
Neptune', 'Amphitheatre', 'Villa of Pollius Felix', etc., have been 
applied at random. In the principal street (about 5 mill, walk 
from the market-place, by a chapel on the 1.) are several 
ancient bas-reliefs and inscriptions. The house is still pointed 
out where Tasso was born in 1544, and where, on Ms return 
in 1592, disguised as a shepherd, after a glorious but chequered 
career, he was received by his attached sister Cornelia. It is 
now converted into the Albergo del Tasso. A marble statue 
of the poet has recently been erected in the Piazza. 

Sorrento is admirably adapted for a summer residence on 
account of its cool N. aspect. It is chiefly frequented during 
the bathing-season. Visitors generally bathe in the morning, 
devote the hot part of the day to the dolce-far-niente, make 
short excursions in the afternoon , and after sunset lounge 
in the Piazza. As the neighbouring roads run between high 
garden walls there is a great lack of walks. 

The most beautiful walk is by the road to Massa (p. 
144), which is also a pleasant object for a drive (there and 
back in l 1 ^ hr. ; one-horse carr. 2 — 3, two-horse 3 — 4 fr.). 
Excursions by boat are particularly recommended. Thus (there 
and back in l 1 /^ — 2 hrs., boat with one rower 2 fr.) to Capo 
di Sorrento, at the W. end of the bay, opposite the Punta di 
Scutolo at the other end, passing remains of Roman masonry, 
baths, and a supposed temple of Hercules among the cliffs. The 
traveller should not omit to row into the large ancient piscina, 
now called Bayno della Regina Oiovanna. 

A trip by boat to Meta (p. 141), where several interesting 
grottoes in the lofty cliffs of the coast are objects of interest, 
may be made in the same time and at the same cost. 

Excursions from Sorrento. The hills above Sorrento afford 
a number of fine points of view, which are best reached on 
donkey-back , the paths being shut in by walls, and guidance 
of some kind being necessary in any case. Each of the follow- 
ing excursions occupies about 3 hrs., including stoppages; don- 
key l'/2 — 2 fr.. attendant '/2 fr- extra. 

The most frequented point is the *Deserto , a suppressed 
monastery, in which an establishment for destitute children has 
recently been fitted up by monks. Refreshments are offered to 
visitors, in return for which a contribution to the funds of the 
institution is expected. The roof of the building commands a 
charming prospect of both bays, and the island of Capri; in 
front of the latter rises the hill of S. Costanza with a small 
chapel, to the 1. of which is the solitary little church of S. Maria 

of Naple*. CAPRI. 9. Route. 143 

della Neve. — From the Deserto we return by the neighbouring 
village of S. Agata, the cathedral of which contains a high- 
altar of beautifully inlaid marble, whence the descent to Sorrento 
is steep, and part of it not practicable for riders. 

The Conti delle Fontanelle, a chain of hills farther to the 
E., command a beautiful view of the bays of Naples and Salerno. 
Having reached the top of the hill, we proceed to the 1. by a 
footpath leading in l / t hr. to the Arco Naturale, a natural rocky 
archway on the S. coast, which was partially destroyed in 1841, 
the most interesting point in this excursion. 

Another excursion of 3 hrs. is to the summit of the *Piccolo 
S. Anyelo, on which stands a deserted farm-house. Beautiful 

*Camuldoli is reached by the hot and dusty high road lead- 
ing through Meta (p. 141). There is also a steep route leading 
to it across the hills, to which however the donkey-owners are 
averse. The monastery of Camaldoli is now a country-seat of 
the Marchese Giussi. As the garden commands the finest view 
towards sunset, the excursion should not be made at too early 
an hour (gardener Y2 — 1 f r 0- 

A shorter and easier trip is to the *Vulie delle Pigne. The 
shady old road (not practicable for carriages) to Massa leads in 
1 hr. to the Vigna Sersali, from which a boy will show the 
way to the optic telegraph communicating with Capri. At the 
foot of the hill lies the 'valley of the pines', which derives its 
name from a number of fine specimens of these trees. The 
view of Capri hence is justly celebrated. Quails are captured 
here and at other spots in large numbers, affording a lucrative 
trade to the peninsula of Sorrento and the island of Capri. 

In l'/ 2 ' lr - we rna y reach the village of S. Maria a Castello. 
where from a projecting rock a view is obtained of Positano, 
2000 ft. below, to which a path descends in steps. On 15th 
Aug., the occasion of a great festival at Positano (comp. p. 160), 
many visitors ascend from Sorrento to S. Maria for the sake of 
seeing the illumination below. 

Other excursions may be made to the S. portion of the pen- 
insula. Thus in 2 hrs. to the Marina di Nerano, whence the 
ruins of Crapolla may be visited by boat, 2 M. to the E. of 
Nerano. On this route a beautiful view is obtained of the three 
Islands of the Sirens, also called J Galli, fortified in the middle 
ages, now abandoned. At the landing-place remnants of a wall 
are observed, with a fountain in the centre, and traces of an 
aqueduct; higher up, on the hill, the ruins of the monastery 
and early Romanesque basilica of S. Pietro, the eight marble and 
granite columns of which are probably derived from some ancient 
temple. The interior of the church exhibits traces of frescoes. 
Good walkers may ascend hence to S. Agata, and return thence 

144 Route 9. CAPRI. Environs 

to Sorrento. S. Maria della Neve (p. 142) and the Punta della 
Campanella (see below) may also be visited. 

The old path from Sorrento to (l'/4 ur Massa Lubrense, a 
small town situated on a rook on the coast , leads past the 
Vigna Sersali and above the Valle delle Pigne. Below runs the 
new and still more beautiful carriage-road. About half-way to 
Massa rises the conspicuous rocky islet of La Vervece. Massa 
contains the remains of a Roman aqueduct, and other antiquities. 
The church of S. Francesco is said to occupy the site of a 
temple of Juno. The festival celebrated here on loth Aug. is 
largely patronised by the neighbouring peasantry. 

From Massa we may proceed in 2 hrs. to the extremity of 
the peninsula, the Punta della Campanella, the Cape of Minerva 
of the ancients, named after a temple which is said to have been 
erected here by Ulysses in honour of that goddess. The pro- 
montory owes its modern name to the bell of one of the watch- 
towers erected along the coast by Charles V. as a protection 
against pirates. fSo lately as the beginning of the 19th cent, 
numerous inhabitants of the Italian coast were carried off as 
slaves by barbarian marauders. From this point , which is 
crowned with a lighthouse and overgrown with olives and myrtles, 
we enjoy a magnificent and extensive view of the sea, the coast, 
and the island of Capri, 3 M. distant. Those who make this 
excursion from Sorrento should allow for it about T hrs. in all. 


8ti:amboat from the Chiaia at Naples daily during the season (except. 
Sundays and holidays, but seldomer in the height of summer) at 9 a. m., 
to Sorrento , and thence direct to the Blue Grotto. After visiting the 
latter, the passengers are then conveyed to the landing-place of Capri, 
whore a short halt is made, after which the vessel returns to Naples, 
arriving about 6 p. m. (return-tickets, which in 1874 were available for 
two days, 12 fr. ; embarcation and landing at Naples and Capri 30 c. each 
person, or for a single passenger 50 c. ; boat into the blue grotto l'|i fr. 
each person). Unless the traveller be much pressed for time, this is a 
most unsatisfactory mode of visiting beautiful Capri, as, in addition to 
the Blue Grotto, he will barely have time to visit the Villa of Tiberius. 
The view from the latter, moreover, is far less attractive in the middle 
of the day than by evening light. One whole day at least should be 
devoted to the island, as there are many other beautiful points besides 
the two just mentioned. 

As the trips of the steamer are neither very regular nor punctual, 
previous enquiry on this subject is necessary. It should also be observed 
that when the wind is in the B. or N. the Blue Grotto is not accessible — 
a fact, however, which the captain of the steamer is careful not. to mention. 

A Market Boat also plies between Naples and Capri three times a 
week, the average passage, depending of course on the state of the wea- 
ther, being 3 — 4 hrs. (fare i fr.). 

Hmall Boat from Sorrento to Capri in about 2 hrs., returning if neces- 
sary the same day ; but it is far preferable to spend the night on the 
island, especially if the traveller intend prolonging his voyage to Amalli 
(p. 15(1). A four-oared boat for the excursion ('tutto compreso") 10 — 15 fr. 
and a fee of 1 fr. to the boatmen ; two-oared boat G — 8 fr. ; for two whole 
days, the night beinn spent on the island, the usual charges are 15 — 18 

of Naples. CAPRI. 9. Route. 145 

and 12 IV. respectively; four-oared boat to Capri and Amalfi, 30 — 40 fr., 
the night being spent at Capri. It need hardly be observed that fine 
weather is indispensable, but a perfect calm is neither necessary nor de- 

The cheapest way of reaching Capri from Sorrento is by the Barca 
Postale of Michele Desiderio, starting from Capri every morning at 6 or 
7 o -1 clock, and returning from the Piccola Marina at Sorrento about noon 
(fare, with luggage, 2 fr.). On leaving Sorrento the boat first passes the 
Capo di Sorrento ( 1 |2 hr.j ; then, 5 min. later, the Villa Majo, where the 
foundations of a temple of Ceres are said to have been discovered; next 
(10 min.) the promontory of Alassa , on which stands a tower erected by 
the Saracens; 20 min., 3f assa ; in i hr. more Capri is reached, and pass- 
engers disembark at the pier. 

On the arrival of boats at the Marina di Capri, women bring planks 
to assist passengers in landing. If more than a soldo is bestowed, the 
traveller's liberality is sure to attract a host of the keen-eyed beggars who 
infest the place. Begging is the order of the day here to a still greater 
extent than elsewhere in Italy, and is often accompanied by singing and 
dancing, while the cry resounds, "un bajoec' 1 , Signoria ! Eecellenza ! un 
bajoec 1 !" A boy may be engaged as a guide lor half-a-day for l \% fr. 

Jihtvibution of Time. The excursion to the Blue Grotto (p. 148), for 
which boats will be found at the landing-place, occupies l 1 ^ — 2 hrs. (tar- 
iff to the grotto 25 c. each person, and 1 fr. each for entering the grotto). 
If the wind be from the E. or N. access is impossible. The trip by water 
to the grotto is strikingly beautiful, especially if the boat steers near the 
precipitous rocky shore. Those who have started late from Sorrento had 
better row direct to the grotto (best light 10 — 1 o'clock), the ski If for 
entering which is ordered by a signal in passing. 

Travellers who desire to return to Sorrento on the same day should 
lirst visit the Ulue Grotto, then ascend to Capri and order dinner, either 
before or after which an excursion to the P/mta Tragara may be made; 
next visit the Villa di Tiberio if time and energy permit, and finally re 
turn direct to their boat on the beach. — Those who spend the night on 
the island can of course accomplish all this with greater leisure. On 
the following morning they should then descend (in 20 min.) to the 
Piccola Marina on the S. side of the island, and take a boat to the Green 
Grotto {\}[i fr. ; I 1 , 1 -.: hr. there and back); or, still better, perforin the Giro 
of the whole island (p. 149) in 3 hrs. — If a longer stay be made, Aiia- 
rnpri may also be visited, and Monte ascended. 

Hotels at Capri. "Hotel i>u Louvre, charmingly situated on a height 
a little to the YV. of the landing-place, pension 6—9 fr., the only house 
in Capri with baths, and the most convenient for steamboat passengers 
(table d'hote on the arrival of the vessel, 4 fr.). Opposite this hotel is 
the Giiottk Bleue, a pension for artists (see below). — In the village of 
Capri, 1J4 hr. walk from the landing-place (path first in a straight direction 
for a few paces, then to the 1., ascending partly by steps between walls, 
fatiguing in hot weather) : : Albergo <|uisisana, English landlady, pension 
7 fr. ; Albergo del Tiberio; Grand Hotel Royal, to the \V. of the 
village, L). 3 1 !-.;, pension 6 fr., well spoken of; "Hotel ue France, in the 
piazza, without a garden, pension 5 fr., frequented by French artists (con 
nected with which is the dependency *a la Grotte Uleue 1 , adjoining the 
Hotel du Louvre); a few paces farther, Albeugo di Miohele Pagano 
( Vittoria)) pension 6 fr. ; the garden contains a handsome palm-tree. 

Donkeys from the landing-place (Marina) to the village of Capri 1 IV. 
25, horse 1 fr. 50 c, vice-versa 1 fr. or 1 fr. 25 c. ; from the Marina to 
the Villa di Tiberio and back 2i| 2 or 3 fr. ; whole day 5 fr. or G fr. 
(and fee). Guide (cicerone) unnecessary, cxeej)t when time is very limited. 
fioats i l \'£ fr. per hour; bargaining necessary. 

Phyxican: Dr. Ceris (speaks English). 

Capri, the Capreae ('island of goats 1 ) of the ancients, is a 
small, mountainous island of oblong form. The highest point to 
the \V. is the Monte Solaro, 2039 ft. above the sea-level; to- 
Bakdkki-'r. Italv III. oth Edition. 10 

146 Route ii. CAPRI. Environs 

wards the E. huge cliffs. 900 ft. in height, rise abruptly from 
the sea. Boats can land safely at two places only. The village 
of Capri (with 2360 inhab.), */ 4 hr. from the landing-place, lies 
on the slope of the K. hills, while that of Anacapri (1551 in- 
hab.") is in a much more elevated situation on the table-land 
to the W. The inhabitants, who support themselves chiefly by 
agriculture and fishing, still retain some of their ancient peculiar- 
ities of habits and costume. One of their most important pur- 
suits is coral-Ashing, in which many of them are engaged on 
the African coast. The island yields an abundant supply of 
fruit, oil, and excellent red and white wines. The indigenous 
flora comprises 800 species. 

The island first came into notice under Augustus, who showed a great 
partiality for it, and founded palaces, baths, and aqueducts here. Tiberius 
erected twelve villas, in honour of the twelve gods, in the principal parts 
of the island, the largest of which was the Villa Jovis (Tacit. Ann. iv, 
671, after he had surrendered the reins of government to Sejanus and 
retired hither (A. D. 27). He remained here almost uninterruptedly till 
his death in 37, even after the fall of Sejanus in 31. Exaggerated accounts 
arc given of the cruelty and profligacy of the emperor, even towards the 
close of his career. The tranquillity and inaccessibility of the island, as 
well as the geniality of the climate, were the attractions which induced 
him to spend so many years in it. Considerable remains of the buildings 
of Tiberius are still extant. 

During the wars of Napoleon I., Capri was captured by the English 
under Sir Sidney Smith in 1803, fortified, and converted into a miniature 
Gibraltar. Sir Hudson Lowe was afterwards the commandant. In Oc- 
tober, 1808, however, the island was recaptured by Murat by a brilliant 

The Puntn Tragara, the 8. E. promontory of the island, is 
'20 min. walk from the village of Capri. The path is good, and 
cannot be mistaken. It commands a picturesque *view of Capri 
and the S. coast, with three precipitous cliffs called the Fara- 
glioni. An opening in the one nearest the land (through which 
the visitor must creep) leads to the summit, on which there 
are remains of a Roman tomb. 

On the E. promontory, called Lo Capo or S. Maria del 
Soccorso, the Villa Jovis, in which Tiberius lay concealed for 
nine months after the fall of Sejanus, is believed once to have 
stood. Here are the ruins of the *Villa di Tiberio, pronounced 
Timberio by the natives, and the remains of a lighthouse. The 
path to it (1 hr. from the landing-place ; 3 /4 hr. from Capri ; 
donkey 2'/2 fr. ) cannot be mistaken. About a hundred paces from 
the top is a tolerable cabaret to the r., named 'Salto di Tiberio', 
after the rock, whence, according to the story invented by 
the imaginative islanders, the tyrant precipitated his victims. 
From a projecting platform, protected by a railing, a view of 
the sea is obtained. The rock higher up is a still finer point, 
but a visit to it requires a steady head. To the r. of it is 
the Faro, which commands a beautiful view. 

of Naples. CAPUJ. ',). Route. 147 

After a slight ascent we reach the Villa di Tiberio, part 
of the extensive ruins of which are now employed as a stable 
for cows. They consist of a number of vaulted chambers and 
corridors, the uses of which cannot now be ascertained. On 
the highest point is the small chapel of S. Marin del Soccorso. 
with the cell of a hermit, who in return for a trifling donation 
allows the visitor to inscribe his 'testimonium praesentiae'. This 
point commands a noble prospect of the island and the blue 
sea, of the barren promontory of Sorrento opposite, and the two 
bays; Paestum is said to be also sometimes visible. 

In returning we take the path which diverges to the 1. 
after 10 min., and leads in !/ 4 hr. through the small so-called 
Val di Mitromania to the Punta di Mitromania, sometimes named 
Matrimonio by the islanders. A magnificent natural opening 
in the rock, the *Arco Naturale, rises here from the sea; and 
a fine view of the imposing and rugged cliffs is also obtained. A 
visit to the Grotta di Mitromania, or grotto of Mithras, a shrine 
of the Persian god of the sun, to which 130 steps descend, may 
conveniently be made hence. — The ruins on the Tuoro Grande 
are supposed to belong to the second villa of Tiberius. On 
the coast are numerous ruins under water; among others, to the 
S. of Capri, by the Camerelle, is a long series of arches, perhaps 
belonging to an ancient road. — To the S. of the village is 
the Certosa, founded in 1371, now a barrack. 

From Capri to Anacapri, a new zigzag road, hewn in the 
rock, the upper part still unfinished, ascends in 1 hr., thus su- 
perseding the steep and fatiguing flight of 535 steps (to which 
249 more ascended from the Marina) which formerly constituted 
the chief approach. About 100 of these steps still require to 
be used, but it is expected that the road will soon be complet- 
ed. — Another route to Anacapri is by a steep path yirougli 
the Macchie, or underwood, crossing the Mte. Solaro (see below"), 
and a still more frequented approach is by a good path from 
the Blue Grotto, to which the traveller is rowed for 25 c. 

Anacapri [Massimini's Petit Hotel , at the entrance to the 
village ; Villa del Paradiso, dearer and inferior) lies scattered 
over the lofty plateau sloping towards the W. Above the steps 
rises the ruin of a mediaeval castle , II Castello di Barbarossa, 
so called from its having been destroyed by a pirate of that 
name in the 16th cent. The church contains a celebrated ma- 
jolica pavement of the 17th century. There are also Roman 
ruins in the vicinity, especially at the village of Damecuta, on 
the N.W. side, where a villa of Tiberius once stood. 

The Ascent of Monte Solako is recommended to tolerable walkers, 
as the mountain commands two beautiful and entirely different views, 
viz. that from the hermitage, and the panorama from the summit. From 
the top of the long (light of steps the visitor proceeds in a straight di- 
rection, following the principal path (that to the r. diverges to Anacapri). 


148 Route 9. CAPRI. Environs 

On the r. is a restaurant, where good white Capri wine may be obtained. 
After 'J4 hr. the cemetery is passed , beyond which the path leads through 
a hollow to the left. Farther up, the rough path inclines towards the S. 
On the S. slope of the hill, i| 4 hr. from the summit, is the ''Hermitage 
(good wine, for which the hermit expects a trifling fee), which commands 
a most picturesque view of Capri and the whole island. After a rough 
and stony walk of 10 min. or i/.j hr. more we reach the summit of the 
Monte Solaro (.2027 ft.) , which rises abruptly from the sea , on the S. 
side of the island, and is crowned by a ruined fort. The "view is superb, 
embracing "Naples with the whole of its bay, as well as that of Sa- 
lerno as far as the ruins of Psestum. Towards the N. the Bay of Gaeta 
is visible, and towards the W. the group of the Ponza Islands. The 
spectator also obtains a survey of the chain of the Apennines, bounding 
the Campanian plain in a wide curve, and culminating in the Monte Vergine 
near Avellino. Capri itself and the peninsula of Sorrento lie in prominent 
relief at the spectator's feet. 

The **Blue Grotto (Grotta Azzurra) is situated about mid- 
way between the landing-place of Capri and the Punta Oradelle 
on the N.W. side of the island (boat thither, see p. 145). The 
boat skirts the base of the precipitous rocky shore, where nume- 
rous sea-stars (stella marina) are observed. In 1/4 nr - we reach 
the ruins of the Baths of Tiberius, where a fragment of an an- 
cient wall and part of a column in the water are to be seen, 
and in !/'> nr - more we arrive at the entrance of the grotto, scarcely 
3 ft. in height. Visitors must stoop or lie down in the boat on 
entering (impracticable when a breeze blows from the M. or E.). 
In the interior the height of the roof increases to 40 ft. above 
the water, which is 8 fathoms deep. Length of the grotto 175 ft., 
extreme width 1-00 ft. The effect of the blue refraction of the 
light on every object is indescribable, and at first completely 
dazzles the eye. Objects in the water assume a beautiful silvery 
appearance. The boatman, who during the voyage dilates on 
the astonishing effect which his body in the water and his sun- 
burnt face above it will produce in the grotto, now offers to 
bathe in order to verify his statement. For this exhibition he 
is sufficiently rewarded with '/o — I fr., although he generally 
makes the exorbitant demand of 2 — 3 fr. The most favourable 
time is between 10 and 1 o'clock. The grotto was known to 
the ancients. Near the middle of it is a kind of landing-place, 
leading to a passage with broken steps, but closed at the upper 
extremity, probably a former, approach from the land to the 
grotto, which was once connected with the villa of Tiberius at 
Damecuta. The grotto fell into oblivion in the middle ages, but 
since 1822 , when it was re-discovered by fishermen , it has 
justly been a favourite resort of travellers. Anacapri is reached 
from the grotto by a tolerable path, which before the construc- 
tion of the new road formed the chief means of communication 
between that village and the landing-place of Capri. 

The I'lue (irotto is the most celebrated of the caverns with 
which the rocky shores of Capri abound, but some of the others 

of Naples. ANGRI. 10. Route. 110 

are also well worth visiting. The *Oiro, or circuit of the whole 
island, occupies fully 3 hrs. (boat with two rowers 4 — 5 fr., and 
fee of 1 fr.). Steering from the Marina towards the E., we first. 
reach the Grotta Bianca, named like the others from its predom- 
inating colour. We then round the promontory on which the 
ruins of the Villa di Tlberio are situated, and visit the Grotta 
delle Stalattite, with its stalactite formations, and the Grotta 
Rossa. The most striking part of the trip is at the Faraylioni 
(p. 146), which rise majestically from the water. The central 
cliff is undermined by an imposing archway, not visible from 
the land, through which the boat passes. We next steer past 
the Piccola Marina, and in 25 min. more reach the Grotta Verde, 
situated at the base of the Monte Solaro, a cavern of a beauti- 
ful emerald-green colour, and the most interesting after the Blue 
Grotto (best light about noon). The voyage hence round Ana- 
capri to the Blue Grotto is less attractive, but this cavern may 
now be visited as an appropriate termination to the excursion 
(in this case a skiff for the grotto should be previously ordered 
to meet the traveller). Lastly we pass the lighthouse and sev- 
eral fortifications dating from the English occupation of 1808. 

10. From Naples to Salerno, Psestum, and Amain. 

Compare Map, p. 86. 

The Bay of Saleuno cannot indeed compete with the Bay of Naples ; 
towards the S. its shores arc flat and monotonous; but the N. side, where 
the mountains of the Sorrentine peninsula rise abruptly some thousands 
qf feet from the sea, is replete witli beauty and grandeur. Here arc si- 
tuated the towns of Salerno (p. 151) and Amain (p. 156). conspicuous in 
the pages of mediteval history, and still containing a lew monuments of 
their former greatness. Farther S., in a barren, desolate situation, arc the 
temples of Psestum (p. 153), usually the extreme point of the Italian pen- 
insula visited by northern travellers. All these recal the golden period of 
Greek history and art more forcibly than any other localities in Italy. 

This route may best be combined with the preceding (p. 138): First 
Day, La Cava and' Salerno. Second Day, Psestum. Third Day, Amalfi. 
Fo}irth Day, to Sorrento. Or in the reverse order. The passage across 
the mountains (p. 160) to Sorrento, as well as the excursion to Psestum, 
were formerly not unattended with danger from brigands, but these routes 
are now considered safe. 

Railway from Naples to Salerno, 34 W., in 2'|3 hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 15. 
4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 45 c. (.Vietri is the station for Amalfi) ; to Eboli, 49 'Is M., in 
3«|4 — 3»/a hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 5, G fr. 35, 3 fr. 65 c. 

From Naples to Pompeii, 14^2 M- see R- &■ The train, after 
quitting the Bay of Naples, traverses the fertile plain of the 
Sarno. Stat. Scafati. To the 1. a cotton-spinning factory. Cotton 
and tobacco are extensively cultivated in the whole of this 
district. The festival of the Madonna del Bagno takes place 
here on 15th August. Near stat. Angri Teias, the last king 
of the Goths, was defeated by Narses in 523, after having 
descended from Lettere on Monte Sant' Angelo to the plain. The 

1 511 Route 10. LA CAVA. Environs 

district gradually becomes more mountainous; a succession of line 

2i , /.> M. Stat. Pagani, with 11,175 inhabitants. In the church 
of S. Michele, under the altar of a chapel to the 1. of the choir, 
are preserved under glass the relics of Alphonso de' Liguori, born 
at Naples in 1696, bishop of S. Agata in 1762, and founder of 
the order of the Redemptorists , died at Pagani in 1787, and 
canonised by Pope Gregory XVI. in 1839. The place contains 
nothing else to detain the traveller. About l l / 2 M. distant is — 

23 M. Stat. Nocera, a town of some importance but no great 
interest, near the ancient NuceriaAlfaterna, where Hugo de' Pagani, 
founder of the order of the Templars, and the artist Francesco 
Solimena were born, and where Paulus Jovius, the historian, was 
bishop. To the 1. of the line, above the extensive Capuchin 
monastery, rise the ruins of the ancient Castello in Parco, the 
scene of several remarkable historical events since the time when 
Sibylla, widow of King Manfred, and her youthful son perished 
here (1266) after the battle of Benevento. At the close of the 
14th cent, it was one of the principal strongholds of the house 
of Anjou. Fine view from the summit. 

To the r., shortly before the train reaches the small village 
of #. Clemente, we observe the ancient baptismal church of *S. 
Marin Maggiore, similar to S. Stefano in Rome. The basin in 
the centre is surrounded by eight granite columns, enclosed by 
a circular passage with sixteen pairs of handsomepillars of pavo- 
nazzetto with four capitals, all antique. The walls are decorated 
with frescoes of the 14th cent. 

Beyond S. Clemente the line ascends considerably. On emerg- 
ing from a outting the train reaches — 

28 M. La Cava (Londra, in a garden,), situated in a charm- 
ing valley, a favourite summer resort of Neapolitans and stran- 
gers , a town consisting of a long street with arcades, as at 

On a wooded eminence in the neighbourhood rises the 
celebrated Benedictine monastery La Trinita delta Cava, founded 
in 1025 by Waimar III., a Lombard prince of Salerno, but con- 
demned to dissolution. (At the adjoining village of Corpo di Cava 
is the rustic *inn of Michele Scapolatiello, pension 5 fr. ; that 
of Ferdinando Adinolfi is similar). This delightful valley is noted 
for the purity of its air, and is admirably adapted for a summer 
retreat. The church (at the entrance two ancient sarcophagi) 
contains the tombs of the first abbot S. Alferius, of Queen Sibylla, 
wife of Roger, who died at Salerno, and of several antipopes, 
among whom was (tregory VIII. The organ is one of the best 
in Italy. The archives of the monastery (generally accessible in 
the forenoon only) are of fireat value, and contain a number of 
important dncuiiieiits mi parchment in uninterrupted succession; 

of Naples. SALERNO. 10. Route. 151 

the catalogue comprises 8 vols. Among the valuable MSS. are the 
Codex Legum Longobardorum of 1004 , a prayer-book with 
miniatures, of the school of Fra Angelico da Fiesole, the Latin 
Biblia Vulgata of the 7th cent., etc. 

Corpo di Cava (see above) may be visited in the course of an after- 
noon, but several days may be spent most pleasantly in this neighbour- 
hood. From the station the ascent occupies l'Ja hi'. ; donkey 1 fr., there and 
back 2 fr. ; there is also a carriage-road. From the station we proceed 
to the 1. into the town, and follow the main-street as far as the Piazza 
with the church and large fountain in front of it (at the corner to the r. 
the "Cafe a"' Italia). By the church we follow the road ascending to the 
1., without regard to the diverging paths, for 5 min. Then, when it, turns 
to the r., we ascend by the shorter path to the 1. by a church, and 
farther on between walls, past the red painted tobacco manufactory, to 
>S. Giuseppe, a church with a few houses. Here we again quit the road, 
which goes to the r., and follow the path to the left. It descends, crosses 
a ravine (beyond the bridge a small church to the 1.), and again gradually 
ascends, commanding a view of the village to the right. For a time the 
path is enclosed by walls, but a view is soon obtained of the valley of La 
Cava to the 1., and, higher up, of the Bay of Salerno. In l \z hr. (from S. 
Giuseppe) we arrive at the church of Pietra Santa (so called from a rock 
in front of the high altar, on which the pope sat in 1816) whence a line 
view is obtained of the mountain slopes of Cava, studded with numerous 
white houses, and the Bay of Salerno to the right. In the narrow 
valley about twenty mills are propelled by the brook. The tall, round, 
slender towers on the hills about Cava are erected for the capture of wild 
pigeons in October. 

Leaving Pietra Santa we skirt the wood for 8 min. and reach the high 
road, which soon afterwards crosses the viaduct to Corpo di Cava. 
Here the road divides, leading to the village to the r., and to the monas- 
tery in 5 min. towards the left. The latter is situated above a small 
valley, and is built against the rock on which the village stands. It con- 
tains about 20 Benedictines and a seminary. 

The train now traverses a beautiful district, and soon affords 
a view of the Bay of Salerno; in 10 min. it reaches — 

30'/o -\1. Vietri, a charmingly situated little town, with several 
villas in the vicinity. The railway, supported by galleries, and 
passing through four tunnels, descends rapidly hence to Salerno. 

Carriages to Salerno (l'l a 31.) are also in waiting at Vietri. Single seat 
'|a fr. ; carriage 2 fr. The road descends, commanding a view of the sea. 
and affords a pleasant walk. High above, on the rocks of Monte Lioera- 
tore to the 1., runs the railway. Carriage to Amalli (p. 156) less expensive 
here than at Salerno. 

33 J /2 M. Stat. Salerno. Continuation of the line to Eboli, see 
p. 191. 

Salerno. "Hotel Vittoria, at the entrance to the town from Vietri, 
on the 1., roomy and clean, E. 3, B. l'|2, D. 4'| 2 , A. 1, L. i| 2 fr. ; pension 
according to arrangement ; "Hotel d'Angleterre , farther on in the town 
with less view, bargaining necessary ; Sole , unpretending. 

Trattorie (similar to those in Naples): ' Europa; Roma. Several Cafes 
on the quay, now Corso Garibaldi. 

Sea-Baths near the landing-place, similar to those at Naples in arrange- 
ments and charges. 

Carriages and Boats , charges always according to arrangement ; 
at the hotels, as at Sorrento (p. 141), the charges are professedly fixed. 
Two-horse carr. to Ptestum 20 — 25 fr., with three horses for 4 — 5 pers. 
25 — 30 fr. and I — 2 fr. gratuity. One horse carr. to Amalli (p. 156) 5 — 6 fr., 
two-horse carr. 7—9 fr. Single travellers niav avail thrnisrlves of one of 

15*2 Route 111. SALKKNO. Environs 

the swift hut somewhat uncomfortable corricoli (two-wheeled, rustic vehic- 
les; driver stands behind the passenger!, two c\s? but astipulation should 
be made that no second passenger be taken up by the way; to Amalfi 
(tutto compreso), according to circumstances 2>J2 — 4 i'r. — Rowing or sailing 
boat 1—1 >|» fr. per hour. Boat to Pfestum 20—25, to Amalfi 8—10 fr., ac- 
cording to the number of rowers. 

Salerno , the ancient Salemum , delightfully situated at the 
N. extremity of the bay, and bounded on the E. by fertile 
plains, contains 20,977 (or with the contiguous villages 29,031) 
inhab., a theatre, and numerous residences of the aristocracy, 
and is the seat of the local government and of an archbishop. 
The old town, rising on the slope of the so-called Apennine, with 
narrow and irregular streets, reoals the 9th and 10th centuries, 
when the Lombards, the 11th cent., when the Normans, and 
lastly the period when the houses of Hohenstaufen and Anjou 
were masters of the place, and when Salerno enjoyed the re- 
putation of being the greatest medical school in Europe. On 
an eminence stand the ruins of the ancient fortress of the Lom- 
bard princes, reduced by Robert Guiscard, after a siege of eight 
months, and now used as a prison. The ascent from S. Mattcn 
(see below), i/ 2 hr., is recommended for the sake of the view. 

The * Marina, or quay, l'/ 4 M. in length, now called Corso 
(iaribaldi, affords a beautiful walk, especially on summer evenings. 
The harbour, once of some importance, is now almost entirely 
choked up with sand. On the Marina stands the monument of 
Carlo Pisacana, Duke of S. Giovanni, 'precursore di Garibaldi', 
who in 1857 participated in the attempts to revolutionise Italy, 
landed in Calabria, and perished whilst attempting to escape. 
The large building between the two sentry-boxes, about 100 pace- 
farther, is the Prefettura, past which to the 1. a narrow street 
leads to the — 

*Cattt3I)kalh S. Matteo. erected in 1084 by Robert Guiscard. 
and adorned with works of art from Pa;stum. The restoration of 
1768 has deprived the edifice of much of its simple grandeur, 
but, it still merits a visit. The steps ascend to an atrium, sur- 
rounded by twenty-eight antique columns. In the centre formerly 
stood the granite basin which is now in the Villa Reale at Naples. 
By the lateral walls are placed fourteen ancient Sarcophagi, employed 
by the Normans and their successors as Christian burying places. 
The bronze doors were erected in 1099 by Landolfo Butromile. 
The nave contains two ambos or reading desks, and an archiepis- 
copal throne, richly decorated with mosaic by O/ovai/jii of Procida. To the r. 
two antique sarcophagi w r ith Bacchanalian representations, now used as 
burial-places for archbishops. The 'Crypt beneath, richly decorated with 
marble and mosaics, is said to contain the remains of the Evangelist 
St. Matthew, brought here from the East in 930; also the tomb of Margaret 
of Anjou, wife of Charles of Durazzo and mother of Ladislaus and Jo- 
hanna II.; then the tombs of Sigclgaita, second wife of Robert Guiscard, 
of their son linger Bursa, and of William, son of the latter, with whom 
Ihe direct line of the Norman dukes became extinct. — The chapel to the 
r. by the high altar contains the tomb of Hildebrand, afterwards Pope 

of Naples. I'.ESTUM. ID. Route. 153 

Gregory VII., who died here 25fh Way, 1085, alter he had been hanished 
from Koine by Henry IV. The monument was restored in 1578 by Arch- 
bishop Oolonna, and furnished with an inscription. The monument of 
Archbishop Cara la is adorned with a relief from Peestum : Rape of Proserpine. 
In front of a side-altar is the stump of a column, on which three saints 
arc said to have heen beheaded. The choir contains a pavement and 
balustrade of ancient mosaic and two columns of verde antico. On the 
altar in the Sacristy fin the 1. transept): 'History of the Old and New 
Testament, on numerous carved ivory tablets, dating from 1200. 

Til S. Lorenzo frescoes by Andrea Sabbatini have recently been 
discovered under the whitewash. 


From Salerno. An excursion to Peestum is usually undertaken from 
Salerno, where the previous night has been spent. Distance about 23 M., 
accomplished in 4 hrs. If the traveller start at 4 or 5 a. m. and spend 
4 or 5 hrs. at Peestuin, he may return in time for the last train to Naples. 
Those who desire to return to Naples in the evening effect a saving of l^lir. 
by taking the train at Battipaglia, instead of at Salerno. From Peestum 
to I'.attipaglia a drive of 2 1 J^ hrs. A three-horse carriage, accommodating 
4 — 5 pers., costs 25 — 30 fr. This charge ought to include the inevitable 
1 buona mano 1 , but a trilling addition will never-theless be expected at the 
termination of the journey. The vetturini Stcfano Avaluite and the fat 
Li'i'ji Mosdla are recommended. Refreshments (which the landlords provide 
;tt 2 fr. each person) should be taken from Salerno, as the osteria at 
Peestum is extremely poor, and the drinking water bad (the wine, however, 
is tolerable). As far as Battipaglia the traveller may avail himself of the 
railway (p. 191), having previously ordered a carriage from Salerno to 
meet iiim at the station. A long day is necessary for this excursion, as 
about 8 hrs. (6 hrs. if the train be taken to and from Battipaglia) arc 
required for the journey alone. The hot summer months are unfavourable 
for the excursion , owing to the prevalence of malaria in this district:, 
but if the traveller select this season he is strongly cautioned against in- 
dulging in sleep. 

From Eboli (p. 191). This beautiful route to Pa-stum has the ad- 
vantage of being considerably shorter than that from Salerno, and is 
considered equally safe. Two-horse carriage from Eboli to Peestum, 15 — 
18 fr. (a drive of 2 hrs.). The road leads along the left side of the oak 
forest of Persano, and after 3 M. unites with the Salerno road, a few 
hundred paces from the Sele (see below). 

By 'Water. In favourable weather the excursion may also be made 
from Salerno by boat (p. 151). Travellers land at the influx of the Salso, 
about l 1 (2 W. from the ruins. 

In winter parties (p. 26) arc frequently formed at Naples for the pur- 
pose of visiting Peestum. Sec advertisements at the hotels. 

From Salerno the great Calabrian route is followed as far as 
Battipaglia on the Tusciano (about 9'/'2 M.). The road then di- 
verges to the r. , traversing marshy and desolate plains, and 
crossing the impetuous river Sele, the ancient Silarus, by a stone 
bridge which has frequently been rebuilt. Above the road, to 
the 1., are Capaccio Vecchio and Nuovo. Between Battipaglia and 
this point, 9 M., was the most dangerous part of the road in 
1860 — 70, when the neighbourhood was haunted by the daring 
brigand Manzi. 

Paestum, according to Strabo, was founded by Greeks from 
Sybaris about the year B. C. 600. The ancient name of Posei- 
donia (city of Neptune) sufficiently indicates its Greek origin. 
After the defeat of Pyrrhus, Poseidonia fell into the hands of 

154 Route 10. P.-ESTUM. Environs 

the Romans, H. C. 273, who sent a colony thither, and changed 
the name to Psestum. The prosperity of the Greek city was now 
gone, although, as we are informed, an annual festival subse- 
quently took place in commemoration of the Greek origin, customs, 
and language of the inhabitants. The town gradually fell to 
decay, and as early as the reign of Augustus was notorious for its 
malarious air. Christianity took root here at an early period. 
When the Saracens devastated Psestum in the 9th cent., the in- 
habitants fled with their bishop to the neighbouring heights, and 
there founded Capaccio Vecchio. The deserted town was in the 
11th cent, despoiled by Robert Guiscard of its monuments and 
sculptures, and remained in this desolate condition for many 
centuries, till in modern times attention was again directed to 
the antiquities still remaining. Those who appreciate the simple 
majesty of Greek architecture should endeavour, if possible, be- 
fore quitting Naples, to pay a visit to the temples of Psstum. 
These, however, are the sole attraction. Pjestum contains a mi- 
serable tavern, a desolate growth of thorns and weeds, occasion- 
ally infested by snakes and scorpions, and a poor, ill-conditioned 
population who suffer much from fever. The malaria, occasioned 
by the collection of stagnant water and the decline of cultivation 
in the whole coast district between this point and Battipaglia, 
has been somewhat diminished by the improvements of the last 
few years. 

The ancient Town Walls, forming an irregular pentagon, on 
the river Salso, not far from the coast, about 3 M. in circum- 
ference, constructed of blocks of travertine, are preserved al- 
most entire; aiso a gate on the E. side towards the mountains, 
with two bas-reliefs on the key-stones representing dolphins and 
sirens. Outside the latter, fragments of an aqueduct, pavement 
of the road, and several towers. Without the N. gate, by which 
the town is entered from Salerno, was a Street of Tombs. Several 
of these, which have been opened, contained Greek weapons ; 
and in one of them, examined in 1S54, were found fine mural 
paintings, representing warriors taking leave of their friends. 
Most of the objects discovered in the course of the excavations, 
which are still continued, are preserved in the Museum at Naples, 
but a few are also shown at the Villa Bellelli. 

The Temples at P«stum (custodian 1 fr.J, of ancient Greek 
construction, are, with the single exception of those at Athens, 
the finest monuments of this description extant. They are three 
in number. The largest and most beautiful is that in the centre, 
the so-called **Temple of Neptune, 63yds. in length, 2Kyds. 
in width. At each end are six massive, fluted Doric columns, 
2S ft. in height; on each side twelve, in all thirty-six columns of 
~t l /.> ft. in diameter, all well-preserved. In the Interior of the Cella 
are two series of eight columns each (about ft. in diameter). 

of Naples. • PiESTl'M. 10. Route. 155 

with a second row of smaller columns above, which supported 
the roof. The latter are preserved on one side only. The stone 
is a kind of travertine, to which age has imparted a mellow 
tone. It contains fossil reeds anil aquatic plants. The whole 
was once covered with stucco, in order to conceal the imper- 
fections of the stone. The temple was a hypsethron, i. e., the 
cella, where the image stood, was uncovered. The proportions 
of the symmetrically tapering columns, whether viewed from the 
vicinity or from a distance, are perfect. This temple, as its 
whole character betokens, is one of the most ancient specimens 
of Greek art. Photographs, models, etc. may easily be procured, 
(comp. Introd. , p. xxxi). A stone basis in front of the E. 
facade probably belonged to a large sacrificial altar. 

To the S. of the latter, towards the river Silarus, rises the 
second temple, the so-called * Basilica (a misnomer), of more 
recent origin , but also of great antiquity. It is 59 yds. in 
length, 26 1 /.; yds. in width, and its fifty columns are each G 1 /^ ft. 
in diameter, but the proportions of the whole are less majestic than 
those of the temple of Neptune. At each end are nine columns, 
on each side sixteen, also of travertine stone. The shafts of the 
columns taper upwards in a curve ; the capitals are of a unique 
form, not occurring elsewhere. A series of columns in the 
central long wall, by a singular arrangement, divided the temple 
into two halves, so that it contained two 'cellse'. 

In front of these temples probably extended the Forum of 
the ancient town , basements for altars or statues being still 
distinguishable here. 

Farther N., near the entrance from Salerno, stands the small 
* Temple of Ceres, or according to others, of Vesta, with a 
peristyle of thirty-four columns, six at each end, and eleven on 
each side. Length 35 yds. , width 15 yds. ; columns 5 ft. in 
diameter, tapering upwards in straight lines. The columns of the 
vestibule are distinguished from those of the principal part of 
the structure by the difference of the fluting. This temple is 
another fine example of the simple and majestic Greek style. 

Between the Temple of Ceres and that of Neptune a few frag- 
ments of Roman building have been discovered, a Theatre and 
Amphitheatre, it is believed. The latter is intersected by the 
road. A Roman Temple was also discovered here in 1830. 
Concealed among the underwood near it are two metopre, adorned 
with high reliefs. These remains, however, are insignificant 
compared with the ruins above mentioned. Of the Tose-gardens' 
of Pcestum, so much extolled by Roman poets, no traces now exist. 
The temples are adorned with a luxuriant growth of ferns and 
acanthus, enlivened by the chirping of grasshoppers and the 
rustling of lizards 

1 5fi Route 10. AMALFI Environs 

A walk on the town-wall, e. p. from (lie S. gate to that to- 
wards Salerno, will enable the traveller, better than a close in- 
spection, to form an idea of the imposing grandeur of these 
venerable ruins. The finest general * View of the temples is 
obtained from the terrace of the first tower to the E. of the road, 
on the S. side of the town-wall. The marshy ponds which the 
Salso forms near the walls are a favourite resort of buffaloes. 


Fiiom Sohrento to Amalfi by Scaricatojo , see p. 160. From 
Castellamake to Amalfi by the Little St. Angela, see p. 160. — From 
the railway-station of Pagani (p. 150) a bridle-path ascends Monte Chiinizo, 
the height to the W. of Monte Albino. Near Torre di Cltinnzo, an ancient 
fortress erected by Kaimondi Orsini, the path divides: that to the 1. leads 
through the Val Tramonti by Figlino and Paterno to Staiori (see below): 
that, to the r. by Capiti, Cesarano, and Scala to Atraiti (p. 157). Each of 
these routes is a walk of 5 — 6 hrs. and should not be undertaken without 
previous enquiries as to the state of the country; if necessary, with an 

The "High Road krom Salerno to Amalfi is the most frequented 
route; by carriage (p. 151) in l'fc — 2 hrs. (by water, see p. 151). The 
magnificent road, completed in 1852, hewn in the cliffs of the coast, and 
frequently supported by galleries and vast viaducts 100 — 500 ft. above the 
sea-level, passes through thriving villages, and affords a succession of 
charming landscapes. The slopes are generally somewhat bare, but arc 
in many places laid out in terraces, and planted with vines, olives, lemons, 
and fruit-trees. The promontories of the coast are occupied by massive 
square watch-towers, erected under Charles V. as a protection against 
pirates, now converted into dwellings. This route is more attractive than 
that from Castellamare to Sorrento. 

From Salerno the road ascends, and near Vietri (p. 151 ) crosses 
the valley by a stone bridge. It then descends to the Marina 
di Vietri, where to the 1. in the sea rise the two conical rocks 
/ Due Fratelli. On the height to the r. Katto. Then the fishing- 
village of Cetara, extending along the bottom of a narrow ravine 
and picturesquely situated , frequently mentioned in connection 
with the invasions of the Saracens as the first place where 
they settled. The road now ascends to the Guardia house on the 
summit of Capo Tumolo, whence (the carriage should be quitted) 
a beautiful prospect of the coast on both sides is enjoyed. It 
then descends by Capo d'Orso, where the fleet of Charles V. was 
defeated by Filippino Doria, to the small town of — 

Maiori, at the mouth of the Val Tramonti ("see above), with 
terraced lemon-plantations, at the base of the ruined monastery 
of Canialdoli delta Arrorata (founded in 1485). Still higher arc 
situated the ruins of the ancient castle of 8. Nicola, of which 
the Piccolomini were the last proprietors. The road now slightly 
ascends to the next village of Minori; then to Atrani and Amalfi, 
all nearly contiguous. 

Minori, a clean little village, most beautifully situated, in 
the midst of lemon-plantations, once the arsenal of Amalfi, lies 
at the mouth of the sometimes impetuous Reyinolo. 

of Naples. AMALF1. II). Route. 157 

Atrani is situated at the entrance to a ravine, on each side of 
which the houses rise picturesquely. The church of S. Sali-atore 
di Biretto contains interesting bronze doors, of ISyzantine work- 
manship of the 11th cent., monuments of the Doses of Amalii, 
and others of the Saracenic period. Above Atrani stands the 
village of Pontone ; farther on, Unrello on the left. 

Near Pontone is the house where in 1620 Jhisaniello (i. e. Tornmaso 
Aniello, son of Ceceo d'Amalli and Antonia Gargano) is said to have been 
burn, who on 7th July, 1647 , headed a formidable insurrection at Naples 
against the Spaniards, but, after a short period of success, fell into a 
kind of insanity, and on i?th July was shot in the pulpit of a church 
by one of his former adherents. The composer Auber has dramatised 
these events. 

A lofty rocky eminence, on which the extensive ruins of the 

castle of Pontone are situated, separates Atrani from Amalfi. 

Amalfi. Ai.BEi.' OKI Capfuucini , on the Marina , somewhat con- 
lined, but good cuisine, R. 3, B. 2, 1). with wine 5, A. 1 fr. ; a much qui- 
eter house is the Albergo della Luna , formerly a monastery charm- 
ingly situated between Atrani and Amalfi, similar charges. 

Boats 1'la — 1 3 |4 fr. per hour; to Scaricatojo (p. 160) with 2 rowers 
7—8 fr. ; to Capri (p. 144) with 4 — 6 rowers 20—25 fr. ; to Sorrento (p. 141) 
with 4 — 6 rowers 30 — 45 fr. ; to Salerno (p. 151) with 2 rowers 7— S fr. 

Donkey per hr. 1 — l'|.i; to Castellamare by the Little S. Angelo 5 — 6 fr. 

Guide unnecessary except when time is very limited: the best are 
the two brothers Melloni; for a visit to the cathedral, mill-valley, and Ca- 
puchin monastery H|-_. — 2, whole day 5 fr. 

Amalfi, a small town situated at the entrance of a deep 
ravine, and surrounded by imposing mountains ami rocks of the 
most picturesque forms, was an important sea-port in the early 
part of the middle ages, rivalling Pisa and Genoa. 

It is mentioned for the first time in the 6th cent., when it enjoyed the 
protection of the Eastern emperors ; it afterwards became an independent 
state, under the presidency of a 'doge 1 . The town was continually at 
variance with the neighbouring princes of Salerno, and even defied the 
Norman sovereigns of Naples, till King Roger reduced the place in 1131. 
United with the royal forces, Amalfi carried on a war with the Pisans ; 
and it was during this struggle that the celebrated 3IS. of the Pandects of 
Justinian, now one of the principal treasures of the Laurentian library at 
Florence, fell into the hands of the Pisans. Amalfi then became subject 
to the Neapolitan kings of the houses of Normandy, Anjou, and Arragon. 
During the 13th cent, the sea gradually undermined the lower part of the 
town, and still more disastrous consequences were caused by an in- 
inundation in 1343. Amalfi, which had once contained 50,000 inhab., then 
steadily declined, and at the present day has a population of 6506 only, 
who are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of paper, soap, and mac- 
caroni. Flavio Gioja, a native of the town, is said to have invented 
the compass here in 1302, but he was probably the author of some im- 
provement only, as the instrument was in use among the Chinese in the 
early centuries of the Christian era. 

From the Marina a short street leads past the Albergo dei 
Cappueoini to the small Piazza, on the r. side of which rises the 
cathedral. It may also be reached by the steps to the r. of 
the fountain on the Marina . which lead to the entrance 
adjoining the crypt {see below). 

J 58 Route lit. AMALFI. Environs 

The *Cattedralf, S. Andrea, approached from the Piazza by 
a broad flight of steps, is still, in spite of modern alterations, 
an interesting structure of the 11th cent., in the Lombard Nor- 
man style. A spacious vestibule in front, resting on seven 
antique columns from Prestum. having become insecure, was 
removed in 1865. 

The bronze doors, executed by Byzantine masters in the 11th cent., 
bear two inscriptions in silver letters. One of these is to this effect: 'Hoc 
opus fieri jussit pro redemptione animse suse Pantaleo filius Mauri de 
Pantaleone de Mauro de Maurone Comite\ The interior, which consists 
of a nave and three aisles, is adorned with marble columns and mosaics. 
By the entrance, to the 1., an ancient vase of porphyry, formerly employed 
as a font. Near this (1.), in the front passage from the 2nd to the 3rd 
aisle, two ancient sarcophagi with unfortunately damaged sculpture, sup- 
posed to represent the Rape of Proserpine, and the Nuptials of Peleus and 
Thetis (according to others, those of Theseus and Ariadne). A third bears 
the inscription : 'Hie intus homo verus certus optumus recumbo Quintus 
Fabritius Rufus nobilis decurio 1 . The choir contains ancient columns 
decorated with mosaic from Pfestum. From the r. aisle a stair descends 
to the Criipt (verger 20 c), where, it is said, the body of the apostle 
St. Andrew has reposed since the 13th cent, when it was brought hither 
from Constantinople. The relics, from which an oily matter (manna di 
S. Andrea) of miraculous power is said to exude, attract numerous pious 
visits. The colossal statue of the saint by Michael Angelo Maccarino was 
presented by Philip III. of Spain. The altar was executed from a design 
by Domenico Fontana. The cloisters contain an ancient Christian relief of 
the Twelve Apostles and a Madonna of more recent date. The campanile, 
with its four storeys, was erected in 1276. 

From the Piazza, opposite the cathedral, "we next ascend a 
dark lane, to the r., and then steps, partially covered. A 
maccaroni-manufactory is passed, and the now level path leads 
to another flight of steps, which ascend to the * Capuchin Mo- 
nastery, founded in 1212 by Cardinal Pietro Capuano for monks 
of the Cistercian order, and built into a hollow of the rock, 
400 ft. above the sea. It is situated about '/2 M. to the W. 
of the town. From 1583 to 1815 it belonged to the Capuchins, 
who again took possession of it in 1850 ; but it has lately been 
converted into a naval school. It contains fine cloisters, a 
charming veranda, and magnificent points of view. A spacious 
grotto to the 1., in front of the building, was formerly used as 
a Calvary, or series of devotional stations. 

A cool and pleasant *\Valk may be taken in the narrow mill- 
valley (Vulle de' Molini), at the back of Amalri, l'/ 2 M. in length, 
containing sixteen paper mills which derive their motive power 
from the brook. (From the Piazza we proceed to the W. straight 
to a gate-way, beyond which the valley is entered. The steps, 
which ascend to the r. by the gate, lead to Scala. 2 hrs. walk, 
see p. 159; guide necessary.) On the r. rise lofty cliffs, the 
summit of which is crowned by the ruins of the Castello Pontone. 
The single tower dates from the time of Queen Johanna. — 
Five villages belong to Amain: Ptxjerola, Pastina, Lene, Vettica 
Minore, and Tonere. all situated to the W. of the town in a 

of Naples. R.VVELLO. ID. Route. 159 

district which yields wine , oil, and fruit in abundance. The 
coast is overgrown with the aloe and cactus opuntia. 

Ravello, an ancient and celebrated town in a lofty situation, 
is the most attractive point in the neighbourhood of Amain. 
Ascent V/ t hr., with guide (2 — 3 fr., p. 157; donkey 2 fr., 
somewhat slower). The views from it are charming, and the 
Moorish architecture of the place is interesting. The route is 
by Atrani, whence the ascent is at flrst by steps and somewhat 
steep. The town, which in the zenith of its prosperity pos- 
sessed thirteen churches, four monasteries, numerous palaces, 
and a population of 30,000, now numbers 1560 inhabitants 

We flrst reach the * Cathedral, founded in the 11th cent., 
with modernised interior. The bronze doors, with numerous 
figures of saints, date from 1197. The magnificent *Ambo, in 
marble, decorated with mosaics, was presented in 1272. It rests 
on six columns supported by lions. Inscription : 'Nicolaus de Fogia 
marmorarius hoc opus fecit'. Opposite to it is the pulpit, in 
a simpler style, with a representation of Jonah being swallowed 
by the whale. In the choir is the episcopal throne, adorned with 
mosaics. On the 1. the Cappella di S. Pantaleone , containing 
the blood of the saint. In the Sacristy a Madonna by Andrea 
Sabattini of Salerno. 

The * Palazzo Rufalo, in the Saracenic style of the 12th cent., 
now the property of a Mr. Reid, was once occupied by Pope 
Adrian IV. , King Charles II. , and Robert the Wise. In the 
centre is a small, fantastic court with a colonnade. The gateway 
has a Saracenic dome. A veranda in the garden commands a 
delightful *view (a contribution for the poor of the place is 
expected; gardener Y-2 fr-)- 

S. Maria Immacolata is a picturesque little church. 

Fine view by the nunnery of S. Chiara, and more extensive 
from the Belvedere Cembrone. 

S. (iiovanni, a modernised basilica supported by columns, 
contains a fine old pulpit. The adjacent garden (fee, a few 
soldi), formerly the property of the d'Afflitto family, affords a 
tine *view of the valley of Minori, and the small town of that 
name at its mouth , and of the more distant Maiori and the 
Capo Tumulo beyond it (fee of a few soldi ; wine is offered to 
visitors"). Other points of subordinate interest may be visited 
if time permits. 

If the traveller have 2 — 3 hrs. to spare he will be rewarded 
by extending his excursion to Scala, a village with an episcopal 
church and the ruined castle of Scaletta, and to Pontone , and 
descending thence to the mill-valley. This walk is interesting,, 
but fatiguing. A donkey should not be taken farther than Ra- 
vello, as riding is not practicable beyond it. 

160 Route 10. POSITANO. 

From Amalfi to Sorrento the best route is by water as 
far as Scaricatojo (boat, see p. If) 7 ; passage 2 — 2 1 /-2firs.; thence 
on foot or donkey in 2 l / 2 hrs. J, skirting the picturesque coast 
(costiera occidentale), and passing the promontory of Conca, the 
precipitous cliffs of Furore, the village of Prajano with its luxu- 
riant vines and olives, anil Vettica Maggiore in the vicinity; then 
Positano, picturesquely situated at the base of the mountains, 
and an important harbour during the Anjou dynasty. The church 
of S. Maria dell' Assunta contains a quaint sculpture of a sea- 
monster, probably obtained from some temple of Neptune. Many 
of the natives of Positano, Secondigliano (p. 48), and Montemurro, 
leave their homes and travel through the e\-kingdom of Naples 
as hawkers. They assemble at their native places annually 
to celebrate their principal church-festival , and again return 
thither in later life to spend their declining years. The 
population therefore consists chiefly of old men , women, and 

The boatmen sometimes propose to land their passengers at Positano, 
if the sea is at all rough, on the pretext that there is no good landing- 
place at Scaricatojo ; but the traveller should insist on being conveyed to 
his proper destination, and if it be really impossible to land there, he can 
then return to Positano. 

From Scaricatojo to Sorrento (2')ii hrs. ; guide unnecessary). The 
path ascends, at first by steps in the rocks, in 1 hr. to Li Conti di 6Vre- 
nienna, a group of houses on the hill, where we follow the path in a 
straight direction, avoiding that to the left. Immediately after crossing 
the crest of the hill we obtain a view of the Bay of Naples, Capri, Ischia, 
and Procida. After 5 min. we go straight oil. avoiding the stony path 
to the 1. ; after 25 min., nearly at the base of the hill, the path leads to 
the r. between walls ; after 5 min., to the 1. ; after 5 min. more, to the 1. 
by the narrow path to Sorrento (to the r. to Carotto, p. 141) ; again, after 
~> min., to the 1. between walls, and then by the high road to the 1.; 
.'D min., Hotel Belvedere (p. 141); 20 min., Sorrento (p. 141). 

From Positano to Sorrento (3'|2 hrs.;. guide 2 fr., unnecessary) 
the path ascends in 1 hr. to the top of the hill, where we take the first 
path to the 1., leading into the forest; after 7 min. we pass an old stone 
gate, whence the road descends through the wood, and cannot be mis- 
taken. After 3 | 4 hr., at the first house, the path turns to the 1.; '|a hr. a 
chinch; at the next ciossway, to the right. The path continues descending 
to the r. ; >| 2 hr., to the 1. in the valley; 5 min., the high-road is reached, 
and in i|._. hr. more Sorrento (p. 141). 

From Amalfi round the Punta della Oumpunella to Capri, 
p. 144; to Sorrento, p. 141; for both excursions 6 hrs. are re- 
quired; boat with 4 — 6 rowers 30 — Ho fr. 

From Amalfi to Castellamare over the Little S. Angela (7 hrs. ; don- 
key not recommended on account of the hilly character of the path), a 
fatiguing walk which hardly repays the trouble, as the view from the 
summit is partially obstructed; enquiry, moreover, should be made before 
starting as to the safety of the route. The finest part of the route is 
as far as (I'jv hr.) Fort X. Lazaro (see below), a point which may itself 
form the object of an excursion from Ainalii (as, however, the path is 
bounded by high walls, with the exception of the last 1/2 hr., a donkey 
sbould be taken thus far, enabling the traveller to see beyond the walls : 
;i supply of provisions also desirable). — The path leads by 1'uxtitia and 
Vellira Afinorr ill the Yul Vi-lliru, a picturesque ravine. Farther oil', to 
the 1., :i t the base of the mountain slope, is situated i.'mirn, consisting of 

ANCONA. II. Route. 161 

a few scattered houses, where the long Punta di Conca extends into the 
sea. Then by a steep and unshaded path in >| 2 hr. to S. Lazaro, a fort 
with a small garrison ; the terrace beneath commands a strikingly beauti- 
ful prospect of the luxuriant coast as far as Positano (p. 160), to the N. 
Monte S. Aiigelo (p. 140). From the fort the path is shaded by walnut 
and cherry-trees as far as Agerola (in one of the last houses to the r. wine 
of poor quality may be obtained). Thence ^2 hr. to the culminating point, 
S. Angela a Guida, partly through wood. On the summit a wild district, 
to the 1. the ridge of La Parula, to the r. the slight eminence of Piano 
di Perillo , overgrown with brushwood. The only fine view is that 
of the liay of Naples towards the N. ; to the S. the sea alone is visible. 
From the summit to (3 hrs.) Gragnano a fatiguing descent by stony and 
precipitous paths. From Gragnano to ( 3 |i hr.) Castellamare and the ('fi hr.) 
Hotel et Pension Anglaise (p. 139) a dusty high-road. 

11. From Ancona to Brindisi and the Apulian 

The E. districts of Italy, to the S. of Ancona, have, until very recently, 
been entirely beyond the reach of the ordinary traveller. The \V. coast is 
moreover by far the richer and more picturesque, as well as more replete 
with historical interest. The E. districts can boast of no such names as 
those of Rome, Maples, Florence, etc., but they are not devoid of attrac- 
tion, and have been endowed by nature with a considerable share of the 
gifts she has so bounteously lavished on other parts of Italy. The Apen- 
nines, rising at a short distance from the coast, send forth a series of 
parallel ramifications, forming a corresponding number of parallel valleys, 
whose communication with the external world is maintained by means of 
the coast to which they descend. The shores are flat and monotonous, and 
destitute of good harbours. The estuaries of the small rivers afford but 
scanty protection to the vessels of the coasting trade. Even at Ancona 
the prominent M. Conero alone renders the anchorage tolerable. The 
villages and towns, in which local peculiarities often prevail in a marked 
degree, are generally situated on the heights, and conspicuous at a great 
distance. Towards the W. the view is bounded by the central chain of 
the Apennines, which extend towards the S. of Ancona, from 43° to 42" X. 
lat., in several continuous. ranges, from the Montagna de/la Sibilla to the 
Gran Sasso d'Jtalia and Majella. where they attain their greatest elevation, 
and are covered with snow as late as July. Towards the E. glitters the 
vast Adriatic, studded on bright days by numerous sails. Such is the 
scenery presented by the formerly papal province of Ancona and the 
Neapolitan provinces of the Abruzzi with their capitals Teramo and Chieti. 
Farther S. the aspect of the country is different. The Apennines gradually 
recede from the coast , M. Gargnano, the last spur projecting into the sea, 
being separated from the chief range by a considerable plain. Beyond 
this stretches the Apulian plain, an extensive tract of pasture and arable 
land, bounded by an undulating district on the S. About the 41st degree 
of N. latitude the Apennines divide; the main chain, extending towards 
the S., forms the peninsula of Calabria \ the lower chain, to the E., that 
of Apulia. The coast then becomes less monotonous; and Brindisi, 
Otranto, and Gallipoli possess harbours of considerable importance. 

In consequence of the political changes of the last few years, the E. 
half of Italy has been drawn into the vortex of traffic, and is no longer 
excluded from the rest of the world owing to insufficient means of com- 
munication. Since the completion of the railway from Ancona to Brindisi 
and the improvements which the harbour of the latter has undergone, this 
route forms the most direct line of communication between Western and 
Central Europe and the East. Should the blessings of peace be preserved 
to Italy, it may with certainty be predicted that the traffic here will rapidly 
increase, and thus render the whole district more attractive. At present 
the larger towns alone contain tolerable inns. Travelling in the province 
Bakdkkkk. Italy III. 5th Edition. 11 

162 Route U. FKHMO. From Ancona 

of Ancona is in every respect safe and pleasant, which unfortunately 
cannot be said of every part of the W. coast. 

Railway from Ancona to Brindisi, 347 M. ; express to Brindisi daily, 
in correspondence with the express trains from Milan and Bologna, in 
15 hrs. ; fares 61 fr. 50 c, 43 fr. 5 c, 30 fr. 75 c. ; also once weekly in 
ll'|3 hrs., in connection with the English mail to India, carrying passen- 
gers to Brindisi only. The local trains stop for the night at Pescara or 
Foggia. — From Brindisi to Otranto, 53 M., in 3i| 2 hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 40, 
5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 20 c. ; only two through-trains daily. 

The line skirts the coast, affording a sea view to the left, and an in- 
land view to the right. The towns generally lie on the heights, at some 
distance from the stations, with which they communicate regularly by 
diligences cheap, (but often uncomfortable). 

Ancona, see Baedeker's Northern Italy . The train passes through 
a tunnel under the hills surrounding Ancona ; to the 1. rises 
the promontory of Monte Guasco ; on the hill to the r. lies 
the ancient town of Osimo, the Koman Auximum ; stat. Osimo 
is 5 M. from the town. On the r. we soon obtain a view of 
Castelfidardo, where the papal troops under Lamoriciere were 
defeated by the Italians under Cialdini on 29th Sept., 1860. 

Stations Loreto and Recanati (see Baedeker's Northern Italy). 
The train crosses the Potenza. Stat. Potenza Pieena is named 
after a Roman colony which once lay in the neighbourhood, 
but has left no trace of its existence. On the hill, 4 M. inland, 
lies the village of Montesanto. 

Stat. Porto Civitanuova lies at the mouth of the Chienti. 
The town of Civitanuova lies 1 M. inland. The train crosses 
the Chienti. Stat. Porto S. Elpidio. The village of S. Elpidio lies 
several miles inland. 

The Tenna is next crossed. Stat. Porto S. Giorgio. 

On the heights, 3 M. inland, is situated Fermo (Locanda delV Aquila; 
fare by dilig. or carr. 'J2 fr.), the ancient Firmum Picenum, with 20,000 
inhab., seat of an archbishop, and capital of the province of the same name. 
It became a Roman colony after the beginning of the first Punic war, and 
has continued since that period to be a town of some importance. At the 
Porta S. Francesco, by which the town is entered, are seen remnants of 
the ancient wall, constructed at a very remote period. The streets ascend 
somewhat precipitously to the height on which the handsome Piazza is 
situated; the Town-Hall here contains some inscriptions and ' antiquities. 
Antiquarians should visit the collection of the avvocato M. de Minicis. 
Outside the town, fine views of the fertile district, the Apennines, and 
the sea are obtained. 

The train next crosses the brooks Lete Vivo and Aso. Stations 
Pedaso, Cupra Marittima , Grottammare. On the height, 4*/ 2 M. 
from the latter, is situated the town of Ripatransone (5000 in- 
hab.J. Near Cupra Marittima (Marano) once lay the town of that 
name, with a celebrated temple dedicated to the Sabine goddess 
Cupra, restored by Hadrian, A. D. 126. The inhabitants of 
these districts greatly resemble their Neapolitan neighbours in 
manners and appearance. 

o3 M. Stat. S. Benedetto (inn at the station), a village on 
the coast. 

to Brindisi. ASCOLI. 11. Route. 1.63 

Ascoli ( ' Locanda delV Aquila), the ancient Anculum Picenum, with 
17,448 inhab., the seat of a bishop and capital of a province, is situated in 
the fertile valley of the Tronto, 21 M. from the S. Benedetto station (diligence 
twice daily in 3 1 Ja hrs., fare l'Ja fr.). The road ascends on the N. side of 
the valley and crosses to the S. side, where the town lies. The valley is 
here contracted and enclosed by lofty mountains. To the N. rises the 
jagged M. delta Ascensione, to the W. the Sibilla , more towards the S. 
the Pizzo di Sevo. Mountain roads lead hence by Norcia to Spoleto, others 
through the valleys of the Veiino and Aterno to Aqiiila (p. 133) and the 
interior of the Abruzzi. Ascoli, an ancient town in a commanding situation, 
the capital of the tribe of Picentines, took a prominent part in the Social 
war against Rome, and was captured and destroyed by Pompey. Interesting 
remnants of the ancient wall, a bridge, and a 'gate at the W. end of the 
town. The town-hall contains a few inscriptions, and other relics are 
encountered in other parts of the town, e. g. insignificant vestiges of a 
theatre and amphitheatre. The architecture of the churches and palaces 
dates chiefly from a period anterior to the Renaissance, materially en- 
hancing the interest of the town , which is indeed the most attractive on 
the B. coast. The "Cathedral is said to have been founded by Constan- 
tine on the site of a temple of Hercules. The original substructions are 
still traceable. A chapel to the r. in the interior contains good pictures 
by Crivelli. 

Beyond S. Benedetto the train crosses the Tronto, the ancient 
Truentus, formerly the boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 

62 M. Stat. Tortoreto ; then Oiulianova, a dirty village on the 
hill, about 1 M. from the coast, erected in the 15th cent, by 
the inhabitants of the ancient Castrum Novum on the Tordino, 
and named S. Flaviano at that period. 

Teramo, the ancient Interamna, the capital of the province Abruzzo 
Ultra I., seat of a bishop, with 19,045 inhab., is 16'|2 M. distant (post- 
omnibus 2 fr., one-horse carr. 5 fr., in 2>|2 — 3 hrs.), situated on the 1. bank of 
the Tordino. The Gothic cathedral is now modernised. The valley commands 
a succession of fine views of the imposing Gran Sasso. The town contains 
several inns, the best in the Piazza, where the Cafi <T Italia is also situated. 

The ascent of the Gran Sasso, or Monte Corno (9813 ft.), may best be 
undertaken from this point. (As this district is very rarely visited by 
travellers, letters of introduction to residents are highly desirable.) The 
previous night is spent at the village of Isola (14 M. from Teramo), at 
the foot of the mountain, and the ascent is made thence either on the 
back of a mule or on foot. The scenery is of an Alpine character. 

A new road ascends the valley of the Vomano from Teramo to Aquila 
(comp. p. 183). 

The line now crosses the Tordino, the ancient Batinus, then 
the Vomano (Vomanus). Stat. Mutignano. 

About 6 M. inland (dilig. in the afternoon 1 fr. 25 c, other conveyances 
rarely obtainable) is situated Atri ("Albergo di Vine. Mareone), the ancient 
Hadria, an episcopal residence, with 9397 inhab., a town of great antiquity, 
and once celebrated for its copper coins. Numerous ruins bear testimony 
to its ancient importance. The Gothic cathedral with its frescoes merits a 
visit. It rests on extensive foundations of ancient origin, perhaps those of a 
temple. Several large grottoes near the town are also of very remote date. 

The Piomba, the ancient Matrinus, is now crossed, 4 M. 
inland from which is situated Civitd. Santangelo, with 6341 inhab.; 
next stations Silvi and (87 M.) Montesilvano. 

About 16'|2 M. inland lies Civitd di Penne, the capital of the district, 
with 9800 inhab., the Pinna of the ancients, and chief town of the Vestini, 
of which period various relics are still extant. 


I<>4 Route 11. TERMOLI. From Ancona 

91 M. Pescara (Leone d'Oro; carriage into the town 1/2 fr-.)i 
one of the principal stations, on the N. bank of the Pescara. 
The mountain-group of the Majella, culminating in M. Armira 
(9000 ft., according to others 9581 ft.), and 55 M. in circum- 
ference, now becomes visible on the right. The line crosses the 
river by an iron bridge, below which a wooden bridge and small 
harbour are situated, and then describes a curve round the town. 
Pescara is a small and dirty fortified town, in a low and unhealthy 
situation. A railway diverges hence, via, Chieti and Popoli, to 
Solmona in the Abruzzi, forming an important route to Naples 
(R. U). 

Stat. Francavilla ; the village lies to the r. on the hill. Be- 
yond this, a mountain-spur projects into the sea, and the train 
passes through four short tunnels. Beyond the third the fort of 
Ortona becomes visible on the left. 

105 M. Stat. Ortona. The town (Caprera; Cafe in the Pi- 
azza), 1/2 M. from the station, the ancient Orton, capital of the 
Frentani, is now a tolerably clean and well-built place (12,819 
inhab.), situated on a lofty promontory, with a small quay on 
the shore below. Beautiful views towards the S. as far as the 
Punta di Penna (see below), especially of the ancient and dilapi- 
dated fort. The architecture of the cathedral should be inspected. 
Ortona is the only suitable resting-place on the long journey 
between Ancona and Foggia. 

Beyond Ortona another tunnel ; two brooks are crossed, then 
stat. S. Vito Chietino ; three more tunnels , beyond which we 
obtain a fine view of the peninsula terminating in the Punta di 
Penna. Stat. Fossacesia ; l^M. inland lies Lanciano, the an- 
cient Anxanum, with IS, 108 inhab., the capital of the most po-' 
pulous district of the province Ahruzzo Citeriore. 

The Sangro, Lat. Sangrus, is crossed. Stat. Casalbordino . 
Three tunnels, beyond which Vasto becomes visible, on an olive- 
olad eminence on the right. (131 M.) Stat. Vasto. The town is 
1 M. distant from the station. 

Vasto (*Locanda di Custello, outside the gate ; those in the 
town dirty; Cafe Nazionale), the ancient Histonium, with a 
population of 12,367, lies high, and commands fine views as far 
as the Tremiti islands (p. 165) and Monte Gargano. The small 
cathedral with Gothic facade bears a memorial tablet to General 
'Carlo Antonio Manhes distruttore de' briganti primo cittadino 
del Vasto'. date 1810. A small museum in the town-hall 
contains inscriptions and other relics found here. The environs, 
rich in olive plantations, are still infested by banditti. 

The line crosses the Trigno, Lat. Trinius. (l-iT'/s M -) Stat. 
Termoli ( Venezia , in the suburbs) , a fortress close to the sea, 
with medieval walls, excessively dirty. Charming prospect of the 

to Brindiai. FOGGIA. 11 . Route. 165 

Majella and Abruzzi. The cathedral, with a Gothic facade, contains 
a number of quaintly decorated saints. 

From Termoli diligences and omnibus daily (railway projected) in 
about 10 hrs. to (92 M.) Solopaca, on the Foggia and Naples railway, fare 
15 fr. ; thence by railway to Maddaloni, on the Rome and Naples line. 
The first half of the route is monotonous. The first important place is 
(21 M.) Larino (Loc. di Agostino Milano) , situated in a valley, near the 
ruins of the ancient Larimim. The road continues to ascend through a 
bleak district. Campobasso (two tolerable inns), 35 M. farther, capital of 
the province of Molise, is a place of some importance, noted for its steel 
wares, where a short halt is made. 

From Campobasso to Solopaca, about 36 M., by diligence in 6 hrs., fare 
6 fr. The road, after traversing the mountain, descends into the valley 
of the Tamaro. The country becomes more attractive. Post-stat. Se- 
jtino; the town lies 1 3 |4 M. higher. About 2 , |* SI. from this point are situ- 
ated the extensive ruins of the ancient Saepiniim, now Altilia. A little 
to the 1. of the road, 14 SI. farther, is the village of Ponlelandolfo, the 
inhabitants of which in 1861 cruelly and treacherously assassinated 36 Ita- 
lian soldiers and 4 carabineers , whom they had received with apparent 
hospitality and induced to lay down their arms. General Cialdini caused 
the troops to take a summary and sanguinary revenge. Then the village 
of Guardia S. Framondi. The road now descends to the beautiful valley 
of the Colore, crossing it by an iron bridge, and at stat. Solopaca (p. 176) 
reaches the Foggia and Naples railway, by which Maddaloni is 27 M. 

The Tremiti Islands, the mythological Insulae Diomedeae, the 
largest of which is 8. Domenico , lie 23 l /-> M. to the N.E. of 
Termoli, and are used, as in ancient times, as a place of empris- 

Beyond Termoli the scenery becomes less attractive. The 
train crosses the Biferno, Lat. Tifernus. Stations Campomarino 
and Chieuti. Beyond the Fortore, the ancient Frento, stat. 
Ripalta is reached. In this neighbourhood, 15th June, 1053, 
the Normans defeated and captured Pope Leo IX., and then, 
falling on their knees, implored his blessing. Leo, relenting, 
imparted it, and subsequently conferred Apulia, Calabria, and 
Sicily on the brothers Humfred and Robert Guiscard, a grant 
which was ultimately fraught with consequences so important 
to Rome and the papal throne, as well as to the Normans. 
To the N.E. is the Lago di Lesina, which communicates with 
the sea. The train now proceeds inland, in order to avoid the 
promontory of M. Oargano (p. 167), a buttress of the Apennines 
with several peaks upwards of 4000 ft. in height, projecting into 
the sea. Stations Poggio Imperiale, Apricena. Then San Severo 
(Locanda d'ltalia), a dirty town with 17,595 inhab., which in 
1799, after a gallant resistance, was taken and almost entirely 
destroyed by the French. The cholera committed fearful ravages 
here in 1865. Stat. Motta; then — 

201 M. Foggia. Restaurant at the station. The town is 3 |4 M. distant; 
cab l (2 fr. — In the town: Locanda di Roma, in the main street leading 
to the station, well fitted up. In the Italian style, with trattorie: Aquila 
d'Oro, in the Corso del Teatro, tolerable, R. 2 fr. ; Villa di Torino ; 
Corona di Ferro, etc. — Caffe Jfazionale, in the Corso del Teatro; ' Trat- 

166 Route 11. LUCERA. From Ancona 

toria del Rebecchmo, adjoining the theatre; della Porta Pia, near the 
public promenades. 

Foggia , the capital of a province formerly called the Capi- 
tanata, a clean and thriving town , well situated in a commer- 
cial point of view, with 34,052 inhab., but without attraction 
for the traveller, forms the central point of the great Apulian 
plain. The Cathedral, originally erected by the Normans, and 
partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1731 , was afterwards re- 
erected in a more modern style. Part of the old facade is still 
preserved. King Manfred was crowned here in 1258, and in 1797 
Francis I., then Duke of Calabria, was married here to his first 
queen, Maria Clementina of Austria. The gateway of a palace 
of the Emp. Frederick 11., of whom Foggia was the favourite 
residence , still exists , and bears an inscription relating to 
its erection. Near it, and probably belonging to the ancient 
palace, is a fountain (Pozzo Rotondo), sometimes called the Pozzo 
dell' Jmperatore after Frederick II. To the S. of the town, on 
the way to the railway , is situated the Giardino Pubblico, 
adorned with a number of busts, laid out in imitation of the 
Villa Nazionale at Naples. Beyond it is a botanical garden. 

A great part of the spacious plain around Foggia is used 
as a sheep-pasture (Tavoliere della Puglia). During the summer 
the flocks graze on the mountains, and in October return to 
the plain by three great routes (Tratture delle Pecore). These 
migrations, during which hundreds of flocks may be encountered 
in one day, date from the Roman period. Alphonso I., who 
introduced the merino sheep, converted the pastures into a royal 
domain in 1445. The number of sheep supported by these 
pastures amounted to 4i/ 2 million at the close of the 16th cent., 
but owing to the progress of agriculture, is now reduced to less 
than half a million. 

About 3 M. from Foggia, to the N., are situated the scanty 
remains of the ancient town of Arpi, or Argyripe, which is 
said to have been founded by Diomedes , and was afterwards 
superseded by Foggia. 

Several excursions may be made from Foggia, the most 
interesting of which is to — 

Lucera (Albergo d'/talia), 10 31. distant, with which a busy trade 
is carried on. Diligence twice daily in li| 2 ln\, fare 3 fr. ; carriage there 
and back 6 — 8 fr. ; railway projected. Luceria, as it was anciently called, 
was regarded as the key of Apulia, owing to its situation. It is first 
heard of during the Samnite wars, and in K. C. 314 it became a Roman 
colony. It continued to be an important and prosperous town down to the 
7th cent, after Christ, but was destroyed in 663. It was at length restored 
by Frederick II. , who in 1239 transplanted a colony of Saracens hither 
from Sicily , bestowing on them entire religious freedom. They were in 
consequence staunch adherents of the Hohenstaufen family, and' accorded 
an asylum to the wife and childi'en of Manfred after the battle of Bene- 
vento, but were either destroyed or banished from their town by Charles 
of Anjou in 1209. 

toBrindisi. MANFREDONIA. 11. Route. 167 

The town lies upon a lofty plain, which slopes imperceptibly towards 
the S. and E., and abruptly towards the N. and W. On the W. side the 
plateau projects, somewhat in the form of a peninsula. The admirably 
preserved "Castle (keys at the Municipio), erected by Frederick, is situated 
here. It is a remarkable example of a mediaeval stronghold, and occupies 
the site of the ancient arx. The present structure is of various epochs, 
but most of it dates from the Hohenstaufen period. The 'view embraces 
the plain bounded by the Apennines and Monte Gargano ; to the N. lies 
the town of S. Severo, and to the E. stretches the sea. The isolated 
mountain to the S. is the Monte Vulture near Melfi, the summit of which 
commands a survey of the whole of Apulia. 

The handsome Cathedral in the Romanesque style, with flat ceiling 
and columns of verde antico, was once used as a mosque. A few inscrip- 
tions dating from the ancient municipium, which far exceeded the modern 
town in extent, are preserved in the library of the municipio, or town-hall. 
There are slight traces of an amphitheatre on the E. side of the town. 

About 7 M. from Lucera, to the r. of the road to S. Severo, are situated 
the ruins of Castel Florentine*, where Frederick II., after having reigned 
for 38 years as a German king, died in 1250, in his 56th year. 

Manfredonia (Locanda di Donna Peppina) is 23 1 J2 M. distant from 
Foggia. Diligence daily at 7 a. m. in 4 hrs., fare 4'|2 fr. ; carriage there 
and back 16 fr. and fee ; railway projected. The country traversed is 
bleak and monotonous, but presents several points of interest to architects. 
About 17'|2 M. from Foggia the traveller passes <S. Leonardo, a church and 
monastery founded by Hermann von Salza in 1223, with a fine portal. It 
is now used as a 'Masseria'', or farm-house, and is in a very dilapidated con- 
dition. About life M. before reaching Manfredonia the road passes the "Ca- 
thedral of Siponto, a fine example of the Romanesque style, with a crypt. 
The interior, unfortunately restored, contains a 'miracle-working 1 Madonna 
and numerous votive tablets. This district suffers from malaria. This was 
the site of the ancient Sipontum, a Roman colony in B. C. 194, on the 
ruins of which the town of Manfredonia was founded by King Manfred in 
1256. It is now a dull place with 7812 inhabitants. The anchorage 
in the vicinity is commended, but the harbour is filled with sand. 
The steamers from Genoa to Ancona touch here once a fortnight. The 
sheltered situation of the town, to the S. of Monte Gargano, imparts a 
character of southern luxuriance to the vegetation, resembling that of 

A path, at first traversing olive-plantations, then ascending rapidly, 
leads hence to (2'|2 hrs.) the lofty Monte Santangelo (2824 ft.), with a pic- 
turesque castle, and a sanctuary of S. Michele, to which pilgrims resort on 
the 8th of May. The latter is a grotto to which 55 steps descend , where 
as the legend runs , St. Michael appeared to St. Laurentius , Archbishop 
of Sipontum, in 491. In the 11th cent, the warlike Normans undertook 
pilgrimages to this sacred spot before they became masters of the country. 
The bronze doors, with scenes from Scripture, bear the inscription : 'Hoc 
opus completum est in regia urbe Constantinopoli adjuvante Dno Panta- 
leone qui fieri jussit anno ab incarnatione Dni Millesimo Septuagesimo 
Sexto (comp. p. 158). From this point M. Cairo , the culminating point 
of Monte Gargano (5114 ft.), may best be ascended. Between Monte S. 
Angelo and Vico lies the extensive and beautiful beech-forest called 
Boseo deir Umbra, which stretches towards the sea. Farther to the N. is 
Isrhitella. Towards the E., on the coast, is Vies/i, where steamers touch 
once weekly. The roads are bad , and suitable for riding and walk- 
ing only. 

From Foggia to Naples, see R. 12. 

Continuation of Journey to Brindisi. To the r. towards 
the S. the Monte Vulture near Melfl (p. 192) is visible. 

Stat. Orta Nova; then Ceriynola, with 17,242 inhab., an 
uninteresting town with a poor inn. The surrounding plain is 

168 Route 11. CANOSA. From Anrona 

richly cultivated, but entirely destitute of trees, which generally 
form an important feature in the agriculture of Italy and serve 
to enliven the landscape. Cotton-plantations begin here. Stat. 
Trinitapoli. The train then crosses the Ofanto, the ancient Aafidux, 
the last river of any importance on the E. coast. Between two 
ranges of hills to the r. lies the broad plain on which the 
battle of Cannse was fought (see below). 

244 M. Barletta (Locanda di Ettore Fieramosca), a pictures- 
quely situated seaport-town with 28,638 inhab. , contains a 
number of well-built houses and churches. Here in 1259 King 
Manfred held the first tournament ever witnessed in this district, 
in honour of Baldwin II., last Latin Emperor of Constantinople, 
who was then on a visit at the Italian court. The market- 
place is adorned with a bronze statue 14 ft. in height, said to 
represent the Emp. Heraclius (according to others Theodosius), 
and to have been found in the sea. 

The Cathedral of 8. Maria Maggiore contains the tomb of a 
Count of Barbi and Miihlingen, with a German inscription. .9. 
Andrea and 8. Trinitii possess several ancient pictures. The ex- 
tensive Castello dates from the time of Charles V. 

In the wars between Louis XII. and Ferdinand the Catholic, Barletta 
was defended in 1503 by Gonsalvo da Cordova and besieged by the IHike 
of Nemours. During the siege, among other encounters, a combat took 
place in the vicinity (between Andria and Corato) between thirteen on 
each side of the most valiant knights of Italy and France, conducted re- 
spectively by Colonna , and Bayard 'sans peur et sans reproche' , which 
terminated in favour of the former. 

For excursions in the neighbourhood, light two-wheeled oars, 
resembling the Neapolitan corricoli , but here called sciarraba, 
(a corruption of the French char-a-bancs) may be hired for 6 — 
7 fr. per day (average day's journey about 35 M.). 

Canosa (Albergo O'enghi, tolerable), with 14,992 inhab., on the slope 
of a hill, commanded by a ruined castle , lies 14 M. inland. Of the 
ancient Caintxii/m, once a prosperous town, a gate (Porta Varrense, on the 
road to Cerignola), ruins of an extensive amphitheatre, and other relics 
still exist. In the tombs in the environs numerous painted vases, golden 
trinkets, etc. have been discovered. The principal church of S. Sabino, 
with several small domes, contains a pulpit and episcopal throne in marble 
and several antique columns. In an adjacent court stands the tomb of 
Bohemund, son of Rob. Guiscard, one of Tasso's heroes. Extensive olive- 
plantations in the neighbourhood, which, like the whole district of Apulia, 
also yields excellent wine. About 4 31. to the N.W. of Canosa, on the r. 
bank of the Ofanto, towards the coast, once lay Cannae, where the Ro- 
mans were signally defeated by Hannibal, B. C. 216. In 1019 an Apulian 
and Lombard army under the Norman Drangot were defeated here by the 
troops of the Greek prefect Bolanus. In 1083 Cannee was taken and des- 
troyed by Robert Guiscard. 

From Canosa a road leads to the well-built town of Andria (34,063 inhab. ; 
no tolerable inn), 14 31. distant, founded in 1046, once a favourite residence 
of the Emp. Frederick II., whose second wife Jolantha died here in 1228, 
after having given birth to a son (Conrad), and was interred in the interesting 
old cathedral. His third wife, Isabella of England, who died at. Foggia in 
1241, was also interred in the cathedral of Andria, but the monuments of 
these empresses have long since disappeared, having been destroyed by the 

to Brindisi. TRAM. II. Route. 169 

partisans of Aujuu. On the J'orta <S. Andrea, or delf Jmperatore, is a metri- 
cal inscription in letters of metal , attributed to Frederick : Andria f delis 
noslris affixa medullis, etc. The old church of S. Agostino is worthy of 
inspection. Andria is 7>j2 M. from Barletta (diligence twice daily in l 1 ]? hr., 
fare '/j fr.) , and the same distance from Trani. The route between Ca- 
nosa and Andria commands a view of the ruins of the conspicuous and 
imposing "Castello del Motile on the summit of the Murgie di Minervino, 
erected by Robert Guiscard, and embellished by Frederick II. who fre- 
quently resided here. The summit commands a beautiful survey of the 
sea, the valley of the Ofanto, Monte Vulture, etc. A bridle-path (4 hrs.) 
ascends to it from Andria. From Castello del Monte to the town of 
Corato (26,376 inhab.) is a distance of 9'|2 M. ; about two-thirds of the way 
to the latter, a modern monument called Vepilajio, in a field by the road- 
side, marks the spot where the tournament of Barletta took place (see above). 
Beyond Corato the little town of Kuvo is reached, the ancient Ruhi. Many 
of the finest and largest of the vases which now adorn the Museum at 
Naples were discovered in the Apulian tombs of this locality, but these 
have been since covered up again. Several private collections here are 
worthy of note, particularly that of Giov. Jatla. From Ruvo the railway- 
station Bisceglie is 10 l f-2 M. distant. 

The line now skirts the coast. The journey from Barletta to 
Bari, is one of the most beautiful in this part of Italy. The 
country is luxuriantly fertile , and is chiefly famous for its 
large olive-plantations which yield excellent salad oil. The 
district where this is produced extends only from Barletta and 
Canosa, past Bari, to the neighbourhood of Mola (p. 171). The 
culture of the olive is very profitable, but of extremely fluctuat- 
ing success. A first-rate crop, though rare, sometimes realises a 
price equal to the value of the whole estate. 

252 M. Trani (Locanda del Risorgimento ; Italia, less pretend- 
ing, but cleaner) is a well-built seaport, with 25,125 inhabitants. 
Pleasant walk in the public gardens (Villa) on the coast. The 
loftily situated Cathedral, built about the year 1100, still poss- 
esses a Romanesque portal and interesting bronze doors of 1175. 
Interior barbarously modernised. Several synagogues afford an 
indication of the former prosperity of the place and of its im- 
portance at the time of the crusades. Excellent wine (Moscato 
di Trani) is produced in the neighbourhood. 

257 M. Stat. Bisceylie, with 21,518 inhab., is a fortified 
town, surrounded by handsome villas. Stat. Molfetta (27,252 
inhab.), beautifully situated, an episcopal see, was once in com- 
mercial alliance with Amain. After the death of Johanna I. 
her husband Otho, Duke of Brunswick, was confined in the cas- 
tle here until Charles of Durazzo released him in 1384. Next 
stations Oiovinazzo and Santo Spirito. About 4 4 / 2 M. to the W. 
of the latter lies Bitonto (25,215 inhab.), with an extensive oil 
manufactory. The interesting cathedral contains several tombs of 
the 17th cent. 

278 M. Bari (*Albergo del Risorgimento, R., L., and A. 2 , / 2 1 ' 1 '- ; 
Progresso, with trattoria, R. l'/ofr-; Cafe's Stoppani and Roma, 
in the Corso Vitt. Kmanuele ; Caflisch's Brewery, Str. Piccinini ; 
cab into the town 60, after dusk 70 c), the ancient Barium, 

170 Route 11. BARI. From Ancona 

still, as in the time of Horace, well supplied with fish ('Bari 
piscosi mcenia'), a seaport, and the capital of the province of the 
same name, with 50,026 inhab., is the most important commer- 
cial town in Apulia. It possesses a handsome Corso, and broad 
and handsome streets in the new town (Borgo). Bari, now an 
archiepiscopal see, is one of the most ancient bishopries in Italy, 
and is frequently mentioned in mediaeval history as the scene 
of contests between Saracens, Greeks , Normans , etc. In 1002 
it was wrested from the Saracens by the Venetians. The town 
formed an independent duchy from the 14th cent, down to 
1558, when it was united with the kingdom of Naples. 

*S. Nicola was erected by Robert Guiscard in 1087, for the 
reception of the relics of the saint, which were brought from 
Myra in Lycia, and still retains many of its ancient character- 
istics. The facade is worthy of notice. The interior consists of 
nave and aisles with flat ceiling, and double rows of columns. 
On the 1. is the tombstone of Robert, Count of Bari, 'protono- 
tarius' of Charles of Anjou, who conducted the proceedings 
against the ill-fated Prince Conradin, and was afterwards assass- 
inated by a nephew of Charles of Anjou on the very spot on 
which he had proclaimed the sentence (p. 45). He was a 
member of the Chiurlia family, resident at Bari. To the r. of 
the high altar is a Madonna with saints, by Bartolommeo Vi- 
varini of Murano, 1466. At the back of the choir is the tomb 
(erected in 1593) of Bona Sforza , queen of Sigismund I. of 
Poland, the last Duke of Bari (d. 1558), with statues of St. Casi- 
mir and Stanislaus. The Crypt contains a silver altar with reliefs, 
supposed to date from 1319, below which is the vault containing 
the bones of the saint. From these a miraculous fluid ('Manna 
di Bari'), especially prized by Russian believers, is said to 
exude. The festival of the saint, on 8th May, is attended by 
thousands of pilgrims, chiefly from the Albanese villages. Outside 
the church are a number of epitaphs to Byzantine pilgrims who 
died here. 

The cathedral of S. Sabino, originally a fine Gothic building, 
was sadly modernised in 1745. Over the altar of S. Rocco is a 
picture by Tintoretto, and opposite to it one by Paolo Veronese. 
The lofty campanile resembles the Moorish tower of Seville. 

The Lion in the Piazza, with the inscription 'custos justitiar 
on its collar, is the heraldic cognizance of Bari. 

The theatre is named Piccinni, after the composer of that 
name, a native of Bari, and a rival and contemporary of Gluck. 
A new Ateneo has been erected near the railway station. The 
new harbour in the old town commands a beautiful view of Mte. 

Railway front Bari to Taranto, see R. 18. Tlie steamers of Hie Qenoa 
and Ancona line touch at Bari once weekly. 

toBrindisi. BRINDISI. 11. Route. 171 

Next stat. Noja; then Mola (12,181 inhab.), on the coast, 
and (299 M.) Polignano, situated on a lofty and precipitous 
rock, rising above the sea and containing several fine grottoes. 
The finest of these, opening towards the sea, lies under the new 
town (entrance by a small door in the old town ; key at the 
house opposite). Next (303 M.) stat. Monopoli, with 20,011 
inhab., the residence of an archbishop. The cathedral contains 
a St. Sebastian by Palma Vecchio. The tower of S. Francesco 
commands a fine view. In the direction of the sea there have re- 
cently been discovered several rock-hewn tombs, the contents of 
which are preserved in the municipio. The ancient name of the 
town is unknown. 

312 M. Stat. Fasano , a thriving town with 14,514 inhab., 
where the Terra d'Otranto, or province of Otranto, begins. On the 
coast between Monopoli and Fasano lies the ruined town (' la 
citta distrutta') of Egnazia, where a number of vases, etc. have 
been found. The ancient walls are still traceable. Then Ostuni, 
Carovigno, S. Vito, and — 

347 M. Brindisi. "'Gran Albkego delle Indie Oriental!, built by 
the Italian S. railway company, on the quay, near the landing-place of 
the P. and O. steamers, will fitted up, R. 3, A. 1, L. 3 f4, dejeuner 3 fr. — 
-Albergo d'Europa, in the town, adjoining the Piazza del Mercato, kept 
by Michele Grapsa, a Greek, very tolerable, R. and L. 2' |a fr., A. 40 c. ; 
Hutel c'Angleterre, very dirty, and Vittohia, both in the town, and in 
the Italian style. — Caffb Triestino. — Cab from the station to the town 
i| 2 fr., after dusk 1 fr. 

Brindisi, with 9105 inhab., the ancient Brentesion, or Brundi- 
sium, i. e. 'stag's head', in allusion to the form of the harbour 
which encloses the town in two arms, was once a populous 
seaport, and the usual point of embarcation for Greece (Dyr- 
rachium) and the East. 

Brundisium was a celebrated place in ancient history. At a very early 
period it was colonised by Tarentum, and subsequently by Rome, B. C. 245. 
Here was the termination of the Via Appia, the construction of which 
from Capua was nearly coeval with the foundation of the colony. Horace's 
description (Sat. i, 5) of his journey from Rome to Brundisium, B. C. 37, 
in the company of Maecenas, who was desirous of being present at the 
conclusion of a new alliance between Octavianus and Antony at Tarentum, 
is well known. At Brundisium the tragic poet Pacuvius was born, and 
here, B. C. 19, Virgil died on his return from Greece (some ruins near the 
harbour are pointed out to the credulous as the remains of the house 
where he expired). The town, when occupied by Pompey, B. C. 49, sus- 
tained a memorable siege at the hands of Csesar, who describes the event 
in the first book of his Civil War. The fleets of the Crusaders frequently 
assembled in the harbour of Brundisium during the middle ages, but the 
place soon declined after the cessation of the crusades. It was subse- 
quently destroyed by Lewis , King of Hungary, in 1348 , and again by a 
fearful earthquake in 1458, which buried most of the inhabitants be- 
neath its ruins. 

Brindisi bids fair to become a place of great importance, 
being the most convenient point of departure for the East from 
Northern and Central Europe. The extensive harbour, admirably 
sheltered from the wind in every direction, is undergoing im- 

172 Route 11. LECCE. From Ancona 

proveraent. The large steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 
Co. are enahled to enter and lay to at the quay itself. They 
reach Alexandria hence in about 82 hrs. (through-tickets from 
London to Brindisi, 1st class, via Calais 13 1. 3s., via Ostende 
13 I."). The N. arm of the harbour, which once bounded the 
town and extended far into the land, was productive of malaria, 
owing to its muddy condition, and is now dried up. The en- 
trance to the harbour is divided into two channels by an island. 
In order to prevent the harbour from becoming tilled with sand, 
the N. arm has recently been closed by means of a substantial 
bulwark of solid stone. The quarantine establishment and a 
small fort are situated on the island. The fort may be visited 
by boat (in '/2 h.r.~), and a line view enjoyed from the top, and 
the trip may be extended to the breakwater (in all li/a — 2 hrs., 
fare l'^fr-)- 

On a slight eminence by the quay rises a lofty unfluted 
column of Greek marble, with a highly ornate capital, repre- 
senting figures of gods. Near it are the remains of a second. 
The former bears an unfinished inscription, containing mention 
of a Byzantine governor named Spathalupus, by whom the town 
was rebuilt in the 10th cent., after its destruction by the Sara- 
cens. These columns are supposed once to have marked the 
termination of the Via Appia ; but it is more probable that they 
belonged to an honorary monument of the Byzantine period, 
like the column of Phocas at Rome. The other relics of anti- 
quity are insignificant. — The Castello with its massive round 
towers, founded by the Emp. Frederick II., and strengthened 
by Charles Y., is now a prison of S. Giovanni. The remark- 
ably picturesque remains of the circular church, destroyed by 
an earthquake in the 11th cent., with colonnades, and decorated 
with frescoes, are still preserved, and will probably be con- 
verted into a museum. In the Cathedral the nuptials of Frede- 
rick II. with Jolantha were solemnised in 1225. Brindisi pos- 
sesses a public library, presented by a Bishop de Leo, a native 
of the place. The steamboats of the Austrian Lloyd Co. touch 
at Brindisi on their route to Corfu and Syra; so also the steamers 
of the Danovaro Co. once weekly from Ancona to Messina via 
Corfu and Gallipoli. The environs are fertile, but malarious. 

Feom Bkindisi to Takanto (p. 194), 24 M., a good road (one-horse 
carr. 18 — 20 fr.l, via Oria, the ancient Uria, from which the Doria family 
derives its origin, a beautifully situated place with numerous palaces. 

From Brindisi the train runs in 1 hr. 20 min. , by stations 

Taturano, S. Pietro, Squinzano, and Trepuzzi, to — 

371 M. Lecce (Albenjo delta Ferrovia; Roma, in better 
repute), the capital of the province, with 21,345 inhab., situated 
a short distance from the sea (on which lies the Castello di S. 

to Otranto. OTRANTO. 11. Route. 173 

Cataldo, 4'/-2 M. distant, a favourite object for excursions), the 
seat of a bishop, and possessing several handsome buildings such 
as the cathedral of St. Orontius , an ancient castle, etc. A 
museum of antiquities (vases, coins, terracottas, Messapian and 
Latin inscriptions) is about to be opened at the Lyceum. The 
town, which is a dull place in an unattractive district, occupies 
the site of the ancient Lupia. In the vicinity lay Rudiae, where 
Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, was born, B. C. 239, now 
Rugge, a place of no importance. The poet , who died in 16S, 
was patronised by the Scipios, in whose burial-place at Rome his 
remains were deposited. 

From Lecce a road (23'|2 M. ; diligence daily in 4'|2 hrs., fare 3 fr. 40 c.) 
leads by the manufacturing town of Nardb , the ancient Xeretum of the 
Sallentini, now an episcopal residence, or by Galatina, to — 

Grallipoli, a seaport, with about 10,000 inhab., beautifully situated on 
a rocky island in the Gulf of Taranto, but connected with the mainland 
by a bridge, founded by the Lacedemonian Leucippus and the Tarentines, 
the Urbs Graia Callipolis of the geographer Mela, but called Anxa by Pliny. 
The cathedral is a handsome building of the 17th century. The town is 
celebrated for its oil. It possesses very numerous subterranean cisterns, in 
which the oil is stored for long periods, and whence it is drawn off for 
exportation in a thoroughly clarified condition. The oil is however unfit 
for table use (comp. p. 169). Date-palms are frequently seen in the 
gardens of the handsome villas in the vicinity. The steamers between 
Ancona and Messina touch here once weekly. 

The train runs from Lecce to Otranto in 1 hr. 50 min. ; 
stations 8. Cesario di Lecce, S. Donato, Galugnano, Sternatui, 
Zollino, Corigliano, (389'/2 M.) Maglie, Bagnolo, Cannole, and 

4OO1/2 M. Otranto, the Greek Hydrus, the Roman Hydrun- 
tum, a colony and municipium, often mentioned by the an- 
cients as a point of embarcation for Apollonia in Epirus , is 
now an insignificant fishing town with 2000 inhab., and the 
seat of an archbishop. The castle with its two towers was 
erected by Alphonso of Arragon and strengthened by Charles V. 

For a long period it continued subject to the Greek emperors, but in 
the 11th cent, was captured by the Kormans, who under Robert Guise:ird 
and Bohemund conducted from this point the siege of Durazzo (Dyrrachium) 
in Albania. On 28th July, 1480, the then prosperous town was attacked 
by the Turkish fleet under Achinet Pacha, grand-vizier of Mohammed II., 
and entirely destroyed; 12,000 of the inhabitants were put to death, the 
remainder carried off as slaves, the churches razed to the ground, and the 
priests barbarously maltreated. The following year the Turks were 
expelled by the Duke of Calabria, afterwards Alphonso II., but the town 
never recovered from the effects of this cruel blow. 

The cathedral still contains some columns from a temple 
of Mercury, which once stood near the village of S. Nicola, not 
far from the town. The ancient mosaics in the church were 
much injured by the hoofs of the Turkish horses which were 
stabled in the sacred ediflce. In a chapel are preserved the 
bones of many of the ill-fated victims of the Turkish onslaught. 

From the ramparts of the castle the coast and mountains of 

174 Route 12. BOVINO. From Anconn 

Epirus are visible in clear weather. Communication with Corfu 
is maintained by means of small boats and sailing vessels. 

A road skirting the coast, leads from Otranto to (37 M.) the Pro- 
montory of Leuea, by Mvro (to the r.), and Castro, situated on a rocky 
eminence by the sea, and therefore supposed to be the Castrum Minervae, 
that point of Italy which, according to Virgil, was first beheld by jEneas ; 
then through a succession of gardens and vineyards to Tricase, l'|2 M. 
from the sea, Alessano, Montesardo, Patii, and finally S. Maria di Leuca, 
a village on the site of the ancient Leuca, not far from the promontory 
of Leuca or Finisterra. This is the Promontorium Japygium, or Salentinvm, 
of the ancients, the extreme point of Apulia, commanding a noble prospect. 
In fine weather the lofty Acroceraimian mountains of Albania may be 
distinguished. We may return for a change by Patii, Presicce, Uggento, 
the ancient Uxentvm, an episcopal residence , and Taviano, to GallipoU 
(I7'| 2 31.)- 

12. From Ancona by Foggia to Naples. 

Railway. Shortest route from Germany and from N. and E. Italy to 
Naples. From Bologna to Naples 19'|2 hrs. — From Ancona to Foggia in 
11 hrs., or by express in 8 hrs. : fares 28 fr. 30, 21 fr. 25, 10 fr. 65 c, or 
35 fr. 45 c, 24 fr. 80 c, 17 fr. 75 c. From Foggia to Naples (124 M.) by 
ordinary train in 8, by express in 5 2 |3 hrs. ; fares 17 fr. 45, 13 fr. 10, 6 fr. 
55 c, or 21 fr. 80, 15 fr. 25 c. — The slow trains are always behind time. 

From Ancona to Foggia (201 M.), see R. 11. 

The Naples line (best views to the left) traverses the Tavoliere 
di Puglia (p. 166). From stat. Cervaro a short branch-line 
diverges to Candela. 

Fkom Foggia to Candela, 24i| 2 31., in li| 4 hr. (4 fr. 30, 3 fr. 5, 1 fr. 
75 c). Stat. Cervaro, see above ; Ordona, the ancient Hordeona, with an 
ancient bridge, amphitheatre, tombs, etc. ; Ascoli (Albergo di Roma, clean), 
l>/ 2 31. from the station (ij s fr.), charmingly situated, the ancient Ausculum 
Apnlum, famed for the victory gained here by Pyrrhus over the Romans, 
. C. 279; then Candela. 

Giardinetto is the station for Troja, situated 7 M. to the N. 
(diligence li/ 2 fr-h a Byzantine colony of the 11th cent., to 
which period belongs the interesting cathedral with its ancient 
bronze doors. At Ponte di Bovino the Cervaro is crossed. 
(^21 !/ 2 M.) Stat. Bovino, the ancient Vibinum ; the town, whose 
inhabitants are notorious for brigandism , lies on the hill to 
the left. 

The train follows the 1. bank of the Cervaro. Three tunnels. 
Stat. Panni; the village lies high up among the hills. Montaguto 
is the station for the place of that name on the 1. bank of the 
Cervaro. (33 M.) Savignano-Oreci , two villages situated on 
mountains on opposite sides of the Valle di Bovino, or ravine 
of the Cervaro. Then a long tunnel. Stat. Ariano ; the town 
not visible from the line. Three tunnels, beyond which the 
watershed between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic is passed. 
Stat. Starza. Then a tunnel more than I1/2 M. long, and a shorter 
one. (50 M.) Stat. Buonalbergo. Near stat. Apice the train 
enters the narrow valley of the Calore and follows its uninterest- 
ing N. bank to stat. Ponte Valentino. It then crosses the Tamaro, 
a tributary of the Calore. 

to Naples. BENEVKNTO. 12. Route. 175 

64 M. BeneventO. Locanda di Gaeta, in the Piazza, dirty; 
Locanda di Benevento in the Largo S. Antonio, small, but cleaner. Trat- 
toria di Roma, also an inn, in the new street leading to the station. Caffe 
Nazionale, opposite the palace of the cardinal legate. Station 3 |4 M. to the 
N., one-horse carr. >jj fr., two-horse 1 fr. ; after dusk 60 c. or 1 fr. 30 c. 

Benevento, a town with 18,991 inhab., situated on an 
eminence bounded by the two rivers Sabato and Colore, was 
formerly the capital of a papal province of the same name. 
The narrow and dirty streets are gradually undergoing im- 

Beneventum, according to tradition founded by Diomedes, or by the son 
of Ulysses and Circe, was originally termed Maleventum, an inauspicious 
name which was changed when it became a Roman colony, B. C. 208, after 
which it became one of the most important places in S. Italy. It was situated 
on the Via Appia. In the 6th cent, after Christ Beneventum became the 
seat of a powerful Lombard duchy. In the 11th cent, the Emp. Henry III. 
ceded it to Pope Leo IX., from which period down to its incorporation 
with the kingdom of Italy it belonged to Rome, with the exception of the 
short-lived sovereignty of Napoleon I., who granted it to Talleyrand. 

*Trajan's Triumphal Arch, or the Porta Aurea, on the E. 
side of the town, dating from A. D. 114, is one of the most 
beautiful and best preserved Roman structures in S. Italy. It 
was dedicated to the emperor by the Roman senate and people, 
in recognition of his having completed a new road to Brundi- 
sium, and somewhat resembles the arch of Titus at Rome. It 
is constructed of Greek marble, and is 53 ft. in height, with a 
passage 29 ft. in height. A quadriga with a statue of Trajan 
once crowned the summit. The reliefs relate to the history of 
the emperor. 

Outside. Over the arch are two rivers , the Danube and Euphrates 
(or Rhine). The frieze represents the triumph of Trajan over the Ger- 
manic tribes. Above, to the 1. , assembly of the gods, resolving on the 
adoption of Trajan by Nerva; to the r. conquest of Dacia, King Dece- 
balus at the emperor's feet. On the 1. Trajan triumphing over Dacia ; on 
the r. the marriage of Hadrian and Sabina; 1. Armenia constituted a 
Roman province ; r. an Oriental ambassador in Trajan's presence. — 
Passage : 1. Trajan sacrificing to Jupiter ; r. Trajan bestowing a 'congiarium' 
or largess on the people after his triumph. On the ceiling Trajan crowned 
by Victory. — Inner Side. On the frieze a Dacian triumph. Reliefs : 
Trajan sacrificing, Procession to the Capitol, Adoption of Trajan, Entry 
into Rome, Trajan administering justice, Trajan in the Basilica Ulpia. 

Interesting walk along the Town Walls, which, as well as 
the town itself, contain numerous relics of antiquity. The 
Castle, E. of the town, erected in the 12th cent., is occupied 
by the government offices and a prison. 

The *Cathedral, dating from the 14th cent., is a beautiful 
edifice in the Lombard-Saracen style. In front of it stands a 
small Egyptian obelisk of red granite, covered with hieroglyphics, 
which once appertained to a temple of Isis, whose worship, to- 
gether with that of other oriental deities, was introduced here 
during the latter period of paganism. Built into the walls of the 
clock-tower is a relief in Greek marble, representing a wild boar, 
the cognizance of Benevento. The principal door of the cathedral 

176 Route 22. TELESE. 

is of bronze, adorned with basreliefs of New Testament subjects. 
It is said to have been executed at Constantinople in 1150. 
The interior is in the form of a basilica, supported by sixty col- 
umns. Ambos and candelabra of 1311. Valuable treasury. 

Descending to the r. of the church, we reach the Palace 
of the Cardinal Legate, now a barrack. The court contains a 
few antiquities. A street descends from this piazza to the 
r. , and leads through a venerable gateway to the site of the 
ancient theatre, now concealed by other buildings. The visitor 
may now continue his route along the bank of the Sabato, 
planted with poplars, to the old Ponte Lebroso, by which the Aia 
Appia once led to the town. It is now the site of a mill. Near 
it, to the W., lie the ruins of Santi Quaranta, an extensive 
structure of brick with a 'cryptoporticus' and colonnades, once 
probably belonging to a bath-establishment. Outside the town, 
at the \V. entrance, is an Apis, a remnant of the ancient worship 
of Isis, interpreted by the local savants as the emblem of the 
Samnite League. 

The road to the station crosses the Calore by a handsome hridge, near 
which according to tradition, was the temporary burial place of the young 
and heroic King Manfred, who on 26th Feb., 1266, in a battle against 
Charles I. of Anjou on the neighbouring plains, had lost his throne and 
his life through the treachery of the Barons of Apulia and the Counts of 
Caserta and Acerra. Shortly afterwards, however, the body of the ill-fated 
prince was exhumed by order of Bartolommeo Pignatelli, Archbishop of 
Cosenza, conveyed beyond the limits of the kingdom, and exposed unburied 
on the hank of the Rio Verde. Dante records this in his Purgatorio 
(in, 134). 

From Benevento to Naples four trains daily in 2% — 4 hrs. 

The train follows the r. bank* of the Calore. A tunnel, then 
stat. Vitulano, and another tunnel. The valley expands; to 
the 1. on the hills lies Torrecuso. Near (73 M. ) stat. Ponte 
di Benevento , the high road to Benevento crosses the Calore by 
an iron bridge. Another tunnel; then (76 M.) stat. S. Lorenzo 
Maggiore (which lies on the hill to the r.), whence a high- 
road leads to Campobasso and Termoli (comp. p. 165). Next 
(SO 1 /.; M.) stat. Solopaca; the small town of the name (4522 
inhab.) is pleasantly situated at the foot of Monte Taburno, 
about 1 M. to the left. Before stat. Telese is reached, the Lago 
di Telese, a malarious marsh which poisons the neighbourhood, 
lies on the left. Telese, a poor village on the hills to the r., is 
visited in summer for its mineral springs by the inhabitants 
of the district. Near it are a few remnants of the ancient 
Telesin , a town of the Samnites , once occupied by Hannibal, 
but taken and destroyed by the Romans. It was afterwards 
colonised by Augustus. In the 9th cent, the town suffered 
severely from the effects of an earthquake, and was at length 
entirely destroyed by the Saracens. 

AVERSA. 12. Route. 177 

The line enters the broad and fertile valley of the Volturno, 
which is first crossed above, then below the junction of the 
Calore. (90^2 M.) Stat. Dugenta; on the hclero, 2 M. farther up, 
is situated S. Agata de Ooti, on the site of the ancient Sati- 
cola. The pass between S. Agata and Mojano is supposed by 
some to be the Caudine Forks, as the locality corresponds better 
with Livy's description than the pass near Arpaia (p. 10). 

94y 2 M. Stat. Valle. The train now ascends , and passes 
under the *Ponti della Valle, an imposing aqueduct in three 
storeys, about 210 ft. in height. It was constructed by Vanvitelli 
by order of Charles III. and his son , for the purpose of sup- 
plying the gardens of Caserta with water from Monte Taburno, 
and is 25 M. in length. The towers connected with it are seen 
on the hill to the right. 

The train now descends to stat. Maddaloni, which lies below 
the line; to the 1. a view of the Campanian plain. Then a 
farther descent, through two tunnels, to (102 1 /.i M.) Caserta 

(P. 9)- 

The line now traverses the plain. This is the most fertile 
part of the Terra di Lavoro (p. 9), with its extensive vineyards, 
innumerable poplars, and various crops. Stations (lOS 1 /^ M.) 
Marcianise, and (114 M.) Aversa, a town with 18,248 inhab., 
an orphan-house, and a lunatic asylum. It probably occupies 
the site of the ancient Atella , where the Fabula Atellana , or 
early Roman comedy, first originated. In 1029 it became the 
first settlement of the Normans, who were afterwards so powerful. 
In the palace of Aversa King Andreas of Hungary, husband of 
Queen Johanna I. of Naples, was assassinated by Niccolo Acciajuoli. 
The light and somewhat acid wine of Aversa , called Asprino, 
is frequently drunk at Naples. Next stations towards Naples 
S. Antimo , Fratta-Grumo , Casoria. Glimpses of Vesuvius to 
the left. Near (124 51.) Naples the train passes through a 
tunnel, and describes a curve round the city towards the' S. W. 
Arrival at Naples, see p. 22. 

13. From Naples to Nola and Avellino. 

From Cancello, a station on the Naples and Rome railway, a branch- 
line runs to Nola, and skirts the Apennines to Avellino, but is at present 
only open as far as Laura (45 M. from Naples). From Naples to Nola 
4 trains daily in li| 2 — 1 3 | 4 hr. ; fares 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 35 c, 1 fr. ; from Naples 
to Laura 3 trains in 2 3 \t hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 95 c, 4 fr., 2 fr. — Ascent hence 
to Avellino by diligence or carriage in 1 hr. 

From Naples to Cancello, 14 M., see p. 10. 

22 M. Stat. Nola (Trattoria in the Piazza, poor), an ancient 
Campanian city, was almost the only one which successfully resisted 
the attacks of Hannibal after the battle of Cannw. B. C. 216. 
and under the command of the brave M. Marcellus repulsed the 
invader in 215. The Emperor Augustus died here on 19th Aug., 
Baedekek. Italy III. 5th Edition. 12 

178 Route 13. NOLA. 

A. D. 14, in his 76th year, in the same house and apartment 
where his father Octavius had breathed his last. In ancient 
times Nola was not less important than Pompeii. It is now an 
insignificant place and devoid of interest. In the 5th cent., 
St. Paulinus, an erudite poet and Bishop of Nola (b. at Bordeaux 
in 354, d. 431), is said to have invented church-bells at this 
Campanian town, whence the word 'campana' is derived. On 
'26th July a festival , accompanied by processions and games, is 
celebrated in his honour. In the middle of the 16th cent, the 
free-thinker Giordano Bruno was born at Nola, and on 17th Feb., 
1600, terminated his chequered career at the stake in Rome. 
Giovanni Merliano , the sculptor of Naples, known as Giovanni 
da Nola, was also born here in 1488 (d. 1558). 

Nola is celebrated as an ancient cradle of the plastic art. 
The magnificent vases with shining black glazing and skilfully 
drawn red figures, which form the principal ornaments of the 
museums of Naples and of other places, were executed here. 
Numerous coins of Nola with Greek inscriptions have also been 
found. Scanty remains of an amphitheatre are still extant. 

About 1/2 M. to the N. E. of the town is situated the Semi- 
nary, where several Latin inscriptions and the so-called Cippus 
Abellunus, a remarkable inscription in the Oscan language found 
near Abella, are preserved. Above the seminary C/4 M) ^ ies 
the Franciscan monastery of S. Angelo, commanding a view of 
the fertile and luxuriant plain ; to the 1. Monte Somma, behind 
which Vesuvius is concealed ; to the r. the mountains of Mad- 
daloni. To the E. of this monastery is situated another, of the 
Capuchin order , above which the ruined castle of Cicala 
picturesquely crowns an eminence. 

'25 M. Stat. Falma, a small town on the slopes of the 
Apennines , is picturesquely situated opposite Ottajano. It 
possesses an ancient chateau, and is commanded by the ruins 
of an extensive castle on a neighbouring height. 

31 M. Stat. Sarno, a place of some importance, is situated 
on the Sarno, which flows from this point in the direction of 
Scafati and Pompeii. Above it towers a ruined stronghold, where 
Count Francesco Coppola long maintained himself during the 
conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Arragon (1460). 

The view now becomes more limited. Stations Codola and 
San Giorgio ; then (41 M.) San Severiuo (poor inn), on the road 
from Avellino to Salerno. The principal church contains the tombs 
of Tommaso da San Severino, high constable of the Kingdom 
of Naples in 1353, and of several princes of Salerno. A road 
h;ads from S. Severino to (10 M.) Salerno (railway projected), 
via Baronisi, the scene of the death of Kra Diavolo. 

The line now turns N. W. towards (45 M.) stat. Laura, the 
|ire<i-nt terminus. Carriage thence in i L /-> hr. to — 

MONTE VERGINE. 73. Route. 179 

Avellino (Albergo Italia, dirty ; Albergo delle Puglie), with 
19,761 inhab., the capital of the province of Principato Ulteriore. 
The name is derived from the ancient Abellinum, the ruins of 
which are 2'/ 4 M. distant, near the village of Atripalda. 

From Avellino a visit may be paid to Monte Veryine, a ce- 
lebrated resort of pilgrims. The route is by (iy% M.) Mercoyliano, 
whence a mountain-path leads in l'/^hr. to the shrine of Monte 
Vergine, founded in 1119 on the ruins of a temple of Cybele. 
The church contains a miraculous image of the Virgin, and the 
tombs of Catherine of Valois, who caused the image to be brought 
hither, and of her son Louis of Taranto, second husband of 
Johanna 1. Their effigies repose on a Roman sarcophagus. On 
the 1. side of the high altar is the chapel erected by King Man- 
fred for himself, which, when that monarch fell at Benevento, 
was given by Charles of Anjou to one of his French attendants. 
The traveller may ascend hence to the summit of the mountain 
(4'29'2 ft.), commanding a magnificent prospect of the bays and 
the extensive mountainous district. The abbot and the older 
monks occupy the Loreto, or I'Ospizio, a large octagonal structure 
near Mercogliano, erected from a design by Vanvitelli. The 
archives contain important records of medieval history, (ireat 
festivals are celebrated here at Whitsuntide, attended hy nume- 
rous devotees in their gay and picturesque costumes. 

Avellino lies on the old high road from Naples to Foggia. 
Another leads to Montesarchio (14 M.), and thence to Benevento 
(.p. 175). 

14. From Ancona to Naples by Pescara, Solmona, 
and through the Abruzzi. 

Railway from Ancona to Solmona, 134'|2 II.. in 8 hrs. ; fares 20 fr. 
'JO, 15 fr. 50, 7 fr. 75 c. (quick trains as far as Pescara only, in 4 hrs. ; 
fares 1G fr. 10, 11 fr. 25, 8 fr. 5 c. ; ordinary train from Pescara to Sol- 
mona in 3 lirs. : fares 7 fr. 40, 5 fr. 20, 2 fr. 95 c). — Diligence daily 
in 15 hrs. from Solmona to Cttianello , about 38 31. — Railway in 3 hrs. 
from Caianello to Naples, 50 31. 

This is one of the more frequented routes between the E. and \V. 
sides of the Italian peninsula, traversing the mountainous district of the 
interior, and has been rendered comparatively easy by the recent exten- 
sion of the railway from Pescara to Solmona. It traverses scenery of the 
most imposing character, and affords an admirable opportunity to the 
traveller of forming some acquaintance with these remarkably interesting 
districts of Italy. It is now regarded as perfectly freed from the banditti 
by whom it was formerly infested. The latter half, beyond the pass of 
Rocca Valloscura, was considered the most dangerous, and the diligence 
is still sometimes accompanied by an escort. 

Frotn Ancona to Pescara, 91 M., see K. 11. 
The train ascomls on the r. bank of the Pesrura , the valley 


180 Route U. POPOLI. From Ancona 

of which gradually contracts. (9>/ 2 M stat - Chieti; the town 
lies several miles distant, on the heights to the S. 

Chieti (Sole ; Corona di Ferro ; Cafe d' Italia, in the Corso), 
the ancient Teate Marrucinorum, capital of the province of 
Abruzzo Citra, with 19,798 inhab. , is a clean and busy town. 
From the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele a promenade leads round 
the town, affording magnificent views of the Majella, the course 
of the Pescara, and the mountainous district as far as the sea. 
The order of the Theatines, established in 1555 by Paul IV., 
who had been Archbishop of Chieti , derives its name from this 

Stations Manopello, Alanno, San Valentino, and (24 l / 2 M.J 
Torre de' Passeri, whence connoisseurs of ancient Christian 
architecture should visit the abbey of 8. Clemente di Ca- 
sauria (ascent of 25 min.J. It consists of a basilica of the 12th 
cent., with ancient sculptures, and an adjacent monastery, un- 
fortunately much dilapidated. In ancient times Interpromium 
stood here , relics from which are still preserved in the church. 

The valley of the Pescara now contracts to a narrow ravine, 
enclosed by abrupt cliffs. Stat. Bussi; then — 

33 M. Fopoli (* Locanda dell' America, moderate; Posta, 
noisy ; Cafe in the PiazzaJ , a small town with considerable 
traffic arising from its situation at the junction of the roads from 
Pescara, Aquila (R. 15), Avezzano (It. 16), and Solmona (see 
below). A short distance above the town the Gizio and Aterno 
unite and form the Pescara; the former, coming from the S.. 
flows through the beautiful valley of Solmona. The town is 
commanded by the ruined castle of the Cantelmi, who were once 
masters of the place. 

To Avezzano (p. 186) diligence daily in 9—10 hrs. (fare 11 t'r.). Tu 
Aquila (p. 183) diligence daily , also an omnibus (bad), fare 5 fr. 

The train now traverses the beautiful and fertile valley, 
enclosed by the Majella on the K. and the mountains of the 
Lago di Fucino on the W. The strong, racy wine of the district 
enjoys a high reputation. 

36 M. Stat. Pentima. A short distance hence , on the road 
diverging to Avezzano, are situated the ruins of Corfiuium 
(p. 185). Beyond stat. J'ratola , a considerable place, the train 
passes the ancient cathedral of S. Panfilo. 

42 M. Solmona (two poor Locande) (1568 ft.), the ancient 
Sulmo of the Pffiligni, the birthplace of Ovid, who was much 
attached to this his 'cool home , abounding in water', as he 
calls it, is picturesquely situated, being commanded on two sides 
by mountains, and contains several mediaeval buildings of archi- 
tectural interest. The facade of the handsome *Tovm Hall. 
the palace of liaron Tabassi , in a side-street, and the facades 
of the churches of S. Francesco d'Assisi and S. Maria della 

to Naples. ISERNIA. 14. Route. 181 

Tomba, though injured by the earthquake of 1803, deserve exa- 

The Road from Solmona to Castel di Sangro (25 1 /-2 M. ; 
two-horse carr. 12 fr.) traverses the plain as far as (&/<> M.) 
Pettorano , and then ascends by long windings to Rocca Val- 
loscura, a village situated in a rocky ravine. Beautiful re- 
trospects of the valley of Solmona. After a farther ascent we 
reach the culminating point (4200 ft.) of the road, the Piano 
di Cinquemiylia, a table-land enclosed by mountains, and of the 
extent indicated by the name. In winter it is frequently 
rendered impassable by snow for several consecutive months, and 
in summer the temperature is generally low. Beyond this plain 
the road inclines to the 1., and Rivisondoli becomes visible. Then 
to the r. past Roccarasa, about 2'/ 4 M. beyond which the road 
descends by long windings to the valley of the Sangro, the ancient 
Sanyrus. The village to the 1. is Rocca Cinquemiglia. The river 
is then crossed to — 

Castel di Sangro (Hotel du Commerce, in the Piazza), on the 
r. bank of the broad and impetuous Sangro, picturesquely situated 
at the foot of lofty mountains. With the exception of the old 
church of 8. Nicola, by the bridge and the ruins of a castle, the 
place contains no objects of interest. — Diligence hence every 
evening to (35 M.) (p. 164). 

From Castel di Sangro to Isernia about 23'/2 M. (diligence 
in 5 hrs. , fare 6 fr.). The road ascends the heights which 
separate the valley of the Sangro from that of the Vandra , a 
tributary of the Volturno. Picturesque view from the summit; to 
the 1., below, the town of Forli is visible. The road then descends 
by the villages of Rionero and Vandria, crosses the valley, and 
ascends a second chain of hills. The summit commands a sur- 
vey of the extensive valley of the Volturno and Isernia. 

Isernia (*Locanda di Pettorossi), the ancient Msernia of the 
Samnites , formerly important on account of its secure position 
on an isolated eminence, is now a confined and dirty town, con- 
sisting of one long main street. A few Roman antiquities are 
seen near S. Pietro and elsewhere ; also fragments of the ancient 
wall in the polygonal style. In the autumn of 1860 a successful 
reaction of the Bourbonists against the Garibaldians, which took 
place here, was characterised by many excesses, but was soon put 
down by the troops under Cialdini. 

Archaeologists may from this point .visit the ruins of the ancient 
Samnite Bovianvm (a theatre and temple), near Pietrabbondante. Carriage- 
road to Pesrolanciano 9 31. ; corricolo 6 fr. ; thence a bridle-path in 2 hrs. 

From Isernia diligence daily to Campohasso (p. 165) by Boiano, the 
ancient Bovianum Undecimanorum. < >ne-liorse carr. from Isernia to Ve- 
nafro fr. 

From Isernia to the railway-station of ('aianello (p. V)29M. 
The road at lirst traverses a hilly district, passing Marchia to the 

1 82 Route 7/5. KIETT. 

v., and then filters tlio valley of the Volturno, which it crosses. 
It now traverses the broad valley on the r. hank, and ( l4 1 / 2 M.~) 
reaches Venafro, the ancient Ycnafrum , rising on a hill and 
commanded by a ruined castle. The road continues to skirt the 
mountains; the Volturno finally turns to the S. , and we soon 
reach the small village of Caianello (poor inn, not suitable for 
spending the night"), a station on the railway from Rome to 

From Caianello to Naples, see R. 1. 

15. From Terni to Naples by Aquila, and through 
the Abruzzi. 

High Road. This route, replete with picturesque scenery, traverses the 
mountainous district in the interior of Italy. From Popoli it coincides 
with R. 14, and like the latter terminates at Caianello on the Home and 
Naples line. Distance about 168 M., traversed daily by Corriere, a more 
rapid and comfortable , and in every respect preferable conveyance to the 
private diligences. On the completion of the network of railways now 
in course of construction, this remarkably interesting route will probably 
be visited by numerous travellers. From Terni, a station on the Kerne 
and Ancona line, the railway route will proceed by Eieti and Aquila to 
Popoli, corresponding with the present route, where it will unite with the 
line destined to connect Pescara, Popoli, the Lago di Fucino, and Ceprano. 

The road ascends from Terni to the heights whence the water- 
falls of the Velino (visited from Papigno, in the ravine to the 1.) 
descend, and, remaining on the 1. hank of the river, traverses a 
mountainous and wooded district. Where it reaches the plain 
of Rieti. it describes a long curve at the foot of the heights, 
as far as the point where the mountains approach the river 
(a shorter footpath, available in dry weather only, intersects the 
plain in a straight direction"). The Velino is now crossed by 
the Ponte di Terria, where it is joined by the Turano to the 
1., and the road proceeds on the r. bank to Rieti, 3 M. distant. 

Another road, somewhat longer, but far more picturesque, diverges from 
the height, where the waterfalls are situated, to the J. and crosses to the r. 
bank of the river. It soon reaches the beautiful mountain-lake of Piedilmju 
and skirts its spacious bays as far as the village of the same name, this 
being the shorter half of the route. The remaining portion traverses a 
tract of mountain and forest till the plain of Rieti is attained, where the 
Fiumaroiic, a tributary of the Velino, fed by several small lakes, is crossed. 
To the r. the lake of Jlijia Hottile, to the J. that of Capo d'Acqua. 

Rieti (Campana), on the r. bank of the Velino (i&.^i inhab.\ 
the ancient Rente, was once a settlement of the Umbri, and 
subsequently the capital of the Samnites, but no traces of the 
ancient city remain save a few inscriptions preserved in the 
town-hall. The cathedral, dating from 1456, contains a S. 
Barbara by Bernini , and the monument of Isabella Alfani by 
Thorvaldsen; tine view in front of the edifice. A walk to the 
neighbouring heights is recommended for the sake of the view 
obtained thence of the extensive plain and the surrounding moun- 

AOFILA. 15. Route. 1*3 

tains. This plain. 139ti ft. above the sea-level, was probably a 
lake at a very remote period, which gradually became converted 
into a marsh. It was drained by M. Curius Dentatus, who caused 
the fall of the Velinus to be increased, and is now extremely 
productive, although unfortunately exposed to inundations. In 
costume and appearance, the peasants here resemble those of 
the Neapolitan provinces. 

From Rieti a diligence to Rome daily, see Part II. of this 
Handbook (Central Italy). 

Excursions may lie made from Rieti to the picturesque mountain scenery 
of the Central Apennines, not, however, unattended by difficulties on account 
of the indifferent character of the inns and roads. Thus to Leonessa, 19 31. 
distant, erected in a lofty mountain ravine about the year 1552: thence to 
tO 1 )'.; M.) C'ascict, said to be the ancient seat of the Casci, or aborigines of 
the district ; 7 M. farther to Xorcia, the ancient Xnrsia, nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1857, with walls of great antiquity, birthplace of 
Yespasia Pollia, mother of the emperor Vespasian, whose family monu- 
ments were situated at Vespasia, 7 M. distant. St. Benedict and his sister 
■Scholastica were also natives of Nursia. 

From Norcia mountain-roads lead to Spoleto and Ascoli fp. 163). The 
return route may also be accomplished by Acawioli and Cirita Reale through 
the valley of the Velino to Antrodoco, ur by Accmnoli, Ainatrire, and Monte- 
reale to Aquila (see below). 

From Rieti the road winds upwards through a picturesque 
district in the valley of the Velino to Antrodoco, 20 M. distant. 
Near Casotta di Napoli is an eminence, called Lesta, with traces 
of very ancient fortifications, said to have once been the capital 
of the fabled aborigines. Civita fiucale, 5 3 /4 M. from Rieti, 
founded in 1308 by Robert, Duke of Calabria, was formerly the 
frontier - town of the Neapolitan dominions. The frontier lay 
between this and Rieti. The tract between this point and 
Antrodoco is remarkably picturesque; the mountains are clothed 
with forest, their lower slopes with vineyards and olives. In the 
valley. 4'/2 M. from Civita Dueale, are situated the sulphureous 
springs of Bagni di Pnterno, the ancient Aqua Cutiliae, regularly 
frequented by Vespasian, and the place of his death, A. D. 79. 
The Pozzo di Latignano, the ancient Lacus Cutiliae, was regarded 
by Varro as the central point ('umbilicus') of Italy. The ancient 
Via Salara here ascended the valley of the Velino by Ascoli to 
Atri, the Roman Hadria. 

Antrodoco, Lat. Interocrea, most picturesquely situated on the 
Velino, is commanded on the N. E. by the lofty Monte Cairo: 
on the height, the ruined castle of the Vitelli. The road to Aquila. 
20 M. distant, leads through a narrow pass, enclosed by moun- 
tain and forest, frequently defended with success in warlike 
periods. The scenery is remarkably beautiful the whole way. 

Aquila (2398 ft.) (*Locanda del Sole, in the Piazza del Pa- 
lazzo), founded by the Emp. Frederick II. as a check on papal 
encroachments, now the capital of the province of Abruzzo Ultra 
II., with 15,732 inhab., spacious streets, and handsome palaces, 

184 Route 15. AQUILA. 

is the most attractive and interesting town in these provinces. 
It enjoys a pure and healthy atmosphere owing to its lofty 
situation, and is commanded by the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 163), 
which rises abruptly to a height of 6000 ft. 

From the Piazza del Palazzo, on the 1. side of which is the 
post-office, the Strada del Princ. Umberto to the r. leads to the 
Corso, by which in a straight direction the church of 8. Bernar- 
dino di Siena is reached. The *fafade was executed with great 
artistic taste in 1525 — 42 by Cola dell' Amatrice. In the interior, 
to the r., the *monument of the saint, decorated with arabes- 
ques and sculpture, executed by Silvestro Salviati in 1505. 
The 1st Chapel on the r. contains a Coronation of the Virgin 
and a Resurrection by della Robbia. 

From S. Bernardino we descend a flight of steps and, pass- 
ing through the Porta di Collemaggio to the 1. , arrive at the 
opposite (5 min.) monastery of S. Marin di Collemaggio. The 
Gothic 'facade , inlaid with coloured marble , consists of three 
portals and three corresponding rose-windows. The niches of the 
principal portal contain several statuettes of saints. Contiguous 
to the church is an ancient and remarkably small clock-tower. 
The interior gorgeously modern. To the 1. the Chapel of Celestine 
(closed). Celestine V. was elected pope in 1294. His life and 
acts have been represented in a series of pictures by the Celestinian 
monk Ruter, a pupil of Rubens. 

The handsome '■''Town Hall in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
contains, in the passage and on the walls of the stair-case, a 
valuable collection of Roman inscriptions; also a number of por- 
traits of celebrated natives of the place who acted a prominent 
part in the history of Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries. 
Several pictures here of the old Aquilan school, most of them 
restored, will interest the connoisseur. 

The * Palazzo Torres (below the Piazza Grande) contains a 
picture-gallery with an admirable ^portrait of Cardinal Torres by 
JJomeniehino ; Stoning of St. Stephen by the same master, on 
copper; Eucharist, by Titian, on marble. The Palazzo Drago- 
netti also contains pictures, the best by Pompeo a" Aquila of 
the 16th cent. 

Ascending the Corso , we reach , by a gate to the r. , the 
Citadel, constructed by a Spaniard in 1543 under Charles V., 
a massive square with low round towers, surrounded by a moat. 
From this point the best view is obtained of the Gran Sasso 
and its ramifications, of the town itself, and the mountainous 

Between Aquila and the hill of S. Lorenzo, on 2nd June, 
1414, Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone, the dreaded rival of 
Sforza, was defeated anil wounded by the united armies of Queen 
Johanna II. of Naples. Hope Martin V. and the Duke of Milan, 

CAPESTRANO. 15. Route. 185 

commanded by Jaoopo Caldora. In consequence of the wound then 
received he died on 5th June of the same year. 

About 3 M. to the E. is situated the village of S. Vitlorino on the Aterno, 
on the site of the ancient and celebrated Sabine town of Amiternvm, where 
the historian was born. On an eminence once occupied by the 
ancient Arx, or citadel, stands an ancient tower with inscriptions and 
sculptures built into the walls. At the base of the hill are remains of 
buildings, a theatre, and amphitheatre, dating from the imperial epoch, 
where antiquities are frequently found. 

A new road leads from Aquila through the valley of the Aterno, the 
wild passes of Monte San Franco, the ravine of Totta, by Senariccia, then 
on the 1. bank of the Vomano to C4S 1 /-^ M.) Teramo on the Tordino (p. 163). 

The road from Aquila to Popoli (29 M. , two-horse carr. 
15 — 20 fr.) descends the valley of the Aterno, passing Fossa 
on the r. , traversing a highly cultivated district , to C'ivitTj 
Retenga, the halting-place of the vetturini , commanded by an 
ancient chateau. About 6 M. to the E. lies Capestrano , birth- 
place of the celebrated Franciscan monk Johannes Capistranus, 
the undaunted opponent of Hussites and Turks, who died in 
1456, and in 1690 was canonised by Alexander Y11I. 

From Popoli to Naples, see R. 14. 

16. From Ancona to Naples by Avezzano. 

Lago di Fucino and Valley of the Liris. 

This route coincides with the direction of the proposed Abruzzi rail 
way, and passes through the most interesting parts of the mountain-district 
in the interior, which itself forms an interesting object for an excursion 
from Naples. No through-communication. 

Railway from Ancona to Popoli in 6 1 [4 — 7' 1 hrs., see It. 14. From 
Popoli to Avezzano a bad road, partly covered with snow in winter; but 
a new road is in course of construction. Diligence daily at 5 a. m. to 
Raiano in 2 hrs., whence passengers proceed on horseback to_ Avezzano, 
a ride of 8 hrs.; two-horse carriage from Popoli to Avezzano 1') — 30 fr. — 
Diligence daily from Avezzano to Hoccasecra , a station on the Rome and 
Naples railway , in 8 hrs. ; fare 9 fr. 45 c. — Railway from Roccasecca to 
Naples by ordinary trains in 5, by express in 4 hrs.; fares 12 fr. 90. 
8 fr. 60, 5 fr. 50 c, or 13 fr. 35, 9 fr. 5 c. 

From Ancona to Popoli, see R. 14. 

For the first two miles the road beyond Popoli is the same 
as that to Solmona; it then diverges to the W., crosses the 
Ohio, and ascends a hill, soon reaching Pentima, 3'/.» M. from 
Popoli. On the road, a short distance beyond Pentima, is 
situated the *Cathedral of S. Pelino, dating from the 13th cent, 
(keys kept by the canon who resides in the village). The 
architecture is very interesting, but the interior has unfortunately 
been modernised. Ancient pulpit. The chapel of St. Alexander 
on the r. dates from the 16th cent. On the lofty surrounding 
plain lie the ruins of the extensive town of Cnrfinium. once 
the capital of the Pceligni, and subsequently the federal capital 
of the Itdians in B. C. 90, during their struggle for indepen- 

I«S6 Route 16. AYEZZANO. From Ancona 

deuce against the' Romans, and called hy them Italics . It was 
>oon. however, compelled to succumb to the Romans. The 
arches of an aqueduct are the most conspicuous of the ruins. 

The next village is Raiano, beyond which the road ascends 
rapidly, affording magnificent retrospects of the valley of Sol- 
mona and the Maiella (additional horses are required for the 
ascent). An undulating hill-district is now traversed, and the 
village of Goriano Sicoli passed. The country becomes very 
dreary. This was the ancient territory of the Vestini, 
whose cheese was dear to the Roman epicure. A succession of 
mountains are passed, and the Gran Sasso continues visible to- 
wards the N. At length, after a drive of about 2 hrs., the last 
height is attained, from which a view of the Lago Fucino, sur- 
rounded by an amphitheatre of mountains, is obtained. The 
road now descends. To the r. Cerchio is visible, and to the 1. Col- 
larmele. The vetturini generally halt at a poor osteria which is 
Teached after 6 hrs. drive. 

A plain, which was once covered by the lake, is next tra- 
versed , and several towns and villages on the hills on each 
side are passed. The most important of these is the small and 
beautifully situated town of Celano (5908 inhab.), after which 
the lake is sometimes named. The chateau, dating from 1450. 
was once occupied by the unfortunate Countess Covella, who 
was taken prisoner by her son Rugierotto. She was soon 
restored to liberty, but in 1463 her domains were bestowed by 
Ferdinand of Arragon upon his son-in-law Antonio Piccolomini. 
Duke of Amalfi. and nephew of Pius II. Celano was the birth- 
place of Thomas of Celano (d. 1253), the supposed author of 
the celebrated requiem 'Dies ir», dies ilia'. From Celano a 
bridle-path leads to Aquila (p. 183), about 28 M. distant; 
carriage-road in course of construction. 

Avezzano (two poor inns), with 5116 inhab., contains little 
to interest the traveller except a chateau built by the Colonnas, 
now belonging to the Barberini, and a collection of inscriptions 
in the court-house; but it is a convenient starting point for ex- 
cursions for the purpose of inspecting the various works which 
have been constructed for the drainage of the lake. 

The Lago di Fucino, the Lacvs Fucinns of the ancients, a basin in the 
central region ol' t lie Apennines, lies 218.1 ft. above the sea-level, and has 
frequently been frozen over (the last time in 1S64). There being no natural 
outlet, the level ol' the lake has long been subject to very great variation. 
Its circumference was formerly about 36 3T. and its depth 60 ft., hut arc 
now reduced to about one-third of these numbers respectively. Fish are 
very abundant in the lake, and form a considerable article of commerce. The 
variations in the level of (he lake have frequently proved disastrous to the 
surrounding villages. The ancient Marsi suffered from them, as well as their 
descendants. Caesar was the first to propose a permanent remedy for the 
evil, but the work was not begun till the reign of the Emp. Claudius. The 
bottom of the lake lies about 80 ft. above the level of the Liris at Capi- 
strello, and the plan was to construct a tunnel, or eviissariits, through the 

to Naples. LACFS FUCINUS. 16. Route. 187 

intervening Monte Salviano. No fewer than 30,000 men \vn e emplo\ ed in 
the execution of the work during eleven years. 80 vast an undertaking 
has been unknown either in ancient or modern times, until the construc- 
tion of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The length of the passage was upwards 
of 3 l \-> M., and for about l 3 [.j M. of that distance it was hewn in the solid 
rock. The width of the tunnel varied from 4 to 16 sq. yds., and in other 
respects also the work was entirely destitute of uniformity. The greatest 
depth of the tunnel below the surface of the earth was 298 ft., and 33 
shafts were constructed for the admission of air and the removal of rubbish. 
With a view to inaugurate the completion of the work, A. D. 52, Claudius 
arranged a sanguinary gladiatorial naval contest, which was attended by 
a vast concourse of spectators, but it was found necessary to deepen the 
tunnel, and it was again opened with renewed festivities, as Tacitus re- 
cords (Ann. 12, 57). Ancient writers stigmatise the work as an entire 
failure, but their strictures are not altogether well founded, for it was 
obviously never intended to drain the whole lake, but merely to reduce 
it to one-third of its original size. Serious errors had, however, been 
committed in the construction of the tunnel, and especially in that of the 
channel which conducted the water to the emissarius. Claudius died in 
54, and nothing farther was done in the matter. Trajan and Hadrian 
partially remedied the defects, but the channel and the emissarius itself 
afterwards became choked up. Frederick II. attempted to re-open the 
tunnel, but the task was far beyond the reach of medipeval skill. After 
the year 1783 the lake rose steadily, and by 1810 it had risen upwards 
of 30 ft. Efforts were now made under the superintendence of Rivera to 
restore the Roman emissarius, but under the Bourbon regime there seemed 
little prospect that the task would ever be completed. In 1852 the govern- 
ment was accordingly indxiced to make a grant of the lake to a company 
on condition that they would undertake to drain it, and the sole privilege 
was soon afterwards purchased from them by Prince Torlonia of Rome. 
M. de Montricher, a Swiss, the constructor of the aqueduct of Marseilles (d. 
at Naples in 1858), and his pupil Bermont (d. 1870), and subsequently M. 
Rrisse have conducted the works. The difficulties encountered were pro- 
digious, and the natives were frequently heard to indulge in the jest, l o 
Torlonia secca il Fucino, il Fucino secca Torlonia 1 . In 1862, however, 
the emissarius was at length re-opened. It is an extension of the 
Roman work, but longer and wider, and constructed with the utmost 
care. It is nearly 4 M. long, and about 21 sq. yds. in width. The be- 
ginning of it is marked by a huge lock, erected in a massive stylo. This 
is the outlet of the channel which is intended to keep the lowest portions 
of the basin drained. A broad road, about 35 M. in length, runs round 
the reclaimed land, the area of which is about 36,000 acres in extent. 
Prince Torlonia has established a number of model farms and assigned 
them to families from his different estates, with a view to cultivate this 
territory where within the last few years the corn crops have yielded a 
profit of 30 — 36 per cent. The cost of the whole undertaking, which will 
probably be finished during the summer of 1875, is estimated at 30 mil- 
lion fr. 

An excursion to Luco, about 6 M. distant from Avezzano, 
will afford the traveller a good opportunity of inspecting" the 
drainage operations whicli have been undertaken here. The 
different water-marks of the various levels of the lake are distinctly 
observed. The opening of the Roman emissarius is seen from 
the road, and that of the modern tunnel among the fields 
beyond it. There are also two natural openings on the slope of 
the hills which formerly served for the partial discharge of the 
superfluous water. — Luco, now an uninteresting place, was 
the Lucus Angitiae of the ancients, and derived its appellation 
from a temple of the goddess of that name. The site of the 

188 Route 10. TAGLIACOZZO. From Ancona 

temple is now occupied by the venerable Benedictine Church 
of S. Marin di Luco, situated on the N. side of the village, and 
dating from the 6th or 7th cent. Extensive remains of walls 
in the polygonal style mark the boundary of the Temenos, or 
sacred precincts of the temple. Fine view hence, as well as 
from all the high ground in the environs of the lake. On the 
K. bank of the lake lies the village of San Benedetto, on the 
site of Marrubium, the ancient capital of the Marsi, extensive 
remains of which are still to be seen, partly on land, and 
partly in the lake. On the occasion of a great drought in 17f>2. 
statues of Roman emperors, now preserved at Naples, were found 
here. To the N. of the lake, rising abruptly from the plain, is 
situated the double-peaked Monte Velino (8202 ft.), visible from 
Rome. At its base, 3 1 /-.! M. from Avezzano, lies the village of 
Albe, the ancient Alba Fucentia. It lay on the confines of the 
territories of the Vestini, Marsi, and ^Equi, and having received 
a Roman colony of 6000 souls, B. C. 303, it became the most 
powerful Roman stronghold in the interior of Italy. It occupied 
three contiguous groups of hills. On the W. side a triple wall 
in the polygonal style is still extant, while in the plain rises a 
vast tumulus. Remains of the Via Valeria, which led from Tivoli 
to Corfinium by Alba, of an amphitheatre, etc. are also trace- 
able. The most important monument of antiquity, however, is 
the *Temple, which has been converted into a church of S. Pietro. 
Fine views. 

Tatjliacozzo is lO'J-j 31. distant from Avezzano. The road to it traverses 
a level tract, passing Scurcola and the Campi Palentini, where on 26th 
Aug., 1268, the young Conradin of Hohenstaufen, the last scion of that, 
illustrious imperial house, was defeated by Charles I. of Anjou, acting 
under the advice of the aged Chevalier Alard de St. Valery. Charles after- 
wards caused the beautiful, but now ruined church of S. Maria della 
nttoria to be erected on the spot by Nicoolo Pisano, a Madonna from 
which is still preserved at Scurcola. The anniversary of the battle is 
still commemorated , and its issue is either a subject of rejoicing or of 
regret in accordance with the political views of the chief orator of the day. 

Tagliacozzo lies on the margin of a deep ravine from which the Imele 
emerges. The sources of the Liris near Cappadocia may be visited hence 
on foot in l'Ju hr. — A mountain-road, impracticable for carriages, leads 
hence to Tivoli. This is the ancient Via Valeria, passing Car soli, about 27 M. 
distant, with the ruins of the ancient Carseoii. The last portion of the 
route, from Arsoli onwards (15 31."), is suitable for driving. 

Diligence from Avezzano to Roccasecca, see p. 4; to Sora 
in f) hrs., fare 7 fr. 10 c. The drive through the valley of the 
Liris is one of the most attractive in Italy. 

The road traverses the Monte Salviano, and reaches (7 M.J 
CaphtrMo, where the emissarius of the Lago di Fucino issues 
from the mountain. It then follows the 1. bank of the Liris. 
On a height on the r. bank lies (33/ 4 M.) CiviteUa Koveto, the 
capital of the Vnl di Rovetn, as the upper part of the valley of 
the Liris. as far as Sora, is called. Then, to the I.. Civitii 

to Naples. SORA. 16. Route. 189 

d'Antino, the Antinum of the Marsi, with several relics of 
antiquity. To the r. of the river lies Morino, whence the 
beautiful waterfall of Lo Schioppo, <P/ 4 M. distant, may be vi- 
sited. A charming mountainous district is now traversed, and 
we at length reach ( 12'/ 2 M. from Roveto ):,the town of — 

Sora (Liri , Hotel di Roma, both tolerable), with 12,031 
inhab., situated in the plain, on the r. bank of the Liris, which 
tlows in the form of a semicircle round the crowded houses of 
the town. The Romans wrested the place from the Yolsci, and 
founded a powerful colony here, B. C. 303. The cathedral stands 
on ancient substructions. On the precipitous rock above the town 
are remains of polygonal walls, belonging to the ancient Arx, 
and also traces of mediaeval castles. The town was the native 
place of several celebrated men, and the residence of others 
(the Decii, Atilius Regulus, the orator Q. Valerius, L. Mum- 
mius, etc.). The learned Cardinal Ciesar Baronius was born 
at Sora in 1538, and died at Rome in 1607 as librarian of the 
Vatican. Sora forms, as it were, the key of the Abruzzi. From 
Sora to Isola 5 3 / 4 M. , one-horse carr. 3 — 4 fr. ; from Isola to 
Arpino 9'/ 4 M., carr. 5 — 6 fr. 

The road traverses the well cultivated valley, following the 
1. bank of the river. The abundance of water here imparts a 
freshness and charm to the scenery which are rarely met with in 
warm climates. To the 1. the Fibreno falls into the Liris. 

In the former stream, near its mouth, lies Hie Isola S. I'aotv, on 
which is situated the monastery of the Benedictine S. Domenico Abbate, 
a native ofFoligno. Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII., was once 
a monk here. The island is also supposed to be the Insula Arpiaas, the 
birthplace of Cicero, the scene of his dialogue 'de legibus'. The dilapi- 
dated abbey-church is said to have been constructed on the ruins of the 
illustrious orator's villa. The latter was erected by his grandfather, and 
embellished by his father, who devoted his leisure to the study of science 
here, and it was therefore a favourite retreat of Cicero himself, and is 
described by him in his treatise De Leg. 2, 3. In the reign of Domitian 
the villa belonged to the poet Silius Italicus. The Liris was crossed by an 
ancient bridge above the island, the 'Ponle di Ciierone', one of the three 
arches of which is still standing. 

In the neighbourhood are a number of manufactories, chiefly 
of paper (curtiera), surrounded by well kept gardens. The most 
important of these is the Cartiera del Fibreno, founded by 
.M. Lefevro. a Frenchman, now Count of Balzorano. The gardens 
connected with it contain the picturesque waterfalls (Le Casca- 
telle) of the Liris and the Fibreno. The cool water of the latter 
is praised by Cicero. — From this point the road descends to 
.Isola, a small town with 4790 inhab., which, as its name indi- 
cates, stands on an island in the Liris. The two arms of the 
river here form two magnificent waterfalls, 80 ft. in height. 
That on the E. side, a view of which is obtained from the 
bridge as the town is entered, is a perpendicular fall, while 

190 Route 16. ABPINO. 

the other and more picturesque cascade descends over an inclined 
plane about 160 yds. in length. 

A road passing the paper-mills above Isola winds upwards to Arpino 
{Locatida delta Pace, near the Piazza, small, but clean), a beautifully 
situated town with 11,522 inhab., the ancient Volscian mountain-town of 
Arpinum, and celebrated as the native place of iMarius and Cicero. The 
houses in which they were born are still pointed out to the credulous. 
The Town Hall in the Piazza is embellished with busts of Marius, Cicero, 
and Agrippa. The name of the great orator is justly still held in venera- 
tion in the whole of this district. A bombastic inscription here runs thus: 
'Arpinuin a .Saturno condituni, Volscorum civitatem, Romanorum muni- 
eipium, Marei Tullii Ciceronis eloquentite Principis et Cai Marii septies 
Consulis patriam ingredere viator: bine ad imperium triumphalis aquila 
egressa nrbi totum orbein subjecit : ejus dignitatem agnoscas et sospes esto\ 
The cognizance of Arpino, which to this day consists of two towers over 
which the lloinan eagle hovers, may be seen attached to the fountain on the 
r. of the town-hall. Weavers of wool and fullers are frequently mentioned 
in old inscriptions found here, and according to Dio Cassius Cicero's father 
belonged to the latter handicraft. Arpino was the native place of the well- 
known painter Giuseppe Cesari (,1560 — 16i0), more commonly known as the 
Cavaliere d'Arpino, whose house is still pointed out. 

The town consists of four quarters. The western quarter f'civitas") 
lies on an abrupt eminence, connected with the town by a narrow isthmus. 
This was the site of the ancient Arx. On the summit stands a small 
octagonal church, which commands a beautiful view. The town itself rises 
on the slope of a still higher hill. The greater part of the ancient wall, 
consisting of large irregular blocks of stone, broken at intervals by mediaeval 
round towers, is still preserved, and may be traced throughout its whole 
extent. The ascent should be made on the N. side. On the hill lies the 
quarter named Civita Vecchia. In the wall here is the Porta deW Arco, a 
remarkable gateway with pointed arch. 

From Arpino to Roccasecca is a drive of 2'Ja hrs. ; two-horse carr. b fr., 
'Hi) posto'' 2 1 j-j fr. 

From Isola to Roccasecca 13 M. The road continues to follow 
the 1. bank of the river. To the r. is the loftily situated town 
of Monte San O'iovanni, beyond the old frontier of the States 
of the Church. To the 1. lies Fontana, then Arce and Koccu 
d'Arce, the ancient Arx Volscorum, in a strikingly picturesque 

From Roccasecca to Naples, see p. 4. 

17. From Naples to the Coast of the Adriatic 

by Eboli, Poteuza, Melfi, and Venosa. 

Distance 220 M. — Railway from Naples to Eboli in 3 hrs. ; fares 7 fr., 
fr. 25 c. , 2 fr. 65 c. — The line is to be continued beyond Eboli, and 
will probably proceed by Auletta and Potenza to Torremare, a station on 
the Calabrian line (R. 19). A line by Melli to Candela, the terminus of the 
Apulian branch-railway (p. 174) is also projected. — Diligence daily from 
.Salerno (oflice adjoining the prefettura ; oflice at Naples opposite the post- 
oflicel to Potenza by Eboli in 18 hrs., fare lb' fr. After having secured a 
seat, the traveller may proceed to Eboli by railway, where he may inspect 
the town before the arrival of the diligence. Jieyond Potenza local clili- 
;- j :</nces, sec below. 

The provinces to the S. of Naples are rarely visited by travellers. Not 
only is travelling rendered diflicult by the defectiveness' of the means of 
communication and the indifferent character of the inns, but these districts 

EBOLI. 17. Route. 191 

are not sufficiently attractive to merit a visit from those in search of the 
picturesque. The following route traverses the Province of Basilicata, the 
ancient Lucania. 

Railway journey from Naples to Salerno, ?>?> M., see p. 149. 
The train commands a charming view of the Bay of Salerno to 
the right. Stations (39 M. ) Pontecaynano, (44 M.J Iiellizzi, and 
(4(S M.) Bttttipaglia (p. 153j, whence two high roads diverge, 
one to Calabria (R. '20), the other descending to P;estum 
| p. 154) on the coast. 

49 '/'a M. Eboli (the best Locanda is on the high road, about. 
150 yds. from the town; Alberyo del Sorrentino in the town), a 
small town on the slope of the mountain, with an ancient chateau, 
property of the Principe of Angri, commands a beautiful prospect 
of the sea, the oak-forest of Persano, the towns at the base of 
M. Alburno, the temples of P;estum, and the valley of the Sele 
(SilarusJ. — From Eboli to Piestum, see p. 153. 

The high road from Eboli to Potenza (56 M.) coincides with 
the Calabrian route as far as ('23 M.) Auletta. It crosses the 
broad and impetuous Sele, i l /o M. from Eboli, ascends through 
a somewhat bleak district (magnificent retrospects of the plain 
of Psestum and Salerno), turns to the r. near Postiylione, and 
leads to La Duchessa and Lo Scorzo, the ordinary halting-place 
of the vetturini, with a tolerable inn, 14 M. from Eboli. The 
mountain Alburnus, visible the whole way, according to Virgil 
•green with holm-oaks', interposes itself between the sea and 
the plain which extends from Lo Scorzo to Auletta. This poor 
village lies to the left on a hill clothed with olives and forest, 
on the Neyro, the ancient Tanayer, which the road crosses. 
( Every evening, on the arrival of the corriere, a diligence runs 
to Potenza in 9 hrs., fare 9 fr.J. 

The effects of the appalling earthquake of 1857 (p. 192) begin to be ob- 
served here in the dilapidated church and fallen houses. This catastrophe 
annihilated a number of towns and villages in the Basilicata, and occa- 
sioned a loss of upwards of 32,000 lives. In the district of Sala and the 
valley of the Diano alone 13,230 persons perished, and 27,150 more died 
from exposure, starvation, and cold. As late as March 1858, 120,000 
individuals were still without shelter. 

The road to Potenza diverges to the 1. near Auletta, crosses 
the Landro, a tributary of the Sele, and traverses a very charm- 
ing district as far as Vietri di Potenza (supposed to be the 
Campi Veteres, where in B. C. '212 the proconsul Tiberius 
Sempronius Gracchus fell a victim to his premature confidence 
in the Lucanian FlavusJ ; it then crosses the river Murno. To 
the 1. is the beautifully situated Picerno, almost entirely destroyed 
by the earthquake. The road now ascends gradually to the 
crest of Monte Foi, and descends thence to — 

Potenza (Kisoryimento ; ('voce di Sunoiu, cleaner than the 
other; *Trattorin Lomhitrda). with 15, SO 1 ) inhib., the capital of 
the province of the same name , formerly the llii.tilientii, which 

192 Route 17. MELF1. 

nearly corresponds with the ancient Luoania. The town lies on an 
eminence above the Basento, which rises on the mountain Ariosa 
not far from this, and falls into the Gulf of Taranto near the 
ruins of Metapontum. The ancient Potentia, destroyed by Fre- 
derick II., and again by Charles of Anjou on account of its 
attachment to Prince Conradin, lay lower down in the plain, 
at the spot now called La Murata, where coins and inscriptions 
have frequently been found. 

The Earthquake of .1857 was attended here with the most disastrous 
conseqviences. The greater part of the town, including the Lyceum, fell, 
and numerous lives were lost. In consequence of wounds alone 4000 
persons underwent amputations. The result in thirty or forty neighbouring 
villages was not less disastrous; for this stupendous convulsion had taken 
place in a circular course in three distinct shocks , of which the second 
was the most violent. A line drawn from Monte Vulture to the volcano 
of Stromboli intersects the places which suffered most; thus Auletta, 
Atena, Polla, Sala, Padula, Saponara, Sapri, and many other villages 
were entirely destroyed. In the direction of Mt. Vesuvius, towards Na- 
ples and Salerno to the W. , the concussions were much more violent 
than in the opposite direction. The loss of life was not less serious than 
that occasioned by the earthquake of 1783 in Calabria. The shocks re- 
curred in March and April 1858. 

From Potenza to Acekexza, an interesting excursion: diligence to 
Pielra Galla (in 3 hrs., fare 2 fr.), and a walk of 1 hr. thence. Acerenza 
('■Locanda in the old castle), the Acherontiu of Horace (comp. p. 193), 
famed for its wine, occupies a lofty and beautiful situation. The crypt 
of the cathedral contains four ancient columns of coloured marble and 
pedestals with mediaeval reliefs. 

From Potenza to Tkani (p. 169), on the Adriatic coast-railway, u 
diligence runs in 14 hrs., fare 17 fr. 

From Potenza a hilly road (diligence in 9 — 10 hrs., fare 6 fr. J 
leads by Avigliano and Atella to (37 M.) Melfi [Albergo Basil; 
Trattoria del Sole, with a few bedrooms), with 9863 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the slope of Monte Vulture. It possess- 
es an old castle of the Norman sovereigns, who often resided 
here, now restored by Prince Doria as a chateau. The upper 
portion of the town was totally destroyed by the earthquake ; 
a great part of the remainder has been re-erected. Here in 
1059 Pope Nicholas II. invested Robert Guiscard with the 
duchies of Apulia and Calabria. The magnificent Cathedral of 
1155, almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 1851, has 
since been modernised. The town-hall contains a fine Roman 

From this point the conspicuous Monte Vulture, an extinct 
volcano, may be visited. Horace mentions it as the 'Apulian 
Vultur' ; at that period it formed the boundary between Lucania 
and Apulia. Calabria extended hence in a S. E. direction to 
the Japygian or Nalentinian promontory , the modern Capo di 
Leuca; and S. W. to the land of the Bruttii, as far as the Sicilian 
straits. Since the middle ages, however, the latter district has 
been named Calabria , while the ancient Calabria is now the 
Terra d'Otranto. 

VKNOSA. 17. Route. 193 

The former crater of M. Vulture is densely overgrown with 
oaks and beeches, among which two small and deep lakes are 
situated. By one of these are the Capuchin monastery of 
S. Michele, most picturesquely situated, and the ruined church of 
S. llario. On the farther side of the principal crater rises the 
summit of the mountain, II Pizzuto di Melfi (4359 ft.). Melii 
lies on a hed of lava on the N. E. slope. The circumference of 
the mountain is about 35 M. 

From Melfi a diligence runs to Candela (p. 174), situated 
21 M. to the N. ; railway thence to Foggia in V/ t hr. 

A road leads from Melfi E. to (15 31.; or by a bridle-path, a pleasant 
route, 7 31. only to) Venosa (two miserable inns), the ancient Vemisia, colo- 
nised by the Romans after the Samnite war, now a small town with 7038 
inhab., picturesquely situated on the slope of Monte Vulture, not far from 
the Fiumara, the -pauper aquse Daunus 1 of Horace (Carm. in, 30, 11), and 
near the more considerable Ofanto, Lat. Aufidus. The Caztle was erected 
by Pirro del Balzo in the 15th cent. The abbey and church of S. Trinita, 
consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. in 1058, contain the tombs of the founder 
Robert Guiscard and his first wife Aberarda, mother of Bohemund. Fres- 
coes of the 13th and 14th cent, have recently been discovered in the church. 
The three principal chapels are still distinctly recognised. The nave is 76 
paces in breadth. The handsome court contains numerous inscriptions, 
euluinns, and other relics of an amphitheatre, which lay in the neigh- 
bourhood. The church is undergoing restoration in questionable taste. 

Near Venosa, on the road to the Fiumara, Jewish catacombs were 
discovered in 1853, containing inscriptions in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. 
History also records that Jews were numerous here in the 4th and 5th 

An ancient structure of 'opus reticulatum 1 here is called the Casa di 
Orazio, but without the slightest authority. Horace, the son of a freedman, 
was born at Venusla, 8th Dec, B. C. 65, and there received his elementary ed- 
ucation, after which his father accompanied him to Rome in order to procure 
him better instruction. He frequently mentions the 'far resounding Autidus 1 
in his poems, as well as the villages in the vicinity (Carm. in, 4, 14), such as 
the lofty Acherontia, now Acerenza (p. 192), 9 31. to the S.E., the woods of 
Bantia, N. of the latter, now Abbadia de~ Banzi, near Genzano, and the 
fertile meadows of the low-lying Ferentum (probably Forenza). Near Palazzo, 
6 31. to the E. of Venosa, to the r. of the road to Spinazzola, rises an 
abundant spring, now called Fontanel Grande, believed to be identical with 
the Fons Bandusiae so highly praised by Horace (Carm. in, 13). 

On the wooded heights between Venusia and Bantia, B. C. 208, 
31. Claud. 3Iarcellus, the gallant conqueror of Syracuse, and the first to 
arrest the tide of Hannibal's success (at Nola, 215), fell into an ambuscade 
and perished. 

Lavello, where King Conrad died in 1254, lies 9'J2 31. to the N. of 
Venosa, beyond the wooded slopes of the 3Ionte Vulture. The traveller 
mav proceed thence by (23'la 31.) C'anosa (p. 168) to the (16 31.) railway- 
stat. Barletta (p. 168). 

18. From Bari to Taranto. 

72 31. Railwai in 32| 3 — 4'| 4 hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 15, 7 fr. 60, 3 fr. 80 c. 

Bari, see p. 169. — The line leads inland, towards the \V., 
and gradually ascends. Stations Muduyno, Bitetto. On a hill 
3 M. to the N. lies Palo del I'olle. whieh was once sur- 
rounded by four villages (Auricarre, Murescia , Staglino, Bat- 
Bakdkkkk. Italy III. 0th Edition. 13 

194 Route 18. TARANTO. 

taylia), of which few traces are now left, stations (14 M.). 
Orumo, and then Acquaviva, about 3 M. to the W. of which is 
situated Cassano, where a stalactite grotto was discovered a few 
years ago (key kept by the Sindaco). The Capuchin monastery 
of Cassano commands a fine view. (34 M.) Stat. Gioia, a town 
with 17,005 inhabitants. The line now enters the Terra 
cTOtranto, and traverses the low range of hills which form the 
S. B. spurs of the Apennines. (42 M.) Stat. Basilio, a tun- 
nel, then (48 M.) stat. Castellaneta. Beyond the next tunnel 
the line crosses three deep ravines ('gravine') by means of 
iron bridges. Stations (53 M.J Palayianello, (58 M.) Palagiano, 
and (GO'/a M.) Massafra, the last of which is picturesquely 
situated on the slope of a 'gravina'. The line now approaches 
the sea. Fine view of the bay with the islands of S. Pietvo and 
S. Paolo. At length, opposite to us, appears — 

larailtO. No good hotel. Hotel de i/Europe, in the Piazza, R. l 1 ^ fr., 
dirty; Albekgo Mono al Leone di Venezia, very dirty; Albekgo Gaki- 
baldi, kept by Franc. Latanzo, at the gate, with view towards the Mare 
Piccolo, R. l'ljfr., in better repute than the others. — "Trattoria al Leone 
di Venezia (also a Cafe), charmingly situated on the coast , in the Strada 
Vitt. Emanuele. — Cab from the station to the town, JJ4 ML, 60 c. 

Taranto, a town with '27,484 inhab., is situated on a rocky 
island between the Mare Piccolo and Mare Grande. The roads 
are bounded by the Capo 8. Vito on the S. E. The harbour is 
protected by two flat islands situated in front of it, the Choe- 
rades of antiquity, now <S. Paolo (the smaller), occupied by a 
fort, and S. Pietro, the property of the chapter of the cathedral. 
The entrance to the harbour is between S. Vito and S. Paolo, 
on each of which a lighthouse is situated. Towards the N. W. 
the passage is very shallow, and navigable for small boats only. 
The modern town occupies the site of the ancient Acropolis, 
which extended a considerable distance towards the E. It is 
connected with the mainland by bridges on the E. and W. sides. 
Over the W. bridge runs an aqueduct, supposed to have been 
constructed by the Greek Emp. Nicephorus I. (about 803). It 
conducted water to Tarentum from a distance of 23 M., and is 
supported by arches as it approaches the town. The ebb and 
flow of the tide is distinctly visible under the bridges of Taranto, 
one of the few places on the Mediterranean where it is per- 

Taranto is the seat of an archbishop, a sub-prefect, and other 
dignitaries, and carries on a considerable traffic in oil, oats, and 
wheat. The population is densely crowded in confined houses 
and narrow streets, and the traveller whose expectations regard- 
ing the town are founded on the celebrity of its ancient name, 
will be sadly disappointed. The town is intersected lengthwise 
by three streets, which form the arteries of traffic for three dif- 

TARANTO. 18. Route. 195 

ferent classes of the community, speaking three distinct dialects. 
The Mare Piccolo is skirted by the Strada (iaribaldi, inhabited 
chiefly by fishermen , whose language is still strongly tinctured 
with Greek and is often unintelligible to the other Tarentines. 
This street is connected by a number of lanes with the narrow 
Main Street, the chief business thoroughfare, which under 
various names intersects the town from E. to W. , and where 
the common Neapolitan dialect is spoken. The Strada Vittorio 
Emanuele , recently constructed on the coast , where a different 
dialect is spoken , affords a view of the bay and the mountains 
of Calabria, and forms a pleasant evening promenade. 

The modernised Cathedral of 8. Cataldo contains some 
important monuments, among which is that of Philip of Taranto, 
son of Charles II. of Anjou. The chapel of the saint, adjoining 
the choir on the r. , is sumptuously decorated. The crypt is 
closed. The Castle, at the E. end of the town, and the other 
fortifications, date from the time of Charles V. Towards the E., 
where the Tarentum of antiquity was situated , new buildings 
are now springing up. — Near the gate towards Lecce (see 
below) is the small museum of the Canonico Palumbo (formerly 
Ceci); fee 1/2 ft- 

Tarentum, or Taras, as it was called in Greek, was the most powerful 
and wealthy city of Magna Grtecia, and lay in a beautiful and fertile district 
to the S. of Mt. Aulon and W. of the mouth of the Galsesus. It was 
built by Spartan Partlienians under the guidance of Phalanthus, B. C. 707, 
and was under the special protection of Neptune, by whose mythical son 
Taras it is said to have been originally founded. Its extensive commerce 
and powerful fleet were a source of great prosperity, but with the increase 
of wealth the citizens became luxurious and effeminate. In addition to 
their navy and other resources, they possessed an army of 30,000 infantry 
and 5000 cavalry. Pythagoras of Samos once taught his philosophy here, 
and his system was farther developed by Archytas of Tarentum, the cele- 
brated mathematician. With the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus, Tarentum 
defended itself successfully against the attacks of the Romans, but at 
length succumbed, B. C. '272, after the departure of Pyrrhus from Italy. 
In the Second Punic War the town espoused the cause of Hannibal, but 
was conquered in 209 by the Romans, who plundered it, carried off its 
treasures of art, and sold 30,000 of the citizens as slaves. In 123 the 
Romans established a colony here, and the city again became noted for its 
wealth and luxury. The famous purple dye and wool of Tarentum were 
its chief resources at this period, and were extensively manufactured. In 
Horace's time Tarentum was a place which the poet regarded as the 'most 
smiling corner of the world, where the spring is long, and Jupiter vouch- 
safes mild winters' (Carm. II, 6). In the middle ages Tarentum was the 
residence ofBohemund, son of Robert Guiscard, who took part in the first 

The relics of the celebrated ancient city are but scanty. 
The road skirting the sea to Lecce intersects an extensive Circus, 
'/■t M. from the gate. About l /-> M. from the gate is the 
beautiful garden of the Villa Beaumont-Bonelli (gardener ',■._> fr.), 
facing the Mare Piccolo. Near it, in the vineyards sloping towards 
the sea, are the extensive ruins of private houses, now called 
Le Fomaci, and dating from various periods, some of them being 



obviously medieval , others constructed of the Roman 'opus 
reticulatum', while a few are apparently of still earlier date. To 
the latter class belongs a curious cellar (or stable?) with ceiling 
of flat vaulting and a shaft for air. At the entrance of one of 
the rooms is a mosaic. The ruins are in a sadly neglected state. 
The ancient coins of Tarentum are remarkably fine. 

The Mare Piccolo is divided into two halves by the promon- 
tory 11 Pizzone, and the Punta delta Penna. At its E. extremity 
is the mouth of the river Cervaro, which is supposed to be the 
ancient Galaesus. At the S. end, 3 / 4 M. from Taranto, stands 
the villa of S. Lucia, once the property of the celebrated Arch- 
bishop Capecelatro (d. 1816), who placed on it the inscription 
— 'Si Adam hie peccasset, Deus ignovisset ei', and afterwards 
that of General Pepe. Although in a dilapidated condition, it 
still merits a visit, and is thus described by an old writer. 

'This is one of the most charming spots in the neighbourhood. The 
Mare Piccolo looks like a broad lake. Gentle slopes, covered with olive- 
groves, rise in every direction. A fine view of Taranto and its towers, 
perched on a rock, is enjoyed hence, and still higher rise two magnificent 
palm-trees, the finest of which stands in the courtyard of the archiepiscopal 
residence. Gardens with oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, and pomegranates 
slope down from the town to the water's edge, filling the air with their 
delightful fragrance". 

Fish abound in the Mare Piccolo. They enter with the tide 
under the W. bridge, and are netted at night in great num- 
bers. The stakes protruding from the water mark the situation 
of beds of mussels, of which there are said to be no fewer than 
93 different species. Fishing is the chief resource of the majority 
of the population. 

The honey and fruit of Taranto are still celebrated, as they 
were in ancient times. The date-palm also bears fruit here, 
which, however, seldom ripens thoroughly. In the district between 
Taranto, Brindisi , and Otranto the venomous tarantola or ta- 
rantella spider occurs. Its bite is said to cause convulsions and 
even madness, for which evils music and dancing are supposed 
to be effectual remedies. It is, however, believed that these 
terrible results exist chiefly in the imagination of the natives, 
as no actual cases have occurred for a long time. In Sardinia, 
however, and some other places the bite of the tarantella is de- 
servedly dreaded. 

From Taranto to Letce (p. 172) diligence daily in 9 hrs., traversing 
a flat and unattractive district, and passing S. Giorgio, Sara, Mandvria 
(an old town with 8284 iuhab.), and Campi. 


19. From Taranto to Reggio. 

The bay of Tarentum was once studded with numerous flourishing 
Greek colonies, and the whole district bore the name of Magna Graecia. 
The relics of that prosperous epoch are now but scanty. The period of 
decline began with the Koman supremacy. The art and culture of the 
middle ages never penetrated to these remote regions. The fields once 
extolled by Sophocles for their richness and fertility are now sought for 
in vain, and the malaria now exercises its dismal sway throughout the 
whole of this dreary district. Xo part of Italy is so far behind the age 
in agriculture as Calabria. The soil belongs to the nobility, who let it to 
a poor and degenerate class of farmers. The custom of carrying weapons 
is universally prevalent here, and brigandage is as rife as ever. The 
members of this fraternity infest the mountains in summer, to which they 
are driven by the malaria, while in winter they are compelled by the 
snow to return to the coast. The villages, which are generally securely- 
perched on rocky heights, are miserable and filthy beyond description. 
The inns swarm with vermin, and rarely provide travellers with the 
necessaries of life. No one should therefore attempt to explore this country 
unless provided with letters of introduction to some of the principal land- 
owners (comp. p. 205). It is, however, expected that the condition of the 
country will speedily improve when the railway is completed and the 
dormant resources of the soil are thus called into action. The scenery is 
strikingly beautiful, and will not fail to attract numerous travellers when 
it can be visited with reasonable comfort. 

Railway. Distance from Taranto to Reggio about 313 M. The line 
now in course of construction is expected to be completed in two or three 
years. The portions of it already open are between Taranto and Cotrone 
(147'|2 M.), and between Monasterace and Reggio (82'|2 M.). The inter- 
vening distance between Cotrone and Monasterace must be traversed on 
toot, or mule-back (in 3 days), as there is not even a carriage-road. Or 
the traveller will probably prefer to avail himself of one of the Ancona 
and Genoa steamers, which arrive at Taranto every Wednesday from Brindisi, 
Corfu, and Gallipoli, touch on Thursday mornings at Rossano , about 
noon at Cotrone, in the evening at Catanzaro, at night at Siderno, and 
on Friday mornings at Catania , and arrive at Reggio and Messina on 
Saturdays. These vessels generally keep near the coast, and the voyage 
is one of the most beautiful in the Mediterranean. Fare from Rossano to 
Cotrone 12 fr., to Catanzaro 18 fr. 20 c, inch food. 

From Taranto to Cotrone two trains daily. Most of the towns and vil- 
lages are 2 — 5 M. distant from their stations , where a carriage or horse 
(vettura) can seldom be had unless previously ordered. 

The scenery is at first uninteresting, and the country flat. 
The soil is very fertile, hut miserahly cultivated. Although 
quite capable of yielding two crops annually with proper manajre- 
ment, it is allowed, in accordance with the old-fashioned system 
prevalent here, to lie fallow for two years after each crop. 

27'/ 2 M. Stat. Torremare, a castle with a tavern, at which a 
horse may be hired for the journey to Metapontum. About 3'/2 M. 
to the N. E. of the station stand the ruins of an ancient Greek 
*temple in the Doric style , called La Tavola de Paladini by 
the peasantry, who believe each pillar to have been the seat of 
a Saracen chieftain (reached by a carriage-road , but no vehicles 
to be had). Fifteen columns of the peristyle (ten on the N., 
five on the S. side) are still standing. The limestone of which they 
consist is now much disintegrated. This temple marks the site of 

198 Route 19. CASSANO. From Taranto 

the celebrated ancient Greek city of Metapontum. Pythagoras 
died here, B. C. 497, in his 90th year, but his philosophy long 
survived him in the principal towns of Magna Grsecia, especially 
at Metapontum itself, Tarentum, and Croton. When Alexander 
of Epirus came to Italy in B. C. 332, Metapontum allied itself 
with him, and in the Second Punic War it took the part of 
Hannibal. Its enmity to Rome on the latter occasion, however, 
caused its downfall, and at the time of Pausanias, in the 2nd 
cent, after Christ, it was a mere heap of ruins. — On the coast 
are traces of a harbour now filled with sand. To the S.W. of 
the temple are rows of tombs which afford an idea of the great 
extent of the town. The neighbouring' farm-houses, the so- 
called Chiesa di S. Sansone, are built of massive blocks from the 
town wall. 

The train crosses the Basento. Stations (^t/o M.) S. Basilio 
Pisticci , and (37'/2 M.I Scanzano Montalbano. The Agri, the 
Aciris of the ancients, is now crossed. 

40'/2 M. Stat. Policoro, near which lay the Greek town of 
Heraclea (founded in 432), where Pyrrhus with the aid of his 
elephants gained his first victory over the Romans, B. C. 280. 
At Luce, in the vicinity, the celebrated bronze Tabula Hera- 
cleensis (Lex Julia Municipalis), now in the Museum at Naples 
(p. 65), was dicovered in 1753. 

The train traverses a wood (Pantano di Policoro) , full of 
the most luxuriant vegetation (myrtles, oleanders, etc.), beyond 
which are situated the river Sinno , the ancient Siris , and the 
town of that name. The line now approaches the sea. 

50 M. Stat. Rocca Imperiale. The country becomes hilly. 
Stations (54 M.) Monte Qiordano, (59 M.) Roseto, (62 M.) 
Amendolara, (67!/2 M.) Trebisacce, where there is a good echo, 
(74 M.) Torre Cerchiara, (77 M.) Buffaloria di Cassano. 

Cassano (8872 inhab.), a beautifully situated town, with warm baths, 
and commanded by an ancient castle on a lofty rock, lies 9 M. inland from 
the station. The castle affords a magnificent survey of the valleys of the 
C'oscile and the Crati, the Si/baris and the Crathis of antiquity. The wild 
and barren limestone mountains rise here almost immediately from the 
plain ; above them towers the Monte Pollino (7852 ft.). The Torre di Milo 
is pointed out here as the tower whence the stone was thrown that caused 
the death of T. Annius Milo, when he was besieging the town of Cosa on 
behalf of Pompey. 

The line crosses the Crati. 

The once wealthy and proverbially luxurious Sybaris, founded B. C. 720 
by Achseans and Trcezenians , and destroyed in 510 by the Crotonians, is 
said to have lain on this river. About 6 M. distant from its supposed 
site, near Terranova, are a few insignificant ruins marking the position of 
TJmrii, which was founded by the Sybarites who escaped after the des- 
truction of their city. In 443 the Athenians sent a colony thither , and 
with it the historian Herodotus. In consequence of the wise legislation 
of Charondas, Thurii soon attained to great prosperity. In 280 it at length 
fell into the hands of the Romans, and was afterwards plundered by Han- 
nibal. In 193 it received a Roman colony, and the new name of Cojh'hp, 
but it rapidly declined, and was at length entirely deserted. 

to Reggio. COTRONE. 19. Route. 199 

86 M. Stat. Corigliano. The town, with 10,624 inhab., lies 
on a height, 3'/'2 M. inland from the station; 'un posto' in a 
carriage thither 1 fr. 

93 M. Stat. Rossano. The town (Albergo della Romanella ) 
with 14,267 inhab., situated on the hill, and possessing quarries 
of marble and alabaster, is about f) M. distant (drive of 1 hr., 
'nn posto' 1 fr.). Beyond it rise the pine-clad mountains of Silo, 
which once furnished the Athenians and Sicilians with timber 
for ship-building , and was also celebrated for its numerous 
flocks (p. 199). Rossano was the birthplace of St. Nilus. The 
steamboats touch at the landing-place opposite the town. The 
wretched inn on the coast is closed in summer in consequence 
of the malaria. 

The line runs close to the sea through a mountainous district, 
and crosses the Trionto. Stations (100 1 /.) M.) Mirto Crosia, 
(103'/ 2 M.) 8. Giacomo, (109i/ 2 M.) Campana, (113 M.) Carinti 
(Albergo di Sibari, miserable). 

The part of the line between this and Cotrone was opened 
in the summer of 1874 , and traverses pleasant plantations of 
olives, vines, and figs. Stations Crucoli, Cirb. Torre di Melissa, 
and Strongoli. This last, a squalid village with '2000 inhab., 
situated on a bluff eminence 4 M. from the station, and reached 
by a bad road, was the ancient Poetelia, founded according to 
tradition by Philoctetes, and besieged by Hannibal after the battle 
of Cannae on account of its fidelity to Rome. 

147 l / 2 M- Cotrone (*Albergo della Concordia, at the entrance 
to the town ; carriage from the station i/ 2 fr.), a thriving little 
seaport with 9000 inhab., situated on a promontory, was in an- 
cient times the celebrated Achaean colony of Croton, founded 
F>. C. 710, which is said to have been once so populous and 
powerful as to be able in 510 to send an army of 100,000 men 
into the field against Sybaris. After its great victory on that 
occasion, however, Croton declined; not long afterwards the 
citizens were defeated by the Locrians on the river Sagras, and 
in 299 the town fell into the hands of Agathocles of Syracuse. 
During the height of the prosperity of the city Pythagoras, who 
had been banished from Samos by the tyrant Polycrates , and 
was then in his 40th year, established himself at Croton. He 
attracted a band disciples and founded his brotherhood here B. C. 
450, but was at length banished in consequence of the jealousy 
of the citizens. 

Oranges and olives thrive admirably in the environs of 
Cotrone, and are largely exported. Liquorice is also a staple 
product of this district. An introduction to Signor Baraeeo, one 
of the wealthiest land-owners in Italy, who resides in the neigh- 
bourhood, will be found of essential service to the traveller. 

200 Route 19. CATANZARO. From Tarnnto 

The steamers from Ancona touch at Cotrone. About 7 M. 
to the S. E. is the Capo delle Colonne, or Capo Nao, a low 
promontory, much exposed to the wind. (Route to it by land 
2'/ 2 hrs-i very rough; boat 6 l'r.). As the steamer rounds this 
cape, the eye is arrested by a solitary column, rising con- 
spicuously on massive substructions above the few modern build- 
ings of the place. This is now the sole relic of the temple of 
Hera of the Lacinian Promontory , once the most revered 
divinity on the whole of the Bay of Tarentum. There are also 
some remains of 'opus reticulatum' from ancient Roman villas. 
To the S.W. of this promontory are three others, the Capo 
delle Cimiti, the Capo Rizzuto, and the Capo Castella. 

The road to Catanzaro (11 V2 M presents few objects of 
interest. It traverses these promontories and first reaches Cutro. 
It then crosses the Tacina, Crocchio, Simmari, and Alii, and 
leads to the landing-place of Catanzaro at the mouth of the 
Corace, about 9 M. distant from the town itself. 

Catanzaro (Hotel de Rome), with 22,451 inhab., the capital 
of Calabria Ultra II., in a beautiful, sheltered situation, and 
the residence of many wealthy families , possesses a chateau of 
Robert Guiscard, a cathedral, velvet and silk factories, and valu- 
able olive-groves. The town suffered severely from the earthquake 
of 1783. 

High road from Catanzaro to Reggio, see p. 204. 

Turning hence towards the coast, we next reach flS'/j M.) 
Squillace, the ancient Scylaceum, situated on an almost inacces- 
sible rock near the coast, nearly opposite the lofty Monte Moscia, 
which here projects into the sea. The village of Stalitti, situated 
on the latter, commands a view of singular beauty. A long 
tunnel is now being constructed through this promontory. 
Cassiodorus, the private secretary of Theodoric the Great, was 
born at Scylaceum, and after the death of his master retired to 
his native place, where he founded a monastery, and within the 
seclusion of its walls wrote a number of learned works. He 
died here in 5(30, having attained the age of nearly a hundred 
years. A short distance to the N. of Squillace the Emp. Otho II. 
was defeated in July , 982 , by the Arabs , who had crossed 
over from Sicily, and had recently been routed by him at Co- 
lonne, to the S. of Cotrone. The emperor himself escaped al- 
most by a miracle, and succeeded in reaching Rossano, where 
he found his consort Theophano. Otho, however, never re- 
covered from the effects of this reverse ; he died at Rome in 
December, 9S3, and was interred in the old church of St. Peter. 
The route along the coast beyond this point, passing Montauro, 
Soverato, Badolato, and Stilo, is often precipitous, and for the 
most part monotonous. 

to Beggio. ROCCELLA. 19. Route. 201 

At Monasterace. 28 M. from Squillace, the railway begins. 
One train daily. Stations (4'/ 2 M.) Riace, (9y 2 M.) Caulonin. 
The river Alaro is supposed to be the Sagras of antiquity, where 
an army of 130,000 Crotonians is said to have been utterly 
routed by 10,000 Locrians. On this river lies Castelvetere, on 
the site of the ancient Achaean Caulonia , where Pythagoras 
sought refuge after his expulsion from Crotona. 

12 ! / 2 M. Stat. Roccella, a town with 5139 inhab., lies near 
the coast. Two trains to Reggio daily in 5 hrs. 

17'/ 2 M. Stat. Oioiosa. (20 M.) Stat. Siderno, a town with 
6163 inhab., where the Ancona and Genoa steamers touch. 

23 M. Stat. Gerace. The town, with 6899 inhab., situated 
on the slope of a lofty spur of the Apennines, rose on the 
ruins of Locri Epizephyrii, the once celebrated colony of the 
Locrians, founded B. C. 683, provided with a salutary code of 
laws by Zaleucus (664), and extolled by Pindar and Demosthenes 
for its wealth and love of art. The Tuins of the ancient city 
were formerly visible near Torre di Oerace, but the ground has 
recently been converted into an orange garden. 

A mountain path, called II Passo del Mercanle, leads from Gerace 
through beautiful woods, and over the lofty Aspromonte, to Casalnnovo. 
Thence hy a post-road to Gioja, or to Seminara, about 42 M. The summit 
of the pass commands a most delightful view of the sea in both directions. 
In descending, the eye ranges over the Bay of Gioja as far as the Lipari 

Stations (28 M.) Ardore, (30y 2 M.) BowjZmo, (35 M.) Bianco- 
nuovo, (44'/ 2 M.) Brancaleone. The line now skirts the Capo 
Spartivento, the Promontorium Herculis of antiquity, the S. E. 
extremity of Calabria, and beyond (52^ M.) Stat. Palizzi turns 
towards the W. and then to the N.W. Stations (55'/ 2 M -l Bova, 
(58 M.) Amandolea, (51 M.) Melito. 

69 M. Stat. Saline. The train commands a view, as it pro- 
ceeds, of the coast and mountains of Sicily, and rounds the 
Capo dell' Armi, the Promontorium Leucopetrae, which was in 
ancient times regarded as the termination of the Apennines. 
Cicero landed here in B. C. 44, after the murder of Csesar, 
having been compelled by adverse winds to turn back from his 
intended voyage to Greece, and he was then persuaded by citizens 
of Rhegium to repair to Velia, where he met Brutus. 

Stations (72'/ 2 M.) Lazzaro, (761/., m.) Pellaro, (80'/-> M.) S. 
Gregorio, (82y 2 M.) Reggio (p. 206). 

20. From Naples to Reggio. 

The projected railway, via Eboli and Potenza, will join the preceding 
route at Torremare. It is completed as far as Eboli, from which the 
distance to Reggio is 297 M. The journey is performed by the Corriere 
in 75 hrs. •, fare 63 fr. 75 c. There are, however, three seats only, which 
are always engaged in advance. Diligences ('Giornaliera'j also run on the 
whole of this route-, but passengers are always liable to be turned out 

202 Route 20. POLLA. From Naples 

before reaching their destination by others desiring seats for a longer 
stage, unless they prefer to pay for the longer stage. This malpractice 
also prevails in yicily (p. 209). In the bathing season, when the traffic 
between Naples and the province is very brisk, travellers cannot expect 
to be taken up at intermediate stations , but they may sometimes obtain 
a seat in a hived carriage at a moderate charge. Vetturini from Salerno 
to Reggio require 10 — 12 days; hotel-expenses had better be included in 
the contract. 

From Naples by railway to Eboli, 50 M. , and thence to 
Auletta, 22 M., see R. 17. 

Beyond Auletta lies the village of Fertosa, a halting-place of 
the vetturini, partially destroyed in 1857. Below the village is 
a large cavern, dedicated to St. Michael, whence after a sub- 
terranean course of l 1 /^ M. the Negro precipitates itself into a 
gorge. Beyond Pertosa the road crosses a deep ravine, through 
which an arm of the Negro flows, by II Ponte di Campestrino, 
a viaduct of seven arches, and then ascends the mountain in zig- 
zags. A little way beyond the culminating point a charming view 
is disclosed of the valley of the Diano, to the S., into which 
the road now descends. On entering it the beautifully situated 
Polla, the ancient Forum Popilii, almost entirely destroyed in 
1S57, is left to the right. The valley, 15 M. in length, 3 M. 
in width , is traversed by the Negro , or rather the Calore , as 
it is here named, and is remarkable for its fertility. Numerous 
villages are situated on the heights on the r. and 1. The road 
ascends more rapidly. On the 1. lies Atena, the anoient Atina 
in Lucania, with remains of an amphitheatre, walls, and tow- 
ers, but almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1857. 
Then to the 1. Sala (Albergo in the Piazza, tolerable), the seat 
of a sub-prefect, picturesquely situated on a height. Nearly 
opposite to it, on the other bank of the river, which is crossed 
by the Ponte di Silla, an ancient Roman bridge, rises the small 
town of Diano on an isolated eminence, the ancient Tegianum, 
whence the valley derives its name. To the 1., 44 M. from 
Eboli , lies Padula , below which are the shattered ruins of the 
Certosa di S. Lorenzo. 

From Sala and Padula beautiful routes cross the Monte S. EUa to the 
picturesque Valley of Marsico, but in 1874 they were unfortunately not 
unattended with danger, and previous enquiry should therefore be made 
of the prefetto or sindaco as to the state of the country. Towards the K. 
the valley is commanded by the town of Marsico (14,000 inhab.), a noto- 
rious haunt of brigands. After a ride of 4 — 5 hrs. across the fertile 
plain the traveller reaches Haponara, situated on a steep hill, at the foot 
of which, in the Agri valley, once lay the ancient Orumentum. The ruins 
are insignificant, but a rich treasure of vases, inscriptions, and gems has 
been found among them. The village was almost entirely destroyed by 
the earthquake in 1857, and the present population (1500) is one-half 
only of what it formerly was. — Opposite to it, towards the S. W., is 
Viggimio , famous for its musicians, who are to be met with in all parts 
of the world, particularly in New York, with their harps, guitars, 
tlutes, etc. Of an evening the village itself resounds with music, singing, 
and dancing. — Moliterno on the high mad is 3 M. from Saponara ('gior- 
naliera' to b:ila in 6 hrs.). 

to Reggio. COSENZA. 20. Route. 203 

At Casalnuovo the ascent begins , and the road at length 
crosses the rivulet Trecchina to (Q£> ] /-> M. from Eboli) Lagonegro, 
a small town in a wild situation, surrounded by lofty mountains. 
The French gained a victory over the Neapolitans here in 1806, 
after which they committed the most savage excesses. 

The road now winds through dark and profound ravines, 
passing to the 1. the Larjo di Serino, the ancient Lacus Niger, 
in which the Sinno , the Siris of the ancients, takes its rise. 
The next village, Laurin, lies at the base of a lofty mountain, 
opposite the huge Monte Sirino , and surrounded by vineyards. 
Then Castelluccio , on an eminence above a branch of the Lao, 
the ancient Laos, surrounded by dense woods. The next village 
we reach is — 

109y 2 M. Rotonda. The province of Calabria Citra is now 
entered , and the long and desolate table-land of Campo Tenese 
traversed, where in 1806 the Neapolitans fled before the French 
general Regnier. A path winds downwards from this point, and 
passes through the narrow valley at the base of Monte PolUno 
(7326 ft.), on the W side of which Morano, the ancient 
Muranum, is picturesquely situated. 

125 M. Castro villari, on a hill, surrounded by lofty mountains, 
with an ancient Norman castle, is next reached. Cassano (p. 
198) is 9i/ 2 M. distant. 

From Castrovillari the high road traverses a well-cultivated 
district, through Cammarata, Spezzano, Tarsia, and liitorio, skirt- 
ing the river Crati, and crossing several of its tributaries, in 
the bed of one of which (the Busento) Alaric, King of the Goths, 
was interred in 410, and reaches — 

Cosenza (Albergo dei due Lionetti), the Consentia of the 
ancients, once the principal city of the Bruttii, now the capital 
of the province of Calabria Citra, and an archiepiscopal residence, 
containing well-built houses and palaces of wealthy landed-pro- 
prietors and manufacturers (17.753 inhab.). It lies on the N. 
slope of a hill which separates the Crati from the Busento above 
the confluence of these streams. The town is commanded by a 
castle, the walls of which, although 9 ft. in thickness, were 
unable to resist the earthquake of 1870. Shocks are felt 
here almost every year. In 1181 the town was destroyed by 
an earthquake, and again on 4th Feb., 1783, when upwards of 
30,000 persons perished in this district. Considerable damage 
was also sustained from the earthquakes of 13th Feb., 1854, 
and 4th Oct., 1870. 

The Cathedral contains the tomb of Louis III. of Anjou, who 
died here in 1435, one year and a half after his marriage with 
Margaret of Savoy. 

The site of Alaric's grave is unknown, but a tradition of 
Cosenza places it at the union of the Busento and the Crati. 

204 Route 20. ROGL1ANO. From Naples 

Road from Cosenza to Paola (p. 223), -where the steamers 
touch once weekly, not always considered safe. Railway, follow- 
ing the course of the Crati, to join the great coast-line, projected. 

About 10 M. to the B. of Cosenza rises the Sila, a lofty and wooded 
range of mountains, extending about 37 M. from 1?. to S., 25 M. from E. 
to W., attaining a height of 6643 ft., and embracing an extensive network 
of valleys. These mountains, which consist of granite and gneiss, are 
remarkable for their beauty and fertility; their slopes are studded with 
numerous villages, while higher up they are clothed with chestnuts, oaks, 
beeches, and pines. The snow does not disappear among the higher regions 
till the latter end of May, or June, after which they afford a delightful 
summer abode to the natives with their flocks. This beautiful district, 
which has very rarely been explored by travellers, is still in a most pri- 
mitive and uncivilised condition. 

At Cosenza the road begins to ascend, traversing well-culti- 
vated land , while the heights on either side are clothed with 
oaks and chestnuts. 

178 M. Rogliano, a small town on a height to the ]., com- 
mands a charming prospect of the fertile country and the sur- 
rounding mountains, above which to the r. rises the summit 
of Monte Cocuzzo (5085 ft.). The road then descends into the 
ravine of the Savuto, the ancient Sabutus , which it crosses by 
a wooden bridge ; it then ascends Le Crocelle di Agrifolio , a 
precipitous ridge of the Apennines , and leads by Carpanzano, 
Coraei , Arena Bianca, and through ravines and forest to the 
lofty town of — 

203 M. Tiriolo, situated on the culminating point between 
the Corace, which falls into the bay of Squillace, and the Lamato, 
descending to the bay of S. Eufemia (the ancient Sinus Teri- 
naeus). Near Tiriolo, a name probably derived from the Ager 
Taurianus, numerous antiquities, coins, etc. have been found. 
Here, too, in 1460 a bronze tablet (now in the imperial collection 
at Vienna) was discovered, bearing the decree of the senate 
against the Bacchanalia, of the year B. C. 186, mentioned by 
Livy (39, 18). 

Before Tiriolo is reached, a road to the 1. crosses the river Corace and 
leads to (6 M.) Catamaro (p. 200). 

To the r. a road leads to (7'ja M.) A'icastro, an episcopal town on the 
slope of the mountain, in the now ruined castle of which Frederick II. 
once confined his son Henry, who had rebelled against him. The latter 
was shortly afterwards drowned in the river Savuto. Towards the sea, 
3 M. from Nicastro, lies <S'. Eufemia, with a celebrated Benedictine mon- 
astery founded by Robert Guiseard, but destroyed by the earthquake of 1638. 

The road to lieggio traverses a chain of hills, then crosses 
the Lamato, the r. bank of which it skirts for 4 M., commanding 
nearly the whole way a view of the bays of Squillace and S. 
Eufemia, which are here not more than 20 M. apart. 

Then by Casino Chiriaco across the plain of Maida, where 
in 1806 the English auxiliaries of the Bourbons under Sir John 
Stuart defeated the French under Regnier and drove them out 

to Reggio. PALMI. 20. Route. 205 

of Calabria. The road leads across the fertile , but unhealthy 
plain by Francavilla to Torre Masdea. 

225 M. Pizzo is a small town on the coast (p. 223) where 
the steamers from Naples touch. A bridle-path, frequently in a 
bad state , leads hence by the coast to Tropea , beautifully 
situated near the Capo Vaticano, whence Stromboli and the 
Lipari Islands (R. 33) may be visited. 

The road, running near the coast, next leads to — 

234'/ 2 M. Monteleone, the loftily situated capital of the 
district, with 10,262 inhab., much damaged by the earthquake 
of 1783, commanded by an ancient castle erected by Frederick II. 
A road leading N. to the coast (3 M.) passes through the village 
of Bivona, on the site of the ancient Hipponium, which was 
subsequently the Roman colony Vibo Valentia, destroyed by the 
Saracens in 983. The road now traverses a hilly district to — 

244 M. Mileto, once the favourite residence of Count Roger 
of Sicily, whose son, King Roger, was born here. The ruins of 
the abbey of <S. Trinita founded by him are still seen, where 
his remains and those of his first wife Eremberga formerly re- 
posed in two sarcophagi, now in the museum at Naples. 

The mountains of Sicily, especially the summit of yEtna, 
now become conspicuous in the horizon. 

From Mileto a mountain-path leads E. to the (20 M.) grand ruins of 
the once celebrated monastery of Santo Stefano del Bosco, situated in a 
lonely valley at the foot of the Apennines. Near the neighbouring village 
of Soriano, are the extensive ruins of the Dominican monastery of S. Do- 
menico Soriano, also destroyed by the earthquake of 1783; and, on the 
farther side of the low ridge of Monte Astore, the remains of the Certosa, 
in which in 1094 St. Bruno established his austere order of Carthusians, 
and where he died and was interred in 1101. 

From Mileto the road gradually descends from the heights 
bounding the bay of Gioja on the N., and at (2f>4 M.J Rosarno 
enters the province of Calabria Ultra I. The picturesquely 
situated town (3456 inhab.) was destroyed by the earthquake 
of 1783. The plain is then traversed to Gioja, which occupies 
the site of the ancient Metaurum, a desolate looking place, 
situated on the coast to the r., and an extensive depot of oil. 
Owing to the prevalence of malaria here, the workmen always 
spend the night at Palmi. We now cross the Marro, the ancient 
Metaurus, a river celebrated for its fish. The earthquake of 
1783 was particularly destructive in this neighbourhood. The 
earth opened in many places , swallowing up houses entire, and 
filling up several valleys. 

On the coast to the r. , not far from the road , on a cliff 
rising perpendicularly from the sea, stands the singularly pictu- 
resque town of — 

269 M. Palmi (no tolerable inn), the capital of the district, 
with 9724 inhab., surrounded by orange and olive plantations, 
and commanding magnificent views of the Faro, the fort of Scilla, 

206 Route -2(1 RKOGIO. From Naples 

the town and harbour of Messina, and the majestic JEtna. in the 
"background. The N. coast of Sicily is visible as far as Milazzo; 
towards the sea Stromboli and the Lipari Islands; to the N. 
the bay of Gioja as far as Capo Vaticano. Seminara, destroyed 
in 1783, 2'/ 2 M. to the S. E. of Pal mi, was the scene of two 
important conflicts. In 1495 the French army defeated that of 
King Ferdinand II. under Gonsalvo da Cordova, and on 21st 
April, 1503, the French were conquered on nearly the same 
spot by the Spaniards under Ugo de Cardona, one of Gonsalvo's 
most able generals. 

The road now traverses chestnut and olive plantations, 
affording a succession of fine views of the sea and the coast, to 
Bagnara (Locanda della Stella), on the coast, and — 

281 M. Scilla, the ancient Scylla, the castle of which, rising 
on a narrow promontory, commands the town. The silk and wine 
produced at Scilla enjoy a high reputation. Numerous sword- 
fish (peace spado, ) are caught here in July. The castle, once 
the seat of the princes of Scilla , a branch of the Rufo family, 
was occupied by the English after the battle of Maida, and 
defended during 18 months (until 1808) against the French. 

The rock of Scylla , represented in Homer's Odyssey as a roaring 
and voracious sea-monster, is depicted by the poets in conjunction with 
the opposite Charybdis , on account of the dangers encountered here by 
mariners, as a beautiful virgin above, and a monster with the body of a 
wolf and tail of a dolphin beneath. Of these terrors little is heard at 
the present day, although the currents in the straits are still very rapid. 
It is, however, now believed that the Charybdis of the ancients is by no 
means exactly opposite to the whirlpool of Scylla, as the saying l incidis 
in Scyllam, aipiens vitare Charybdini' appears to indicate, but outside the 
harbour of Messina, 7'|2 31. from Scilla, at the point now called Garofalo. 

On the morning (of 5th Feb., 1783, an Earthquake overthrew the 
greater part of the town of Scilla, together with the castle, while the 
inhabitants tied to the sea. Towards evening a second shock rent the 
promontory asunder, and caused the sea to rise with such impetuosity 
that 1500 persons were drowned , and the ruins of the town laid under 

The distance from the castle of Scilla to the promontory of 
Faro, the ancient Pelorum, between which the strait lies, is 
about 2 M. The passage to Messina is most conveniently effected 
from the beautifully situated Villa S. Giovanni, to the S. of 
the Punta del Pezzo, 14 M. from Scilla. From that point a 
charming road, skirting the coast, and traversing gardens of 
oranges, pomegranates, palms, and aloes, leads by the villages 
of Gallico, Arco, and S. Caterina to — 

297 M. (fromEbolij Reggio (*Albergo Vittoria, Corso Garibaldi; 
Cafe Garibaldi and Europa ; Trattoria Lombarda, in a side-street 
of the Corso), the ancient Rhegium, originally a Eubcean colony 
which was founded B. C. 723 by fugitive Messenians and soon 
rose to prosperity, now the capital of the province Calabria 
Ultra I. and an archiepiscopal residence , with a population of 
15,692, or with the surrounding villages 32,258. The town 

to Reggio. REGG10. 20. Route. 207 

with its spacious streets rises from the sea to the beautiful 
hills in the rear, studded with numerous and handsome -villas. 
Nothing can surpass the singular beauty of the environs and 
the view of the Sicilian coast, especially in the evening , when 
the sun sets behind the mountains near Messina. The distance 
from the cathedral of Reggio to the lighthouse of Messina is about 
4' 2 / 3 M. The supposition that Sicily was once connected with the 
mainland was prevalent at a very early period , and is borne 
out by modern geological investigations. 

Reggio was almost entirely overthrown by the earthquake of 1783, 
and therefore wears a modern aspect, to which the previous history of 
the town has also contributed. It was first destroyed by the Romans, 
then in 549 by the Goth Totila, in 918 by the Saracens, in 1005 by the 
Pisans, in 1060 by Robert Guiscard, then by Frederick Barbarossa, and 
finally in 1552 and 1597 by the Turks. The cathedral contains nothing 
of importance. 

At the back of Reggio rises the imposing and forest-clad Aspromonle, 
the W. extremity of the range which in ancient times bore the name of 
Sila; the highest point is the Montalto (6907 ft.). The summit is over- 
grown with beech-trees, the slopes partly with pines. Here, in the vici- 
nity of Reggio, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner by the Italian 
troops under Pallavicini, 29th Aug., 1862. The ascent, which is somewhat 
laborious, is best undertaken from Scilla. 

Between Reggio and Messina steamboat communication twice daily, fare 
2 fr. ; boat to or from the steamer at Reggio 25 c. — Carriages may be hired 
in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 


General Remarks. 

Strabo, the Greek geographer, in one passage calls Sicily an 'addition', 
in another a 'detached portion' of Italy; and there is indeed not one of 
the surrounding islands so intimately allied, geographically as well as 
historically, with the great peninsula which bisects the Mediterranean. 
Goethe has justly observed that, without Sicily, Italy would lose much 
of its charms. "The climate cannot be too highly extolled ; the beauties 
are innumerable. 1 This cannot fail to be experienced by every traveller 
who forms acquaintance with this 'pearl among islands'. Nor is the beauty 
of the scenery the sole attraction to the wanderer from the north. Those 
equipped with even a superficial knowledge of history cannot but exper- 
ience a profound interest in the places with which the most ancient Hel- 
lenic and Roman traditions are connected, where the destinies of Athens, 
Carthage , and Rome have been decided , and where so famous mediaeval 
characters as Henry VI. and Frederick II. have ruled. There is not a 
nation which has materially influenced the destinies of European civili- 
sation, that has not left distinct traces of its activity in this island. 

Those whose time and' resources permit are therefore strongly recom- 
mended to visit Sicily before proceeding homewards. A single week will 
suffice for an excursion to Palermo and its environs as far as Segesta. The 
celebrated ruins of Selinunto and Girgenti would require a second week. 
Those, however, who prefer to explore the beautiful and peculiar natural 
features of the island , should confine their attention to the N. and E. 
coast as far as Syracuse, for which a fortnight may suffice, without ex- 
tending their tour to the ruins on the less picturesque S.W. angle. 

Travklling in Sicily is no longer attended with the difficulties and 
dangers of former years, but those who desire more than a mere super- 
ficial acquaintance with the island must be prepared for numerous priva- 
tions and considerable expense. Hotels worthy of the name are nowhere 
to be found except at Palermo, Messina, Taormina, Catania, Syracuse, and 
Trapani. Almost all those in other parts of the island are dirty, and often 
swarming with vermin. 

Steamboats perform the circuit of the island weekly, Palermo being 
their starting-point, and Messina and Syracuse the principal stations. 

Railways. The network of railways, with which the island is to be 
provided, has been begun. The following parts of it are already open : (1) 
From Messina by Catania to Syracuse , 114 M. ; (2) From Catania to 
Leonforte, 49 M., being a portion of the line to Girgenti or to Palermo; 
(3) From Palermo to Cammarata, 60 M., part of the line to Girgenti. 

Carriages may be hired in all the larger towns, and when drawn by 
three horses travel with tolerable rapidity , accomplishing 40 M. daily. 
The usual charge throughout the island for a carriage , when engaged for 
several days, is 20 — 25 fr. per diem, including toll-dues (la catena) and 
everything except a gratuity (buona mano, bottiglia) to the driver. For a 
party of 2 — 4 pers. this is the pleasautest mode of travelling. A great part 
of the coast is at present accessible on foot or on horseback only, but 
new roads are being rapidly constructed in every direction. 

General Remarks. SICILY. 209 

Diligences run on all the principal roads, the fare being 15 c. per 
kilometre (1 Sicilian miglio = l 1 ^ kilometre = -*| 5 Italian M. = i5ji« 
English M.), or about 25 c. per English mile; but there is often a diffi- 
culty in procuring seats as no supplementary carriages are provided. Pas- 
sengers for the longer distances have the preference, and those who wish 
to be taken up at an intermediate station are never certain of obtaining 
a seat. This system encourages dishonesty on the part of the conductors, 
who frequently pretend that seats are engaged, but assign them to the 
traveller for a consideration. There is, however, this advantage in dili- 
gence-travelling, that, when danger is apprehended, an escort of carabineers 
is always provided. The more modern vehicles are tolerable, the old 
very uncomfortable. Postilion's fee 5 soldi. The ''Periodica'', or omnibus 
which competes with the diligence on the principal routes , is a still 
less inviting conveyance. 

Mules , on which 25 M. a day can be accomplished, afford an- 
other mode of travelling. The tour from Palermo through the interior 
of the island, the so-called ^giro\ is most conveniently performed by making 
an arrangement with a guide (vetturino) which shall include hotel expenses, 
fees, and everything requisite for the journey. Giuseppe Aniello, the 
commissionaire of the Trinacria at Palermo, is generally considered the 
best vetturino in the island. His inclusive charges are as follows : for 
1 pers. with 2 mules 40 fr. per diem, 2 pers. with 4 mules 60 fr., 3 pers. 
with 5' mules 80 fr., 4 pers. with 7 mules 90 fr. Other good vetturini can 
be recommended by the landlord of the Trinacria at Palermo. The land- 
lord Giuseppe Mazzaglia at Nicolosi also oilers his services as a guide 
(comp. p. 301) at 15 — 20 fr. per day. This mode of travelling with a guide 
renders the traveller very independent, if the prolonged riding does not 
prove too fatiguing , but it is gradually falling into disuse , now that 
public conveyances are better organised. Mules and guides may also be 
obtained for short excursions. The character of the Sicilians is polite 
and obliging •, the traveller who is fortunate enough to obtain a letter 
of introduction to a merchant or proprietor in the interior will gen- 
erally be supplied by him with introductions to his friends in other 
districts. The charges for mules vary in different parts of the island, but 
the maximum may be stated at 10 fr. per diem, which should not be ex- 
ceeded. The attendant expects a trifling additional fee. If a mule be 
engaged with a guide who is also mounted, for a journey of several days, 
the whole charge does not exceed 7 — 10 fr. per day. If, however, the 
traveller does not return to the point of starting, the return-journey must 
he paid for. Toll-dues 2 c. for each mule. The lettiga or litter, the 
lectica of the Romans, is still used on the S.W. coast, but is an un- 
comfortable and expensive means of conveyance and should be avoided 
except in cases of illness. Those who ride should previously stipulate for 
a good saddle (sella or sedda inglest), and not a '■bi&azza seaza staffe\ 
i. e. a saddle without stirrups, such as the Sicilians use. On the con- 
clusion of the bargain, it is usual to give 2 — 5 fr. as earnest-money 
(caparra) to the mulattiere, to be deducted from the final account. 

Brigandage. The safety of travellers in Sicily has been somewhat pre- 
carious since the events of 1860. The provinces of Mussina and Catania, 
including Jit. ^Etna, are regarded as perfectly safe. The most hazardous 
locality is the environs of Palermo. The city itself was attacked in 
September, 1866, by a band of 2000 freebooters, who after a fierce struggle 
were expelled by the troops. The following places are the most notorious 
haunts of brigands : Misilmeri, Ogliastro, Villafrate, Vallelunga, Termini, 
Parco, Monreale, Mezzojuso, Piana dei Greci, Corleone, Castellainare near 
Palermo, and lastly the sulphur district near Girgenti, especially Favara, 
Palma, and Canicatti. During the day there is little ground for ap- 
prehension. Those who travel at night , and have the misfortune to be 
attacked, are recommended at once to quit their vehicle and not to 
attempt to offer resistance. In this case no more serious consequences 
will ensue than the loss of money and watch. 
Baedeker. Italy III. 5th Edition. 14 

210 SICILY. General Remarks. 

Climate. The best seasons for travelling in Sicily are the months of April 
and May, or September and October. Even in January the weather is often 
line and settled. The ascent of ./Etna in spring is possible, but the best 
period is August or September, after the first showers of autumn have 
cleared the atmosphere. The ascent is never absolutely impracticable, 
but guides cannot always be procured. 

Money. The Italian lire (francs) of 100 centesimi have been current in 
Sicily since 1861. The lower classes, however, especially in the interior, still 
employ the old oncie, tari, and grani: 1 oncia (Sicil. unza) = 12 fr. 75 c. = 
30 tari = 3 dncati di Napoli = 10 s. 2'|2 d. ; 1 tari = 20 grani = 10 bajocchi 
= 42'|2 cent. = 4 1 |4<2. Besides Italian and French gold and silver, the old 
Neapolitan piastres (piastra, pezzo) are still in use : 1 piastre = 12 tari = 
5 fr. 10c. = 4s. Id.; also '^piastres, 2-tari and 1-tari pieces. Gold and 
silver coin is seen here as rarely as on the mainland. The banknotes of 
the Banca Nazionale and the Banca di Sicilia are in common circulation. 
Those of the Banca di Napoli cannot be exchanged except at a loss. On 
the other hand, notes of the Sicilian bank suffer a depreciation on the 
mainland. The premium on gold is from 1 to 2 per cent, lower than at 

Weights and Measures. Besides the official metre the following stan- 
dards of measurement are still employed : 1 carina = 8 palme = 2,065 
metres = 2'|4 yards. The palma is divided into 12 once; 1 palma = 10 
Engl, inches , approximately. The cantdro = 100 rotoli = 176 lbs. , is 
the usual standard of weight. 

Plan of Tour. The time required for a tour through the whole of Sicily 
varies greatly according to the season and the principal object which the 
traveller has in view. The following is a sketch of the most important 
routes. For Palermo the minimum is 3 days : then to Alcamo 1, to Calata- 
iimi (Segesta) 1, to Castelvetrano 1, (to Trapani 1, Monte San Giuliano and 
Marsala 1, Castelvetrano 1), to Sciacca (Selinunto) 1, to Girgenti 1, at Gir- 
genti l'|2, to Palma '|j, to Terranova 1, to Modica (Val d'Ispica) 1, to 
Palazzolo 1, to Syracuse 1, at Syracuse 2, to Catania 1, at Catania and 
ascent of /Etna 3, to Taormina 1. to Messina 1, in Messina 1, to Milazzo 1, 
to Patti (Tyndaris) 1, to S. Agata 1, to S. Stefano 1, to Cefalii 1, to Ter- 
mini 1, to Palermo 1 day. Thus the whole tour, performed on a mule, 
would occupy 30 — 32 days, and embrace the complete circuit of the island, 
i. e., exclusive of the indentations of the coast, about 535 M. For the sake 
of variety, however, the traveller will prefer to avail himself of other con- 
veyances when an opportunity offers. The following tour is also fre- 
quently made. From Palermo to Messina by land in 4 days, or direct 
by railway and steamboat in 18 hrs. ; thence (by steamer) to Milazzo and 
Patti (Tyndaris) and back in 3 days, (by railway) to Taormina 1, to Ca- 
tania 1, Catania and iEtna 3, to Syracuse 1, at. Syracuse 2 days. By 
steamboat in 18 hrs. to Girgenti, where 1 — 2 days should be spent. Thence 
by diligence and railway in 20 hrs. to Palermo, or on mule-back in 2 days 
by Sciacca and Selinunto to Castelvetrano. Then in 2 days by Calatafimi 
(Segesta), or, if Marsala and Trapani be included, in 4 days to Palermo 
by diligence or on mule-back. A slight acquaintance with the interior 
may be obtained on the journey from Palermo to Girgenti. Or a journey 
of 22 hrs. from Palermo to Castrogiovanni (Enna), and thence either by 
the main road to Catania by Aderno, or in 1 day by Piazza (Lacus Pergusa) 
to Caltagirone, and thence in 1 day to Catania by diligence. An approx- 
imately exhaustive tour cannot be accomplished in less than a month. 

The great majority of travellers proceed to Sicily via Naples. Steam- 
boats of the Messageries Maritimes also leave Marseilles for Messina every 
Saturday evening. From Genoa to Palermo one steamer weekly, touching 
at Leghorn and Civita Yecchia. From Naples to Messina and Palermo 
steamers almost daily, but Italian vessels only, as this line is at present 
discontinued by the Messageries. The larger vessels of the Peirano- 
Danovaro Co. are preferable to those of the Florio. Communication once 
weekly between the harbours of the Adriatic, the Bay of Taranto, and 
Messina. Messina is in weekly correspondence with the East, and also 
with Malta. Steamers to Sardinia and Tunis from Palermo used to ply 
every fortnight, but the latter has lately been discontinued. 

Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 211 

Geography and Statistics. 

Sicily (Sicilia, Sikelia, Trinacria, Triquetra, in ancient times) is the 
largest island in the Mediterranean. I s area, according to the most recent 
measurements, amounts to 29,240 sq. kilometres, i. e. about 11,410 Engl, 
sq. SI. The form of the island is an irregular triangle, the W. angle of 
which is the promontory of Lilybaeiim, or Capo di Bueo, near Marsala, the 
N. E. angle the promontory of Pelorum (Capo del Faro) nearest the main- 
land, the S. E. angle the promontory of Pachynwm (Capo Passaro). The 
N. coast is 200, the E. 135, and the S. W. 177 Engl. M. in length. 

Geographical Features. The island is mountainous. Three different 
ranges must be distinguished. (1). The principal chain, a ramification 
from the Apennines, skirting the N. coast of the island, begins with the 
Faro di Messina , and at first runs parallel to the E. coast , the Monies 
Neptunii or Pelorian Mis. of antiquity. The highest point is the Dinnamari, 
near Messina, 3707 ft. ; other summits are the Scuderi near All, 4107 ft., 
and the Monte Venera near Taormina, 2897 ft. From the Pizzo di Bonavi, 
not far from the latter, the range turns to the W., and now bears the name 
of Nebrode. Diodorus Siculus also calls them the Heraean Mts. The 
highest points of this portion of the chain are the Monte S. Salvatore 
(Pizzo di Palermo) (6266 ft.) and the Pizzo Antenna (6480 ft.), S. of 
Cefalii. Here they are sometimes termed the Madonian Mts. Farther on, 
to the W. of Termini, the watershed which the range has thus far formed 
between the African and Ionian seas is interrupted , and the mountains 
become detached and isolated. The highest mountain of this range is 
the Monte Cammarala (5172 ft.) , between Termini and Girgenti. The 
highest point to the W. of Palermo is the Monte Cuccio (3445 ft.). Those most 
remarkable on account of their situation and form are the Monte iS. Calogero 
near Termini (4347 ft.), the Monte Pellegrhw near Palermo (1958 ft.), and 
the Monte 8. Giuliano near Trapani (2464 ft.). — (2). The plateaus of the 
S. E. angle (Heraean Mis., of which Monte Lauro, to the N. of Palazzolo, 
is the highest summit, 3231 ft.) and the S. coast, consisting of primary 
and fossiliferous limestone. This district contains the sulphur mines 
of the island, which are comprised within a space bounded by the Afri- 
can sea on the S.W., the road from Girgenti to Lercara on the W., 
and by that from Lercara to Centorbi (and a line drawn thence to the 
E. coast) on the N. — (3). Ml. JStna, the most recent formation, rises 
to a height of 10,840 ft. , and is completely detached from the other 
mountains by the valleys of the Cantara and Simeto. The watershed 
between these rivers, however, to the N. W. of iEtna, attains a consi- 
derable height (3792 ft.). 

The island contains no plains of any extent. To the S. of Catania 
stretches the most considerable, the Piano di Catania (Ager Leontimts, Campi 
Laeslrygonii) between the rivers Simeto and Gurnalunga. The plains of 
the coast, of Terranova (Campi Geloi), Licata, and Milazzo, may also be 

The island suffers greatly from want of water in consequence of the 
removal of the primeval forests. Most of the rivers are impetuous and 
destructive torrents in winter, frequently rendering the roads impassable, 
whilst in summer they are generally dry. The beds thus formed are termed 
Jiumara, Sicil. ciumara. The principal rivers, which are crossed by boats, 
are the Giarrelta, formed by the union of the Simeto and Gurnalunga^ 
the Fiume Salso (Ilimera Meridionalis) near Licata, the Fiume Platani, 
to the W. of Girgenti, and the Fiume Belici, between Sciacca and Castel- 
vetrano. The Cantara is crossed by a bridge. 

Products. In consequence of the want of water, which is sold in the 
neighbourhood of the towns and in the gardens in jets of the thickness 
of a quill, the once luxuriant fertility of the island has greatly decreased. 
The wheat, which with barley and beans is almost exclusively cultivated 
here, yields on an average a seven-fold return. It is largely exported on 


212 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

account of the excellence of its quality , while an inferior kind is 
imported for home consumption. The quantity produced has, however, been 
considerably diminished by the conversion of much of the arable land into 
cotton plantations. The peculiar farm-tenure, inferior agricultural imple- 
ments , and occasional deficiency of hands, which is supplied in many 
parts by peasants from Calabria, are also unfavourable to the agricultural 
prosperity of the country. The fields, like those in Sardinia and N. Africa, 
are enclosed by cactus-hedges, which frequently attain a considerable height. 
Their fruit, the cactus-fig, of a sweetish, somewhat insipid taste, is much 
esteemed by the natives. The export of cotton, sumach, and linseed forms 
an important branch of commerce. Other products exported are oranges, 
lemons, citrons, and their essential oils, almonds, olive oil, wine (Marsala, 
Riposso, Catania, Vittoria, Siracusa), nuts, capers, soda, pistachios, manna, 
liquorice, lentils, and raisins. Animal products : silk, hides, wool, ancho- 
vies, tunny-fish, and cantharides. Mineral products : sulphur, salt, and 
marble. The island possesses no mines of the precious metals or of coal. 
A large proportion of the merchants are now Germans, while during the 
last century they were almost exclusively English. About two-thirds of 
the manufactured goods imported into Sicily, as well as Italy, pass through 
the hands of Swiss and German merchants. The statistics relating to 
the exports and imports are untrustworthy, but it is ascertained that 
the former are far more considerable than the latter. This will be still 
more the case as agriculture advances in consequence of the secularisation 
of monasteries, the partition of the vast landed estates, and the promotion 
of the public safety. 

Mineral Baths, most of them sulphureous, and celebrated in ancient 
times, are established at Sciacca on the Monte S. Calogero (Thermse 
Selinuntinse), at Termini (Thermse Hiraerenses), at Termini near Barcel- 
ona, and at Ali near Messina. The bath-arrangements are very defective, 
those at the two Termini being the best. 

The Population of the island according to the last census of 31st 
Dec, 1871, amounts to 2,584,099, or on an average 226 souls per Engl. sq. M. 

Education. In 1864, out of 1000 inhab. about 88 only could read and 
write, 10 could read and write imperfectly, and 902 were totally uneducated. 
National schools have been established everywhere under the new regime, 
and the towns now possess commercial (scuola tecnica) and grammar schools, 
but down to 1872 there suits attained were somewhat disappointing. Palermo, 
Catania, and Messina even boast of universities, but the two latter are very 
insignificant. Public libraries (in addition to those of the universities) are 
established at Palermo (two), Trapani, and Syracuse. The institution and 
endowment of national libraries has been begun in several other places, 
e. g. at Termini. Monastic libraries of considerable extent are to be 
found at Catania (S. Niecold), San Martino near Palermo, and Messina 
(Salvatore dei Greci). ^Palermo, Syracuse, Catania, and Messina possess 

Districts. The island was formerly divided into three districts, dating 
from the Saracen period to the beginning of the present century : Val 
( Welaia) di Demone, the N. E. portion ; Val di Noto, the S. E. ; ' Val di 
Mazzara, the S.W. Since 1817 it has been divided into seven prefectures: 
1. Palermo, with 617,678 inhab.; 2. Trapani, with 236,388; 3. Girgenti, 
with 289,018; 4. Caltanisetta, with 230,066; 5. Catania, with 495,410; 
0. Siracusa, with 294,885; 7. Messina, with 420,649 inhab. 

Towns. The principal towns (statements of population exclusive of 
adjoining villages) are: Palermo with 186,145 inhab., Messina 70,307, Ca- 
tania 83,496 Modica 27,449, Trapani 26,334, Termini 25,780, Acireale 24,151, 
and Caltagirone 22,015. Of the 123 towns in the kingdom of Italy which 
contain above 10,000 inhab. upwards of one-quarter belong to Sicily. This 
is explained by the fact, that owing to the constant wars of the middle 
ages, the predatory incursions of barbarians, and the insecure state of the 
country, it was unsafe for the peasantry to live in villages, and this class 
has therefore mainly contributed to swell the population of the towns. The 
island possesses a number of good harbours on the E. coast, especially 

Historical Notice, SICILY. 2 1 3 

those of Messina, Agosta, and Syracuse. The harbour of Catania is unsafe. 
On the S. coast the vessels in the sulphur-trade lie in the roads of Terra- 
nova, Licata, and Girgcnti. The harbour of Marsala is shallow, that of 
Trapani is better. The new harbour at Palermo has been formed by the 
construction of the molo. That of Milazzo is excellent. 

Historical Notice. 

1. Political History. 

First Peiuod. According to the traditions of ancient Greek mariners, 
Sicily was once inhabited by Cyclopes, Gigantes, Lotophagi, Lpestry- 
gones, etc., whom Sicilian historians have endeavoured to classify into 
iron-workers, farmers, and gardeners. The most ancient people who in- 
habited Sicily appear to have been the Ely mi, who occupied Egesta ( Segesta), 
Eryx (Monte ftan Giuliano) with the harbour of D repanitm ( Trapani) , and 
Entella. They were anciently supposed to be descended from the Trojans, 
and probahly belonged to the great Ligurian race, which once occupied the 
greater part of Italy. They were supplanted by a second band of immi- 
grants, and compelled by the tiicani to confine themselves to the limited 
district on the Eryx. The latter are believed by Humboldt to have been 
of Basque, by others of Celtic origin. It is more probable, however, that 
they belonged to an Italian race. They, too, in their turn, were driven 
towards the W., where they still existed within the limits of the historical 
period, e. g. at Hykkara (Carini). The deserted territory of the Sicani on 
the E. coast of the island was then taken possession of by the Sikeli 
{Siculi = reapers), a Latin tribe which immigrated from the mainland at 
a pre-historical period. Their principal towns were: Iladranvm (Adernb), 
Hijbla Minor ( Pater no) , Centuripae (Centorbi), Agyriitm ( S. Filippo oVArgirb), 
As&orus (Assaro), Herbita (Nicosia), Morgan tia ( Mandribianchi ) y Palica 
(Patagonia)., Menaenum (Minco), Kep haloed inm (Ce/alit), Kalakte (Ca~ 
ronia) y etc. With these Siculi the Greeks afterwards came into collision, 
when they began to found their colonies on the E. coast of the- island. 
At an earlier period indeed Phoenicians had founded settlements on the 
promontories and adjacent islets, and disseminated the tenets of their reli- 
gion ; but the Greeks were the first who demeaned themselves as conquer- 
ors and occupiers of the soil, after Theories from Athens with a band of 
emigrants from Chalcis in Eubcea had, B. C. 735, founded Aaxos at the 
mouth of the Cantara and erected an altar to Apollo Archcgetes. During 
the following year Dorians from Corinth under Archias founded Syracuse, 
and four years later (730) Theocles laid the foundations of Leonlinoi and 
Catana, after (in 732) Zanele- Messana had been peopled by immigrants from 
Cyme and Chalcis. In 72K Megara Hyblaea on the bay of Agosta was 
founded by immigrants from Lamis, in 690 Gela ( Tcrranova) by Rhodians 
and Cretans, in 664 Acrae ( Palazzolo) and Em/a by Syracuse, in 648 Himera 
by Zancle, and jSelintts by Megara llybla?a. in 5'J'J Vamarina near Yittoria 
by Syracuse, in 582 Acragas (Girgcnti) by Gela. These dates show how 
rapidly the Hellenic power spread over Sicily, and how incapable the 
Sikeli, separated as they were into different tribes, must have been of 
offering effectual resistance. They now became tributaries of the Greeks, and 
were compelled as serfs to cultivate the land, whilst the Greek nobility, 
the proprietors of the soil, ruled in the cities. But about the middle of the 
6th cent, the Hellenisation of Sicily, as well as of the entire "W. basin of the 
Mediterranean, experienced a check in consequence of the clo.^e alliance 
into which the Italians had entered with Carthage. The Greek colonies 
were at the flume time weakened by internal political dissension. About the 
year 500 we find tyrants ruling over most of the cities, of whom Gelon of 
Syracuse and Theron of Acragas, united by ties of family and interest, rescued 
the Greek sway frmn the perils which threatened it, when, contemporane- 
ously with the 2nd Persian war, the Carthaginians waged war against the 
Greeks of the western sea. The battle of Himera did not save Himera 

214 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

alone. The short but brilliant golden age of Hellenic Sicily now began, 
sullied only by the destruction of the Chalcidian towns of the E. coast 
by Gelon and Hiero. The greater number of the temples, aqueducts, etc. 
at Syracuse, Girgenti, Selinunto, Himera (Bonfornello), etc., the ruins of 
which excite such admiration at the present day, arose between 480 and 
450. But internal municipal struggles, fomented by the democratic parties 
of the different cities, and the renewed antagonism of the Doric and Ionic- 
Achsean elements paved the way for a catastrophe, to which the great 
Athenian campaign against Syracuse in 413 contributed. Previously to 
this the Greeks had had a formidable enemy to subdue in Ducelius of 
Nctum (Noto), who united the towns of the Sikeli in a confederacy against 
the Greeks (461 — 440), but this league was compelled to succumb to the 
united forces of Syracuse and Acragas. What the Sicilians had failed in 
effecting was now attempted with more success by the great power of 
Africa. After the battle of Himera the Africans had been confined to the 
possession of Panormns ( PaUr)no), Solocis ( Solanto), and Motf/e (hola di 
S. Pantaleo), but they now overran the whole island with a numerous 
army. Selinus and Himera were destroyed by them in 409, Acragas taken 
in 406, Gela and Camarina conquered and rendered tributary to Carthage 
in 405, Messana razed to the ground in 396. These events were instru- 
mental in causing the rise of Dionysius I. in Syracuse, who extended and 
fortified the town, and after a war of varied success finally drove back the 
Carthaginians in 382 to the Halycus (Platani). Till 365 Dionysius was 
master of the destinies of Syracuse, and with it of Sicily. On his death 
dissensions began anew. Dionysius II. was inferior to his father, and Dion 
able as a philosopher only. Timoleon, however, succeeded in 344 — 336 in 
restoring some degree of order, defeated the Carthaginians in 340 on the 
Crimissus (Fiume Freddo), and restricted their territory to the W. of the 
Halycus. But even his brilliant example availed little to arrest the increasing 
degeneracy of the people. In 317 — 289 Agathocles tisurped the sovereignty of 
Syracuse, and in 310 the Carthaginians besieged the city, although unsuc- 
cessfully. Pyrrlvis too, who had wrested the whole island as far as Lily- 
bseum from the Carthaginians, soon quitted it again for Italy (,278 — 276), 
dissatisfied with the prevailing anarchy and disunion. In 274 Hiero II. 
usurped the tyranny of Syracuse. His siege of Messana, of which Cam- 
panian mercenaries, or Mamertines , had treacherously taken possession, 
compelled the latter to sue for Roman aid. Thus it was that the Romans 
obtained a footing in the island, and the struggle between thein and the 
Carthaginians, who had supported Hiero, now began. The chequered 
contest for the sovereignty of Sicily lasted from 2G4 to 241. Hiero, who 
iu 263 had become an ally of Rome, was now invested with the partial 
sovereignty of the island, which was divided between Rome and Syracuse 
after the final expulsion of the Carthaginians. After the death of Hiero II. 
his successov Ilieronymus espoused the cause of Hannibal, in consequence 
of which Syracuse was besieged by Mnreellus in 214 — 212, taken, and sacked. 
In 210, after the conquest of Agrigentum, the island became the first 
Roman province and was divided into two districts or qutestura', Lilybelana 
(with the capital Lilybreum, now Marsala) and ftyraaisana. 

Skoond Period. At first the Romans endeavoured to improve the agri- 
culture of the island which had suffered seriously during the protracted wars, 
with a view to render Sicily a more profitable province. The system of 
cultivation borrowed from the Carthaginians was indeed successfully em- 
ployed in rendering Sieilv the granary of Italv, but at the same time it 
proved the occasion of the Servile Wars (135—132 and 103— KKI), which 
devastated the island to a greater extent than the Punic wars. Under the. 
Roman governors the ancient prosperity of Sicily steadily declined. The 
notorious Verres despoiled the island of its most costly treasures of art in 
73 — 70. The civil war between Serlvs Pompeiirs and OcLavianus, especially 
that of 42—36, also accelerated its ruin, so that Augustus was obliged in 
a great measure to repcople the island and re-erect the towns. But its 
prosperity was irrevocably gone. With regard to the dissemination of 
Christianity in Sicily numerous traditions are current, and are preserved in 

Historical Notice. SICILY. 21 5 

the different martyrologies. It is recorded (Acts xxviii , 12) that St. Paul 
landed at Syracuse on his journey to Rome and spent three days there, but 
the ultimate establishment of Christianity appears to have emanated from 
Rome, and to have been the occasion subsequently of several martyrdoms. 
Numerous Christian martyrs suffered at Lentini, notwithstanding which, 
the new religion spread rapidly over the island about the middle of the 
3rd cent., so that the Neoplatonie Porphyrias, who spent a considerable 
time in Sicily, and his pupil Probus of Lilybtvum wrote their refutations 
in vain. Constantine, however, was the first who formally sanctioned 
Christianity in the island. As lately as the 6th cent, heathens still existed 
here, and the Paulicians found adherents at a still later date. It is now, 
however, the boast of the Sicilians that their island has never pro- 
duced a prominent heretic, and in 1S60 the minister of ecclesiastical affairs 
expressed himself in praise of the unity of the Sicilians in matters of religion. 
The Spanish inquisition found but few victims here. The Sicilian of the 
present day is, however, far from being intolerant, while the majority of 
the educated classes exhibit considerable indifference with regard to these 

After another servile war had devastated the country (A. D. 259), 
Syracuse began, in 27S, to suffer from the incursions of barbarian hordes, 
when it was plundered by a mere handful of wandering Franks. In 
II. C. 27 Sicily had become the first of the ten senatorial provinces, accord- 
ing to Augustus 1 distribution of the empire, then a province of the diocese 
of Italy, according to the arrangement of Diocletian, but in 395 it was 
separated from the AV. and attached to the E. empire, whereby it escaped 
the fate of neither. In 440 Geiserich besieged Palermo and conquered 
Lilybseum (Marsala), and the Ostrogoths took possession of the island, 
whence they were again expelled by Beli savins (535). Pope Gregory I. 
manifested a zealous interest in promoting the civilisation of the island. 
Constans If. even transferred the seat of the E. empire to Syracuse in 663, 
but he was murdered there in 66S, and the city was plundered by the 
Arabs the following year. 

Thiiid Period. In S27 the Saracens, under Ased-ibn-Forrdt^ on the in- 
vitation of the governor Euphemius, landed near Mazzara. Three years later 
Palermo fell into their hands, and that city now became the capital, and 
swayed the destinies of the island. The Saracens, conquering one city after 
another, overran the whole island, and in 878 Syracuse was taken by Ibrahim- 
ibti-Ahmed. Although the Christians could now maintain themselves in the 
N. E. angle of the island only, and even there were deprived of Taormina 
in 901, and finally of Ramctta in 965, yet the establishment of a lasting 
peace was rendered impossible by their unalterable antagonism to their Ara- 
bian and barbarian conquerors, which continually led to sanguinary con- 
flicts. To these evils were added the changes of dynasty. At first the 
Aghlabites of Kairvan ruled. Then Sicily became an independent emirate 
under the Fatimide Sovereigns of Egypt. The latter half of the 10th cent. 
was the most prosperous period of Sicily under the Mohammedan sway. 
But the sanguinary struggles of the Sunnites and Shyites in Africa, where 
the Zirites had usurped the supremacy, were soon transplanted hither, and 
the insurrection of several cities accelerated the downfall of the Arabian 
dynasty. In spite of these unfavourable circumstances, the prosperity of 
the island had during this period considerably increased, and agriculture, 
industry, and commerce had progressed so greatly that the Norman con- 
querors found the island a most valuable acquisition. 

About the middle of the 11th cent. Robert and Roger de HautevUle, 
sons of Tancred of Hauteville in Normandy, went to Italy on the in- 
vitation of their elder brothers, who had declared themselves Counts 
of Apulia. Robert, .subsequently surnamed Gniscard, i. c. the Shrewd', 
compelled the pope to invest him with the Duchy of Apulia, and then, 
after Ibn-Thimna of Syracuse had already invoked his aid, proceeded 
from Mileto with his brother Roger to conquer Sicily in 1061. The 
first expedition did not immediately produce the desired result. Put 
ten years later they returned, and by 1090 the entire island was sub- 
dued. The line of Robert Gniscard having Income extinct in 1127, 

216 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

the second son of Roger (Rugrjiero) united the whole of the Norman con- 
quests under his sceptre, and caused himself to he crowned as king at 
Palermo in 1130. During his reign Sicily prospered, and its fleets con- 
quered the Arabs and the Greeks, from whom they wrested a portion 
of ancient Greece (Romania). He was succeeded by his second son William 
(1154 — 1166), surnamed by the monkish and feudal chroniclers Hhe Bad\ 
who was followed by his son William II. '■the Good' (d. 1189). After the 
death of the latter a contest as to the succession arose. William II. had 
given bis aunt Constance, daughter of Roger, to Henry VI. , son of Frederick 
Barbarossa in marriage, and that monarch now laid claim to the crown. 
The Sicilians, however, declared themselves in favour of Tancred, a natural 
son of Roger. On his death shortly afterwards he was succeeded by his 
son William III., whom Henry VI. had less difficulty in subduing (1194). 
Henry did not long enjoy his conquest, and died at Messina in 1197. He 
was succeeded by the Emperor Frederick II., as Frederick I. of Sicily, 
whose exertions in behalf of Sicily have been so highly extolled by posterity. 
In 1250 — 54 his second son Conrad occupied the throne; then Manfred 
until the battle of Benevento in 1266 ; and in 1268 Charles of Anjou caused 
the last scion of the Germanic imperial house to be executed (see p. 45). 
Fouuth Period. Charles of Anjou and Provence maintained his su- 
premacy in Sicily, with which he had been invested by Pope Clement IV., 
for but. a brief period. The massacre of the Sicilian Vespers (1282) was an 
expiation of the death of Conradin. Messina defended itself heroically 
against the attacks of Charles ; and Peter of Arragon, son-in-law of Manfred, 
became master of the island. But its decline dates from this period. It 
was repeatedly devastated by the interminable wars with the Anjous of 
Naples, and the nobility attained to such power as to render systematic 
administration on the part of the government impossible. In 1410, when 
Sicily became an appanage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain, it still 
retained a semblance of independence in its continued freedom of internal 
administration. But this very privilege proved prejudicial to it, whilst its 
external defence against the barbarians was neglected. In 1812 Sicily was 
at length rescued from the condition of a purely mediteval feudal state, but 
only to experience once more (1815 — 1860) the evils of a despotic govern- 
ment. The following is a chronological sketch of the history of this period 
of six centuries : 

a. 1282—1285. Peter of Arragon, King of Sicily. 
.1285—1296. James the Just. 

1296—1337. Frederick II. 

1337—1342. Peter II., co-regent- from 1321. 

1342—1355. Louis. 

1355—1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis. 

1377—1402. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 1485 to Martin 

of Arragon. 
1402 — 1409. Martin I. sole monarch of Sicily, married to Bianca of 

1409—1410. Martin II., father of Martin I. 
1410—1412. Interregnum. 

b. 1412—1416. Ferdinand the Jusl. King of Arragon and Castille. 
1416—1458. Alphonso the Generous, King of Arragon and after 1442 King 

of Naples. 
1458 — 1479. John of Arragon and Navarre. 

1479—1515. Ferdinand II. the Catholic, after 1505 also King of Naples. 
1515—1554. Emp. Charles V. 
1554—1598. Philip II. 
1598—1621. Philip III. 

1621 — 1665. Philip IV.; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, Giuseppe Alessi. 
1665-1700. Charles II.; 1672—1678, Messina revolted in favour of 

Louis XIV. of France. 
1700—1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 King of Spain. 
1713—1720. Victor Amadeus of Savoy. 
1720—1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germany. 

History of Art. SICILY. 217 

c. 1734—1759. Charles III. of Bourbon. 

1759 — 1806. Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily, married to Caro- 
line, the profligate daughter of Maria Theresa, was com- 
pelled in 1798 to fly from Naples to Sicily before the French 
under, and again in 1806. 

d. 1806 — 1815. Ferdinand IV. sole King of Sicily. Through the influence 

of William Bentinck the constitution of Sicily was estab- 
lished and a parliament summoned (1812). 

1815—1825. Ferdinand IV. reigned as Ferdinand I., 'King of the two 
Sicilies'. The constitution subverted. 1820, Revolution at 
Palermo and throughout the island for the restoration of 
the constitution. 

1825—1830. Francis 1. 

1830—1859. Ferdinand 11.; 1837, cholera-revolution? 1848—1849, Sicily 
ruled by a temporary government, parliament at Palermo ? 
bombardment of Messina. 

1859-1860. Francis II. 

Fifth Period: 

I860 — Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy : 11th May, Garibaldi landed 

at Marsala? 15th May, battle of Calatafimi ? 27th May, cap- 
ture of Palermo? 20th July, Battle of Milazzo. — Since 
September, 1860, Sicily has been incorporated with the 
Kingdom of Italy, and, notwithstanding the still prevailing 
brigandism and the insurrection of 1866 at Palermo, bids 
fair to become more prosperous than at any period of its 
past history. 

2. History of Civilisation and Art. 

Almost every one of the numerous nations which in the course of 
centuries have inhabited or governed Sicily has left behind it some trace 
of its individual capacity for art, modified, however, to some extent by 
the characteristics peculiar to the island, and therefore in most cases bear- 
ing a Sicilian stamp. Cicero has observed that the Sicilian is never so 
miserable as to be unable to utter a bon-mot, and a similar remark might 
be made at the present day. The Sicilians of all ages have displayed 
marked, though not brilliant abilities. Their wit, flow of conversation, and 
power of repartee were universally known to the ancients. It was not, 
therefore, the result of mere chance that Greek comedy attained its earliest 
development here, and that bucolic poetry originated in Sicily, where to 
this day the natives delight in rural life. Sicily has in all ages produced 
admirable speakers, although rather sophists and phraseologists than great 
orators. In the study of the history of their island the natives have ever 
manifested the utmost zeal, and for the concrete sciences as far as they are 
connected with practical life, such as mechanics and medicine, they possess 
considerable ability. In the manufacture of objects of an artistic character 
(in opposition to pure works of art), as in architecture, the art of engraving, 
the composition of mosaics, etc., the Sicilians have from a very early 
period distinguished themselves. 

The monuments of Sikelian culture of the pre-Hellenic period still 
preserved in Sicily merit a more minute investigation than has hitherto 
fallen to their share. Of these the most important are: the Subterranean 
Cities with which the S. E. angle of the island is replete, the so-called 
Didieri of Val cTIspica, Palazzolo, Pantelica, etc., the Tombs of Phoenician (?) 
immigrants at Palazzolo with remarkable reliefs, the Phoenician Burial- 
vaults near Solanto, which may be regarded as catacombs in their infancy, 
the Polygonal Structures at Cefalii, and the colossal ruins on Monte Artesitw. 

The Metopae of Selinus, mementoes of the most ancient style, form the 
transition to the Hellenic sculpture. Some of the most magnificent 
Greek temples still extant have been erected in Sicily : Temple of Zetts at 
Selinus 376 ft. long, 177 ft. broad? Temple of Zeus at Girgenti 356 ft. long, 

218 SICILY. History of Art. 

174 broad (Parthenon at Athens 229 ft. 1., 101 ft. br. ; Temple of Zeus at 
Olvmpia 233 ft. ]., 97 ft. br. ; Temple of Apollo at Phigalia 195 ft. 1., 75 ft. 
br.'; Temple of Diana at Ephesus 388 ft. 1., 187 ft. br.). The Ruined Tem- 
ples at Girgenti, Segesta, Selinunto, Syracuse, and Himera are nowhere 
surpassed. The Theatres of. Syracuse, Taormina, Segesta, Tyndaris, Pa- 
lazzolo, and Catania have indeed been somewhat modified by additions 
during the Roman period, but the Greek origin of their foundations and 
arrangements may easily be recognised. The fortifications of the Epipolae 
uf Syracuse are the best existing specimens of Greek structures of the kind. 
In the province of Sculpture comparatively few Greek works have come down 
to us. Among these may be mentioned the more recent metopse of Selinus 
in the museum at Palermo, and a few relics preserved at Syracuse. Of Bron- 
zes, in the casting of which Perilaos of Agrigentum and Pythagoras of Len- 
tini excelled, scarcely a single specimen has survived. On the other hand 
a copious collection of the finest ancient Coins in the world has come down 
to us. Beautiful Vases are likewise found in almost every part of the 
island. The climax of the prosperity of the Sicilian Greeks was contem- 
poraneous with that of their mother-country. This is not proved by their 
architecture alone. About the year 550, Stesichorus of Himera perfected 
the Greek chorus by the addition of the epode to the strophe and 
antistvophe. JEsrhylvs resided long in Sicily, where he died (456), and 
was interred at Gela. Pindar, Sappho, and Alcaeus also enjoyed the hos- 
pitality of Sicily, and sang the praises of the victories of her sons at 
Olympia. Simonides composed appropriate lines for the gift dedicated to 
the gods by Gelon after the battle of Himera in 480. Phormis, an officer 
of Gelon at Syracuse, who invented moveable scenes, Epicharmus in 480, 
Sophron in 460, and Xenarchus in 460 distinguished themselves in the com- 
position of comedies. Nothing is more characteristic of the Sicilian enthu- 
siasm for art than the story that the Syracusans once set at liberty several 
Athenian prisoners, who were languishing in the latomise (or quarries in 
which captives were condemned to labour), because they knew how to recite 
the verses of Euripides with pathos. Even during the period of decline 
the national poetical bias was still pre-eminent, and gave birth to a new 
description of poetry, the idyls, in which their inventor Theocritus of 
Syracuse was unsurpassed, and which even in modern times have found 
numerous admirers. 

The Sicilians have never manifested much capacity for philosophical 
research, although not entirely without taste for studies of this nature. 
Pythagoras found followers here. Xenophanes of Elea died in Syracuse 
at an advanced age. Plato thrice visited Syracuse. But the most illustri- 
ous Sicilian thinker was Empedocles of Acragas, distinguished as a natural 
philosopher, and also as a practical statesman, physician, architect, and 
orator. The names of a number of eminent physicians are recorded : 
Pausanias, Acron, Herodicus, and Menecrales, and the famous Celsus was 
also a Sicilian, born at Centuripse. Distinguished historians were : An- 
liochvs, Philistus of Syracuse, Timaeus of Taormina, Dicaearchus of jMessana, 
and the learned Diodorus (Sieulus) of Agyrium, who wrote his celebrated 
Kibliotheea Historica in the reign of Augustus. The most brilliant of the 
numerous orators were Corax and Thisias, teacher of Isocrates, Gorgias, 
and Lysias (Gorgias, the celebrated Greek sophist and orator, was a native 
of Leontinoi, and Lysias was the son of a Syracusan). Among the ma- 
thematicians and mechanicians Archimedes was the most distinguished. 
Xicetas of Syracuse was one of the first who taught that the earth moved 
and the sun remained stationary. Of theoretical musicians Aristoxenus of 
Selinus deserves mention. 

The Roman-Byzantine supremacy gave the death-blow to the intellec- 
tual activity of the Sicilians. The soldier who slew Archimedes may be 
regarded as symbolical of this epoch. No architectural remains, save a few 
amphitheatres, theatres, and aqueducts, date from this period. The rapacity 
of Verres and other governors despoiled the island of countless treasures 
of art. New works were not undertaken. The Christians possessed no 
churches, hut employed the catacombs for sacred purposes. A single Byzan- 

History of Art. SICILY. 219 

tine church of small dimensions near Malvagna alone remains from this 
period. A proof of the abject condition to which Sicily had sunk is the 
circumstance that down to a late period of the Mussulman supremacy not 
a single author of eminence arose, although crowds of monks and priests 
resided in the island. Theophanes Cerameus (842) and Petrus Siculvs, the 
historian of the Manichseans, alone deserve mention. The wandering San 
Simeon of Syracuse died at Treves. 

The Mohammedans were the first to infuse new life into the island. 
They not only enriched the architectural art with new forms of con- 
struction, as mentioned below, but they also inaugurated a new era in 
history and geography, and under King Euggiero the first mediaeval 
geographer Edrisi completed his great work (Nushat-ul-Muschtak). Among 
the Mohammedan Kasides (poets) Ibn-Hamdis was the most distinguished. 
Art developed itself to a still greater extent under the Norman rule, and 
the princes and great men of that race have perpetuated their names by 
the erection of numerous cathedrals. The importance they attached to 
learning is proved by the fact that they were in the habit of sum- 
moning the most learned men of the East (e. g. Petrus Blesensis) to in- 
struct their young princes. Whilst the Arabs deserve commendation for 
the introduction of the most valuable commercial products (grain, cotton, 
sumach , etc.) which the island possesses , the Norman princes established 
the manufacture of silk ; and a school for the arts of weaving and 
the composition of mosaic was maintained in the royal palace. The bril- 
liant reign of Frederick II., his legislative merits, and his zealous promotion 
of every art and science are well known. At his court at Palermo the 
Italian language developed itself so as to become a written language, and 
his counsellors, his sons, and even he himself made the first attempts at 
Italian poetry. Of Frederick II., Manfred, Enzivs, Ciullo of Alcamo, Peter 
de Vineis, Guido delle Colonne, Stefano, Mazeo da Riccho of Messina, Rai- 
nieri of Palermo, Arrigo Testa of Lentini, etc. poems are still preserved 
to us. But this golden age was of brief duration. Amid the vicissitudes 
of subsequent centuries all intellectual superiority became extinct. Even 
the chroniclers manifest distinct traces of this degeneracy. Whilst well 
written and interesting chronicles of Sicily were composed in the 13th 
century (lingo Falcando, Neocasiro, etc.), those of a later period are almost 
unreadable. The revival of classical studies, however, at length roused 
literature from its inert condition. At the close of the 15th cent. 
Messina distinguished itself by its promotion of Greek studies. Here Con- 
stanline Lascaris taught, and Bessarion was archimandrite. The following 
century produced the learned and indefatigable Thomas Fazello of Sciacca 
(d. 1570), the originator of Sicilian history and topography. His work 
was completed by the historian Maurolycus of Messina. 

The enlightened absolutism of the Bourbons during the last century 
tended to promote the progress of science in Sicily, although the attention 
of scholars was principally directed to archaeological research relating to 
the history of the island. The wealthier of the nobility formed collections 
of antiquities and wrote descriptions of them (Biscari, Torremuzza, Astuto, 
Jndica, Airoldi, Gaetani, etc.). The clergy collected materials for the history 
of Sicily, and others composed detailed monographs on the subject. The 
superficial 'polyhistor' Mongitore had been preceded by the eminent Antonino 
da Arnica, Rocco Pirro, Agostino Inveges, and Giovanni Battista Caruso, and, 
whilst still engaged in study, died suddenly in 1743, at the advanced age 
of 80. Di Giovanni, Francesco Testa, Rosario Gregorio, and the brothers Gio- 
vanni Evangelista and Salvatoro di Blasi, form a series of historians of the 
last century who would have done credit to any nation. The art of 
poetry also revived, and found its most talented representative in the poet 
of nature, Giovanni Meli of Palermo (d. 1815). His anacreontic songs in 
the national dialect were universally popular even before they appeared 
in a printed form. Among the most distinguished scientific men of the 
present century may be mentioned Domenico Srina, the naturalist and his- 
torian of literature, the astronomer Piut'.i (horn, however, in the Val Tel- 
lina in N. Italy), the brothers llemelluro, the patriotic historian Giuseppe 

220 SICILY. History of Art. 

Lafarina, etc., whilst at the present day the island boasts of many living 

Aiichitkctube. The mediaeval architecture of Sicily, and particularly 
that of Palermo, hears the impress of the political destinies of the country 
in a very striking degree, showing the change from the Byzantine to the 
Arabian domination, and from the latter to the supremacy of the Nor- 
mans. The style is accordingly of a very mixed character , which strict 
connoisseurs will not fail to censure, but it possesses great attractions for 
the less scientific lover of art. The leading element is the Arabian. 
After the overthrow of the Arabian supremacy the more refined culture 
of that race left its traces on the island , and the Norman princes found 
it desirable to avail themselves of its services in the [administration of 
the country and particularly in the province of art. The' Arabian culture, 
however, was in its turn considerably swayed by Byzantine influences, 
and it is therefore not surprising that these again should be reflected in 
the Sicilian architecture of the 12th century. The ground-plan of many 
of the churches of Palermo is traceable to Byzantine originals, viz. a 
square space enclosed by four pillars and covered with a dome. It is 
uncertain whether this form was introduced direct from Byzantium after 
the final triumph of Christian culture, or whether the Arabs had already 
employed it in the construction of their numerous little oratories (of 
which Ibn Hankal, an Arabian traveller of the 10th cent., says that there 
were hundreds at Palermo alone), and handed it down to their Norman 
successors. The latter alternative, however, is the more probable. While 
the plan of many churches, such as Martorana, Cataldo , and S. Antonio 
at Palermo is Byzantine, and that of others, like Monreale, 8. Spirito, 
and several abbey-churches at Palermo , and the cathedral at Cefalix is 
Romanesque, the universally prevalent pointed arch is of Arabian origin, 
and quite distinct from the Gothic form. The Arabs brought it from 
Egypt and used it in all their buildings, and they also derived thence 
the custom of adorning their flat ceilings with pendentives, resembling 
stalactites , and their friezes with inscriptions. While the ecclesiastical 
architecture of Sicily was thus unable to resist the Arabian influence, 
that of her palaces still possesses a distinctly Arabian character, cor- 
responding with the Oriental complexion of the Norman court. Of the 
numerous palaces which are said to have encircled Palermo in the 12th 
cent., we now possess imperfect examples only in the Zisa and Cuba 
(and in the relics of the chateaux of Mimnermwm at Altarello di Baida 
and Favara at Mare Dolce), so that it requires a considerable effort 
of the imagination to picture their vaunted magnificence. Sicily pos- 
sesses no Gothic churches of any note (S. Francesco and S. Agostino 
at Palermo and the cathedral at Messina), but it is curious to observe 
how tenaciously her architects clung to Gothic and other mediaeval forms 
clown to a late period in the Renaissance epoch. Of the later mediaeval 
secular architecture we find many attractive examples, especially at Pa- 
lermo (comp. p. 234). 

Sculpture. In the plastic art, in so far as it rises above a merely 
decorative purpose, mediaeval Sicily attained little proficiency. The princi- 
pal works in bronze (the gates at Monreale) are not the work of native 
masters. Sculpturing in marble for decorative purposes, on the other 
hand, was extensively and successfully practised here at an early period. 
The capitals and a few shafts of columns in the monastery-court of 
Monreale are among the finest works of the kind in Italy. The early 
Sicilian Wood Carving, sometimes adorned with arabesques, which is still 
frequently met with (as at Martorana), is of remarkably fine execution. 
Another proof of the great skill of the Sicilian artificers is afforded by 
the Porphyry Sarcophagi of the Norman princes and German emperors in 
the cathedral at Palermo, and by the numerous Marble Incrustations and 
Marble Mosaics of the 12th century. The mural covering of the Cappella 
Palatina and Martorana, and the mosaic decorations of the monastery 
court of Monreale will bear favourable comparison with the finest works 
of the Roman sculptors in marble and the members of the Cosmas school. 

History of Art. SICILY. 221 

Mosaic painting was also highly developed in the 12th century. The 
mosaics in the cathedral at Cefalii and in the Cappellti Palatina, and 
those in the Marlorana and at Monreale, which have been preserved 
from decay by repeated restorations, are not all of uniform value, but 
even those which show less vigour of conception display the boldness 
of touch and finish of execution peculiar to able and experienced masters. 
As such artificers cannot possibly have sprung up under Arabian rule, 
we must assume that the earlier of the works to which we have referred 
were executed by Byzantine artists invited to Sicily from foreign coun- 
tries, and that these masters then transmitted their art to native succes- 
sors. At a later period , after the extinction of the Norman princes, 
Sicilian art fell far behind that of the mainland. Even during the Re- 
naissance period Sicily made no independent exertion, her cultivation of 
art being but a slow and hesitating adoption of that of Rome and Naples. 
The most famous name connected with Renaissance sculpture at Palermo 
is that of Oagini. For three generations the Gagini's were sculptors in 
marble. Antonio Gagini, born in 1480, is said to have studied the art 
under Michael Angelo at Rome, and to him and his sons are referred all 
the finest works in marble of the 16th cent, at Palermo. 

Painting. The history of this art in Sicily , although it has been 
the object of zealous local research, has not yet been placed on a satis- 
factory critical basis. Since the 14th cent.!, however, the island has 
produced several painters of considerable eminence. To the 14th cent, 
belongs Camulio, who manifestly sprang from the school of the mosaicists, 
and possesses no very marked individuality. In the 15th cent, flourished 
Antonio Crescenzio, whose frescoes in the Spedale Grande enjoyed great 
celebrity: but one of these is unfortunately destroyed, while slight 
vestiges only of the other are now extant. To Crescenzio may probably 
also be ascribed the mural designs in a lateral chapel of St. Maria di 
Gesu, which forcibly recal the Florentine compositions of the 15th century. 
His pupils Tommaso di Vigilia and Pietro Ruzulone are painters of medi- 
ocre rank. The most distinguished Sicilian painter of the 15th cent, 
was Antonello da Messina, but a single authentic work at his native town 
of S. Gregorio is the only trace of him now extant. This master must 
not be confounded with his less distinguished contemporary Antonello da 
Saliba, several pictures by whom are still preserved at Palermo. Of the 
artists of Palermo in the 16th cent, the most famous was Vincenzio 
Ainemolo, who is also known as Vincenzio Romano , and is said to have 
been a pupil of Polidoro Caldara. Most of the churches of Palermo 
boast of works by this master, who would therefore seem to have been 
very prolific; but as the works attributed to him are of very unequal 
merit, many of them are probably by an entirely different hand, while 
others are partly by his pupils. His labours extended down to the year 
1542. His finest works are the high altar-piece in the Martorana (Ascen- 
sion), the Descent from the Cross in the Museum, and a rich composition 
in a side chapel to the left in S. Domenico. To the 17th cent, belongs 
Pietro Novelli (1603 — 77), surnamed 'Monrealese', a master of considerable 
originality, and a follower of the Neapolitan school, to which he owes 
his vigorous colouring and his strongly individualised heads. Besides 
his works at Palermo, there are interesting works by this master in the 
staircase at Monreale (Miracles of St. Benedict) and in the church of S. 
Martino. Several of his monkish figures are among the finest works 
produced by the Italian naturalists. In the 18th cent. Palermo was an 
active follower of the degraded styles of the period, the proofs of which 
are too numerous to require special enumeration. 

Mrsic. In the history of music modern Sicily occupies a less promi- 
nent position than in the other arts. Bellini, however (b. at Catania 1802, 
d. near Paris 1835), is justly admired for the beauty and sweetness of his 

Literatl'hk. For the study of the history of the island and the 
Sicilian dialect, which is characterised by the frequent elision of conso- 
nants, transposition of letters, and incessant use of the half mute vowels o 

222 Route i'l. P0L1CASTR0. From Naples 

and «, the following works may be recommended: Giuseppe Biundi, 
Dizionario Siciliano- Italiano ; Palermo, 1857. Gius. Perez, Voeabolario 
Sicil. Italiano; Palermo, 1870. Lionardo Vigo, Canti popolari Siciliani; 
Catania , 1857. Useful for comparison , Conti e Eacconti del Popolo 
Italiano , Turin , 1870. Alessio Narbone, Bibliografia Sicola ; Palermo, 
1850; 4 vols. 8vo (a collection and description of all the works on Sicily 
to which the author hap obtained access ; invaluable to the student). Best 
compendium of the history of Sicily : Pietro San Filippo , Compendio 
della Storia di Sicilia ; Palermo, 1859; 7th edition. The best detailed work: 
Giovanni Evang. di Blasi, Storia del Regno di Sicilia; Palermo, 1844; 
3 thick 8vo vols. — Vito Amico , Dizionario topografico della Sicilia, 
tradotto da Gioacchino di Marzo ; Palermo, 1855 ; 2 vols. 8vo. — Among 
works of a special character may be mentioned : Serradifalco, Antichita 
di Sicilia, 5 vols. fol. ; H. G. Knight, Saracenic and Norman Remains in 
Sicily ; Hittorf et Zanth , Architecture modcrne de la Sicilc. — A magni- 
ficent work on the cathedral of Monreale was lately published at Pa- 
lermo (price 800 fr.). — Among others are those of M. Amaris on the 
Sicilian Vespers and the Mussulman supremacy , Isidoro La Lumias on 
the reign of Charles V. and the revolution of 1649 and 1860, Sartorius v. 
Waltershausen on 2Etn& (a magnificent work in German), Palmieri on 
the Constitution of 1812. 

21. From Naples to Sicily. 

A. To Messina. 

Steamers : departure, see p. 28 ; offices, p. 28. For the embarcation 
of each person with luggage 1 fr. (comp. Introd. VII). Direct passage in 
20—22 hrs., fares excl. food 38!| 2 or 22>| 2 fr. — It has already (p. 21) been 
observed that the Italian mail-steamers touch alternately at the principal 
places on the coast ; those to Messina stop at Paola (p. 223), Pizzo (p. 205), 
and Reggio (p. 206), which affords a pleasant variety, especially as the 
vessels generally skirt the coast; but the time occupied is about one-third 

On the direct passage, as on that to Palermo (p. 224), the vessels usu- 
ally pass on the W. side of Capri ; on the indirect, to the E. of Capri, 
between that island and the promontory of Sorrento, where an exquisite 
survey of the bays of Naples and Salerno is enjoyed. 

The steamboats generally weigh anchor in the evening, and 
steer at once towards the !■?. The islands of Ischia and Procida 
remain to the W. (see 'arrival in the bay', p. 22). In 2'/ 2 nrs -> 
after Castellamare and Sorrento are passed, the strait between 
Capri, with the rugged and precipitous Lo Capo (p. 145), and 
the Punta di Campanella (p. 160), is entered. Shortly afterwards 
a view of the Bay of Salerno is disclosed. As the sun sets and 
the vessel gradually stands out to sea, Mt. Vesuvius presents a 
most majestic appearance. During the night the promontories 
della Licosa and dello Spartivento and the Bay of Policastro are 
passed. The once powerful town of the latter name was taken 
by Robert Guiscard in 1055, destroyed by the Turks in 1542, 
and now contains 4000 inhab. only. 

On the following morning, about 8 a. m., Monte Pollino 
(7326 ft.) , which terminates the Neapolitan Apennines, is 
especially conspicuous, and adjoining it begin the Calabrian Mts. 
From this point to the 8. towards Paola a succession of fine 

to Sicily. PAOLA. 21 . Route. 223 

views is enjoyed. The coast is studded with numerous towns 
and villages, most of them situated on the heights, between 
which valleys descend to empty their brooks into the sea. 
About 9 a. m. Verbicaro is seen somewhat inland, then [9. 301 
Diamante, at the base of a lofty cliff. Farther on, Belvedere 
with 4027 inhab., charmingly situated on the slopes of the 
mountain. Then, after a small promontory is passed, in the 
bay to the S. lies Cetraro, the inhabitants (6051) of which gain 
their livelihood principally by the anchovy-fishery. About 10 a. m. 
Guardia, lying on a lofty mountain, with warm baths (1323 
inhab.); then the more important town of Fuscaldo, with 8935 
inhab. and the ruins of an old castle. 

(12 o'cl.) Faola (8606 inhab.), beautifully situated in a 
ravine and rising on the slope of the mountain ; extensive oil 
and wine trade. When the vessel stops here a scene of the 
utmost animation is witnessed, the inhabitants coming on board 
with all kinds of articles for sale. In summer ices of very poor 
quality are offered (4 soldi, though 6 — 8 are demanded at first). 

Paola, believed by some to be the Palycus of the Greeks, 
was the birthplace of Francesco di Paola, founder of the men- 
dicant order of Minorites. At the beginning of the present cen- 
tury this order possessed upwards of 450 monasteries, number- 
ing 25,000 friars , but most of these have since been sup- 

After a halt of about l'/o h f - the vessel proceeds on her course. 
On the coast are the villages of San Lucido (2 p. m.), Fiume- 
freddo, and Belmonte, at the back of which rises the conspicuous 
Monte Cocuzzo (1804 ft). Amantea next becomes visible, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Amantia of Bruttium. The town and 
fortress, erected on a lofty rock, were in 1806 garrisoned by 
royalists, who repelled the attacks of the French troops; but in 
the following year, after severe sufferings from famine, they 
were compelled to surrender. To the !■>. of Amantea the Savuto 
falls into the sea. The coast becomes flat and less richly culti- 
vated. (12. 4:>) Nocera; then past the Capo Suvero to the Golfo 
di Santa Eufemia, at the 8. extremity of which lies — 

(5. 45) Fizzo (p. 205), founded on a rock of sandstone (halt 
about l 1 /.) hr.). Projecting into the sea below the town are t'\e 
ruins of the ancient castle in which, 13th Oct., 1815, Joachim 
Murat, ex-king of Naples was shot, having been compelled to 
land here instead of at Salerno as he had intended. He was 
interred in the church of Pizzo. 

At the S. E. angle of the bay lies Monteleone, see p. 205. 

The steamboat rounds Capo Zambrone. (8 p. m.) Tropea, 
an ancient town (5332 inhab.) in a delightful situation, the 
climate of which is much extolled. To the S. the Capo Vaticano 
with its lighthouse projects far into the sea. In the bay lies 

224 Route 21 . GIOIA. 

Nicotera, which suffered greatly by the earthquake (p. 206) of 
1783, near the influx of the Mesima. [At Qioja (p. 205) the 
post-road from Naples to Reggio (R. 20) leads to the coast, which 
it skirts during the remainder of the route (comp. p. 205)]. 
Soon after the harbour of Pizzo is quitted the Lipari Islands 
(R. 33) become visible to the W. ; Stromboli, with its continually 
smoking crater, is the most conspicuous. Off Capo Vaticano the 
Sicilian mountains suddenly appear. 

Palmi, Bagnara, and Scilla, see p. 206. The Aspromonte 
range, with the Monte Alto (6476 ft.), does not present a very 
picturesque appearance from this side. The Strait of Messina, 
which is now entered, presents a picturesque and busy scene 
during the day time. The vessel first steers for Reggio (p. 206), 
and finally, about 4. 30 a. m., after a voyage of about 38 hrs., 
enters the harbour of Messina. Arrival and hotels, see R. 32. 
Those who arrive during the night had better remain on board 
till the morning, first inquiring of the captain the hour when 
the vessel again quits the harbour. 

B. To Palermo. 

The traveller whose destination is Palermo will probably prefer to 
avoid the above circuitous route by Paola, Pizzo, Reggio, and Messina, 
and to avail himself of the vessels of the Florio Co. (office at Naples, Str. 
Piliero 5) , which start for Palermo live times weekly , usually towards 
evening ; passage 16 — 20 hrs. , fare 38'/a or 2i'jt fr. ; embarcation 1 fr. fur 
each pers. with luggage (comp. Introd. VII.). Delightful view as the vessel 
approaches Sicily, which the traveller should rise at an early hour to 

Departure from the bay, see pp. 23, 222. After the vessel 
has passed Procida, Ischia, and Capri, the Ponza Islands (p. 15) 
become visible to the N. ; beautiful retrospect of the bay and 
Vesuvius. Early on the following morning (between 5 and 6 a. m.) 
the Lipari Islands (R. 32) are seen to the S. (1.); later the is- 
land of Usticu (p. 240) to the W., long remaining visible; then, 
about 10 a. m., the towering mountains of Sicily, to the r. 
Monte Pellegrino] 1958 ft.; p. 237), 1. Monte Catalfano (1233 ft.), 
guarding the entrance to the Bay of Palermo. Finally the widely 
extended city, with its amphitheatre of mountains which enclose 
the fruitful plain of 'La Conca d'Oro' (the golden shell). A little 
to the 1. of Monte Pellegrino rises the lofty Monte Cuccio 
(3445 ft.), then Monreale (p. 234); farther off, Monte Oriffone, 
and still more distant, to the extreme 1., Monte Catalfano with 
the promontories of (r.) Mongerbino and (1.) Zaffarana. 

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22. Palermo. 

Arrival. Travellers are conveyed to the Dogana (1 fr. for each pers.L 
where luggage is slightly examined. Thence to the town about I M. ; 
cab 1 fr., see below. 

Hotels. : Tkinackia (PI. a) ( M. Raguaa is an attentive landlord) in 
the Strada Butera, near the harbour, a comfortable bouse; II. facing the 
Marina on the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd floor 5, 4th 4, 5th J 1 , 1 .- fr. ; drawing-room 
6— 10 fr. 5 dejeuner a la fourehctte 2 l |a, colfee, etc. i 1 ^, D. ij, served in the. 
traveller's apartment 6 fr. ; A. 1, L. 1 fr. — Hotel ok Kkame (PI. b), by 
the Giardino Garibaldi, Piazza Marina (PL (.', o), charges a little lower 
than at the Trinacria, but enquiry recommended. Near the Giardino 
Inglese, outside the Porta Maetpieda, Piaz/.a Oliva 72, is the "Hutei, Oliva 
(kept by a brother-in-law of the landlord of the Trinacria), pension 
10 fr. — Hotel Piazza Marina 60, also near the Giardino Gari- 
baldi, R. 2— G, L. and A. 1, B. I 1 ,--*— 3. I>. 3'| 2 fr. — Less pretending: 
Albergo Ckxti:alk, in the Toledo, Xo. o.xk R. 2 — 3, coffee J fr. , dejeuner 
l'la — 2, 1>. 3'i-j, Pension G— 8 fr. ; Aluekgo di Sicilia, Via Pizzuto, com 
monly called L i\ Pizzuto 1 , near the Piazza Pomcnieo •- Aujeugo in Lonoka, 
near the Chiesa del Molo and the brewery. — Furnished apartments are 
lust procured with the aid of a respectable inhabitant of the place. 

Trattorie. 'Villa di Roma, to the r. in the Toledo, before the (^uattro 
(.'antoni is reached; '~' ('"/<■ Oreto, at the corner of the Piazza Marina and 
the Toledo. Best ices at the cafe of the Tea fro Bellini, in the Piazza della 
Martoi'ana. — Beer at the fiirntrin, Vieolo della Madonna del t'assaro (in 
I In- Politecniio, back court, in the corner to the r.). — The Casino Xitoro. 
or new club, in the Palazzo (U'rare in the Toledo, contains handsome 
apartments, worthy of a visit; strangers may easily obtain an introduction 
for a fortnight; for a longer period they should apply for a card of admis- 
sion (10 fr. per month). 

Carriages (fares fixed by tariff). One-horse carr. for 1 — 4 pers. per 
drive within the city 50 c. ; in the suburb , inch the harbour and railwav- 
station, 1 fr. ; for one box 20, two 30 c. For 1 hr. 1 fr. 80, each conse- 
cutive In*. 1 fr. GO c. From midnight to early morning all these charges 
are raised by one-half. Fwo-horse carr. per drive within the city SU c, 
in the suburbs l 1 ^ fr., for the first hour 2 fr. 20 c., for each additional 
hour 2 fr. Driving in the town is prohibited on Good Friday. Longer 
drives according to bargain. To Monreale usually 10 fr. for a carr. with 
two horses, returning via La Zisa, Olivuzza, etc. ; one-horse 6 fr. — Donkett 
to 8. Martitio, returning by Boicadifalco and Monreale, 2'f'j fr. ; to Monte 
Pellegrino 2 fr. ; if the donkey be sent for at the hotel the attendant 
demands 2 fr. in addition. — Valet de place 5 fr. per day. 

Baths. Via Rosolino Pilo 37 (PL E, 4), outside the Porta Macqueda, 
cold or warm bath So c, Russian bath for 1 — 2 pers. o 1'r. — S*-a ihitlts 
near Aequa Santa (PL I, T). Swimmers will probably prefer to bathe early 
in the morning from a boat, which they may hire Oja fr.) at the Sanita. 
outside the Porta Felice. 

Post Office (PL 88) adjoining the Martorana (S. Maria dell 1 Ammira- 
glio). Letters are conveyed to and from the mainland four times weekly. 
The poste-restante office for strangers is a separate department. The di- 
ligences to the interior start hence. The Periodica (or omnibus, not re- 
commended) starts from the Palazzo Sambuceo, near the Convento della 
Gangia, Str. Alloro. 

Steamboats. Florio (Jo. (Corso Vitt. Emanuele, at the corner of the 
Piazza Marina) to Naples live times weekly ; to Leghorn and Genoa 
every Friday in 83 hrs. ; on Tuesdays a vessel of the l\f<'*sa'jm'<-s Marifitm-s, 
(Piazza Marina, S2) dire't to Marseilles in 50 hrs. -- Steamers of the 
Florio Cn. also ply to Messina. 

Shops. Pho|d'j,raph^ maps, books:, (Jorso Vitt. Emanuele 383. 
— Lo Forte, Via di Bosco 23. Pal. Belvedere, sells photographs of tin- 
Bakukkku. Italy III. oth Edition. 15 

226 Route •-'-> . PAUCUMO. Town dates. 

principal objects in ( lie Museum. — Italian books: Fralelli Pedone La Uriel, 
on the r. in the Toledo.— Old books: Giov. Fiorenta. in the Toledo. 

Teacher of Languages, 31. Stampfli, Via Calatafimi 84. 

Bankers. Messrs. Kuyter A' Kressner, Palazzo Fitalia. 

Theatres. Teatro Bellini (l'l. 95), Piazza della Martorana, the best. 
Circus Guillaume, near Porta Jlacqueda, erected 1871, opens periodically. 

Consuls. American : 3Ir. S. Pearson, A'ia Butera. — British : Mr. George 
Dennis, same street. — There are also German, French, Belgian, and Dutch 
consuls resident here. 

English Church, Via Lolli 44; Scotcli, Via Giuseppe d'Alessi 13, at the 
back of the University. 

The Festival of St. Rosalia (p. 237), 11— 15th July, accompanied with 
horse-races, illuminations, processions to the chapel of the saint, etc., 
attracts a great concourse of country-people to Palermo several days before 
the beginning of the festivities. The Municipio usually contributes 30 — 
40,000 fr., in order that this famous feast may be celebrated with be- 
coming splendour. 

Attractions. During a stay of three days at Palermo the traveller 
should visit : 1st Day. The citv itself, the Museum (p. 232), La Martorana 
(p. 230), the Cathedral (p. 22<j), the Royal Palace (p. 227), the Giardino, La Flora, and the Marina. — 2nd Day. Villa Tasca, Monreale, 
La Zisa (R. 23 a), La Favorita (p. 238). — 3rd Day. Monte Pellegrino 
(R. 23 b) in the. forenoon; in the afternoon the Bagaria, or S. Maria di 
Gesii (R. 23 d). 

Palermo (186,145, and with the surrounding villages 219,398 
inhabitants) forms an oblong quadrangle, one of the shorter sides 
of which adjoins the sea. It is justly entitled to the epithet 
'la felice', on account of its magnificent situation and delightful 
climate. The town is on the whole well built, although the 
houses are not well kept externally. Two main streets divide 
the large quadrangle of the town into four quarters. From the 
Porta Felice on the sea as far as the Porta Nuova by the royal 
palace extends the Cassaro, or Strada Toledo. This street, also 
called Corso Vittorio Emanuele , is intersected at right angles 
by the Strada Macqueda (Corso Garibaldi); at the point of inter- 
section is the octagonal Quattro Cantoni, or Vigliena, a piazza 
constructed in 1609, adorned with colonnades and statues, and 
forming the central point of the city. The E. gate is the Porta 
S. Antonino, the W. Porta Macqueda. The prolongation of the 
street from the Porta della Macqueda is the Str. della Liberia, 
which with the Via dei Capacioti forms the Piazza Quattro Can- 
toni della Campayna, and leads to the Giardino Inglese. 

The principal Town Gates are the Porta Garibaldi or Termini 
(PI. B, 4), near the Porta S. Antonino, by which Garibaldi en- 
tered the town, 27th May, I860; the Porta Montalto (PI. B, 2), 
outside of which the tragedy of the Sicilian Vespers was enacted, 
to the E. of the Palazzo Ilealc ; and the Porta S. Giorgio (PI. E, 5), 
through which the road to Monte Pellegrino (p. 237) leads. 

Palermo is strongly recommended as a winter residence for 
consumptive patients on account of its mild, humid climate. In 
summer, especially when the sirocco blows, the heat is often 

Palazzo Reale. PALERMO :>:>. Route . 'I'll 

The narrow and shallow harbour, in skirting which the ruins of Fort, 
Castcllamare are parsed, called La Cala, extended in ancient and mediaeval 
times far into the city, and was divided between the Piazza Marina and 
Quattro Oantoni into two arms, which enclosed the Acropolis, and separated 
it from the suburbs on the r. and 1. The r. arm extended as far as the 
Palazzo Reale, whence the Greek appellation of the city 'Panormos 1 
(entirely harbour) and its reputation as a seaport, although now inacces 
sible to large vessels. The ancient Panormus was erected on the site of 
the Phoenician settlement Maclianath by the Greeks, but, until the conquest 
of Sicily by the Romans, was one of the most important strongholds of the 
Carthaginian invaders. It was then captured by the Romans and afterwards 
colonised by Augustus. On the fall of the W. empire the city fell under 
the sway of the E. emperors ; in 831 the Arabians, and in 1072 the Normans 
obtained possession of it, and here their emirs and kings resided. After 
1266 the French took possession of Palermo, but were expelled in 1280 (Si- 
cilian Vespers). The monarchs of the house of Arragon seldom resided here. 
Palermo had fallen into the hands of the Chiaramonte, powerful feudal 
barons, who erected a spacious palace for themselves here. Subsequently 
the viceroys of Sicily, notwithstanding the loud remonstrances of Messina, 
selected this city as their residence and ruled here until 1799, when the 
Bourbon Ferdinand IV. was expelled from Naples, and himself took up his 
quarters in the royal palace. After 1815 the viceroys resumed their rule, 
and had to contend against the rebellions of 1820, IS37, and 1848, till 
in 1860 the subversion of the existing government was at last effected. 
A prefect now resides at Palermo. It is the seat of the chief military 
authorities of the island, of the supreme court of justice, and of one 
of the seven Italian universities of the highest rank. The commerce of the 
place is, after Messina, the most considerable in the island ; sumach is the 
principal export. From 1827 to 1848 not a single new house was erected 
in Palermo, but the town has extended considerably since 1860, espe- 
cially towards the S. W. It is divided into six sections ; the four former di- 
visions were called Rioni. 

With the exception of the Catacombs, outside the Porta 
d'Ossuna (to the r. of the Porta Nuova), discovered in 1785, 
and traces of a Roman House recently excavated in the Piazza 
of the palace, with a fine mosaic, Palermo now possesses no 
ancient architectural remains. For admission to these, apply 
to the Commissione delle Auticftita (Antico Collegio de' Gesuiti. 
PI. 79). This want, however, is amply compensated for by the 
interesting mediaeval monuments (p. 220) and the museum 
(p. 232). 

We start from the Porta Nuova at the W. end of the city. 

The * Palazzo Reale (PI. 87) rises on a slight eminence, 
which has in all ages been the site of the castle of the city. 
It is of Saracenic origin. Robert (iuiscard, King Roger, the two 
Williams, Frederick II., and Manfred added to the structure, 
and it afterwards underwent many alterations. 

When approached from the Toledo, the last door to the 
1. leads to the palace-court. Here on the first floor, in the r. 
wing, is situated the celebrated **Cappella Palatina, erected by 
Roger I. in 1132, and dedicated to St. Peter, a most magni- 
ficent specimen of mediaeval architecture, and accounted the most 
beautiful castle-chapel in the world ( when closed, it is opened 
by the custodian, who lives on the opposite side of the"arcades, 
No. 83; fee i/ 2 *'r. )• 


228 Route SS. PALERMO. Spedale Grande. 

Including the apse, the church it is 108 ft. in length, and 42 ft. in width. 
It is a basilica consisting of nave and aisles with a choir five steps higher, 
and is entered by a vestibule of seven columns, six of which are of Egyptian 
granite. The Saracenic pointed arches of the aisles are supported by five 
granite or cipolline Corinthian columns , 16 ft. in height. The walls 
are covered with "Mosaics on a gold ground , representing subjects from 
the Old Testament, and the. lives of Christ, St. Peter, and St. Paul. In 
the centre of the apse Christ is represented in the style which recurs in 
all Norman mosaics, the finest specimen of which is at Cefalu (comp. 
p. 220). The dome, rising 59 ft. above the mosaic pavement, is per- 
forated by eight narrow windows, and bears Greek and Latin inscriptions. 
The characters on the other portion of the ceiling are Cufic or ancient 
Arabian. An ambo or reading-desk on the r. , and a marble candlestick, 
15 ft. in height, also deserve inspection. The Gothic choir-stalls are 

The tower of 8. Ninfa, containing the observatory (director 
Sign. Caceiatore), is regarded as the most ancient portion of the 
castle (shown 8 — 3 o'clock; ascend from the court by the stair 
opposite the entrance ; then follow a passage to the 1. beneath the 
arcades of the 3rd floor, and ascend again by a stair on the r. ; 
custodian 1/2 — 1 f r ) 

Magnificent ''panorama from the summit: at the feet of the spectator 
lies the Piazza Vittoria, above the I. angle of which rises S. Rosalia; in 
front of the latter the Pal. Vescovile: r. the Toledo, to the 1. beyond it 
the harbour, commanded on the 1. by the Monte f'ellegrino; 1. in the 
background the mountains of the Capo Gallo ; below them, in the fore- 
ground, the Porta Nuova, where Garibaldi once resided ; I., farther distant, 
La Zisa, a yellow building with numerous windows; farther to the 1. in 
the background the pointed Monte Cuccio, prolonged on the 1. by tie 1 hill 
of Monreale. Farther to the I., at the spectator's feet, the Giardino Reale, 
above it the Piazza delf Indipendenza with the obelisks. In the foreground, 
S.E., the tower of the red church of S. Giovanni degli Eremiti, beyond 
it the cypress-grove of the Campo Santo; in the distance, at the base of 
the lofty M. Griffone, lies S. Maria di Gesii ; more to the 1., M. Catalfano, 
abutting on the sea; on the promontory, to the r. of the latter, the 

Besides the Cappella Palatina the palace contains the so- 
called Stanza, di Ruai/iero , with interesting mosaics , and an 
apartment with portraits of the viceroys. 

In the vicinity, behind the Piazza i>t:lla Vittoria (PI. 0. 2). 
or palace yard, where a Statue of Philip IV. stands, and separated 
from the palace by the street leading to the Porta di Castro, is 
situated *S. Giovanni degli Eremiti (PI. 32) (generally closed; 
entrance Via de" Henedittini 36, fee y.> — 1 fr.), one of the 
earliest existing Norman churches, and still presenting an almost 
entirely oriental aspect. The church is constructed in the form 
of a so-called Egyptian cross (T), with three apses, a large, 
and four smaller domes. Adjacent to the church , the bell of 
which was the first to ring the alarm on the occasion of the 
massacre known as the Sicilian Vespers, are small, but interesting 
cloisters, in a dilapidated condition. 

Opposite the palace stands the Spedale Grande (PI. 93), 
erected within the space of one year by Count Matteo Sclafani 
in 1330, purclia-.eil by the city in 1440 for the sum of lfil) on- 

Cathedral. PALKKMO -J-J. Route. "i*29 

eie (about 75/. >terl. ). now a barrack. The arcades of the 
court are decorated (r.J with a large fresco of the 15th cent, by 
Antonio Crcsc.tnzio, the Triumph of Death', in a style resembling 
the Florentine (p. '221). 'Paradise', another large fresco by Pietro 
\orelli, 1634, is much damaged. 

The N. W. corner of the Piazza is occupied by the Archi- 
ijiiKCopul Piituce (PI. 84); the facade towards the Piazza del 
Duomo hi its present form dates from the 16th cent. ; beautiful 
Dothic windows. The tower, connected with the cathedral by a 
graceful arch, was erected in the Pith cent. 

To the r. in the Cokso Yittokio Kmanvklk, formerly the 
Toledo, and separated from it by the Piazza del Duonio, i-tands 
the *Cattedrale, il Duomo della S. Rosalia (PI. 15; generally 
closed 12 — 4 o'clock), a remarkable edifice, in which restorations 
to its disadvantage have been undertaken in each century since 
its foundation. It was erected in 1169 — 1185 on the site of 
a more ancient church which had been converted into a mosque, 
and subsequently reconverted into a Christian place of worship 
by the English Archbishop Walter of the Mill (Uualterio Ofl'amilio). 
The crypts, part of the S. side, and the E. end are the only 
remaining portions of the original structure. The chapel of S. 
Maria l'incoronata . a remnant of the most ancient cathedral, in 
which the Sicilian monarchs were wont to be crowned, was 
destroy eel by the bombardment of i860. The 8. portal is an 
approximation to the northern Gothic style. The \V. Facade, with 
the principal portal and the two towers, was erected in 1300 — 
1359, and the whole disfigured in 1781 — 1801 by a dome 
constructed by the .Neapolitan architect Fernando Fuga in spite 
of the remonstrances of the Sicilian architects. The restoration 
of the interior was undertaken by the same individual. 

The r. aisle (!. of the S. Portal.) contains the Tombs of the King/. Here, 
in sarcophagi of porphyry, surmounted by canopies, repose : King Roger 
(d. 1154); his daughter ("onstanee, wile of Henry VI. (d. 1198) ; his son- 
in-law Henry VI. (d. 1191), and his illustrious grandson Frederick II. 
(d. 1250). The sarcophagus of the latter, home by tour lions, is the linest. 
I'll the wall to (he l'. of the mortuary chapel are recorded the privileges 
granted to the city ley Frederick, inlaid in marble. In 1781 the sa rcophagi 
were transferred hither from a chapel contiguous to the choir, and opened. 
The remains of Henry VI. and Constance were greatly decomposed, whilst 
those of Frederick II. were in a good state of preservation. AN' i til the 
latter the remains of two other bodies were found, one unknown, the other 
probably that of Peter II. of Arragon. The corpse, of the great emperor 
was enveloped in sumptuous robes with inscriptions in Arabic ; beside him 
lay the' crown and imperial apple, and his sword. The sacristy con- 
tains the imperial crowns and remains of robes, to which access cannot 
always lie obtained (10 a. m. the best hour, application may be made to 
one of the facchini of tin' church). 

The marble sculptures of the church are chiefly by Antonio Guy'ini, the 
linest of which are those on the pilasters of the Chapel of »S7. Jtusa/ia, to 
the r. of the high-altar. Here the saint reposes in a sarcophagus of silver, 
1300 lbs. in weight, exhibited only on 11th Jan., 15th July, and 4th Sept. 
The choir, which possesses line old carved stalls, is separated from the 

230 Route 22. PALERMO. Martorana. 

church by a marble screen. The statues in the niches, Christ and the 
Apostles, are by G<u/i/ii. The crypt beneath the chuir, containing the 
remains of the archbishops, some of them in ancient sarcophagi, should also 
be visited. Here, among others, repose Gualterio Offamilio, and the arch- 
bishops Frederick and Peter of Antioch, both of Hohenstaufen extraction. 

Proceeding hence by tlie Corso towards the sea, we pass (1.) the 
Collegia Nuovo (PL 79) of the Jesuits, which now contains the 
National Library (open the whole day) and the Lyceum, and 
reach (r.) the small Piazza. Bologni , adorned with a Statue 
of Charles V. by Scipione Livolsi da Susa. To the W. stands 
the Palazzo Villa franca. 

Continuing to descend, we reach the Quattro Cantoni (p. 226), 
and , passing the richly decorated church of 8. Giuseppe clei 
Teatini (PI. 35"), follow the Via fthtcqueda towards the E. (r.), 
leading to one of the most interesting quarters of the town. 

To the 1. of the Via Macqueda is the Piazza Pretoria with a 
large Fountain erected in the 16th cent, by order of the viceroy 
Garcia di Toledo; the Palazzo del Municipio ( PL 86), containing 
on the ground-floor Homan inscriptions and monuments, and in 
the large saloon on the first floor a *statue of the youthful Dio- 
iiysus. erroneously called Antinous ; and the mansion of the Duoa 
di Serradifalco. 

A few paces farther the Post-Office (PL SS) is reached, with- 
in the precincts of which is situated the deserted church of 
8. Cataldo, a remarkable specimen of Sicilian-Norman architecture, 
probably erected previous to 1161 by Count Sylvester, the grand- 
son of Duke Roger 1. 

Adjacent to the post-office buildings stands the celebrated 
church of S. Maria dell' Ammiraglio, commonly called *la 
Martorana (PL 54), erected by Georgios Antiochenos, grand- 
admiral of Roger I. and Roger II., in honour of the Virgin, 
during the rirst half of the 12th cent., as the well-preserved 
mosaic of the Madonna in the first chapel to the 1. of the 
entrance shows. The church was originally quadrangular, with 
three apses towards the N., and a dome borne by four columns, 
entirely Byzantine in character , adorned inside and out with 
mosaics. In 1590 the nuns of the convent Martorana (founded 
in 1193, and in 1433 presented with the church, whence the 
name) caused the edifice to be extended towards the W. In 
16S5 the central apse was demolished and replaced by a square 
chapel, and in 1726 the work of destruction was carried still 
farther by the removal of the mosaics from the walls. The 
church is, however, now being restored in accordance with the 
ancient plan. One of the eight Corinthian columns bears Arabic 
inscriptions. To the r. a representation in mosaic: King Roger 
crowned by Christ. The original mosaics in the apses on the 
r. and 1. and tho^f in the dome are furnished with Greek 

La Maginne. PALERMO. 22. Route. 231 

inscriptions. Over the altar, which is richly adorned with lapis 
lazuli, is an Ascension by Vine. Anemolo. 

The two upper storeys of the four-storeyed campanile date from 
the 14th cent. In 1726 the dome was removed in consequence 
of the damage done by an earthquake. 

To the r. in the Via Macqueda, opposite the post-office, is 
situated the University (PI. 99). 

In the street adjoining the university on the r. we reach 
the Casa Professa (PI. 13), with the Jesuits' Church , com- 
pleted in 1683, and overladen with ornament. Adjacent is the 
Bibliotecn Comunale (PI. 77), entered by a Doric vestibule. It 
contains a most valuable collection of books and MSS. relating 
to Sicilian history. On the first floor is the 'Historical Hall'. 
open daily from 9 to 2. Returning hence to the Via Macque- 
da, we reach the extensive Palazzo Paternb , with handsome 
arcades in the court, and, near the Porta San Antonino, the 
former Teutonic Lodge, the sadly disfigured church of which 
{La Mayione; PL 42) was founded in the 12th cent, by the 
chancellor Matteo Ajeilo of Salerno, and presented to the Teu- 
tonic Order by Frederick II. 

If we follow the Corso, or Toledo, and cross the Onattro Cantoni 
in the direction of the sea, after 5 min. a transverse street ( Via 
Ointorinaria) to tha r. leads us to S. Francesco d' Assist (PL 25), 
in the piazza of that name. This church is a Norman structure, 
of which the facade now alone remains. The interior contains 
remains of frescoes by Novelli, of which that over the entrance 
is the best preserved. 

About 3 min. walk farther the Toledo emerges on the Largo 
df.lla Marina (PL C, o), one of the finest in Palermo, adorned 
with fountains and grounds. Here is situated the historically 
remarkable Palazzo dei Tribunali (PL 98), erected by Manfred 
Cliiaramonte in 1307. Queen Bianca resided here in 1410, and 
victims of the Inquisition were subsequently confined here down 
to 1 7S2. The building is now occupied by the courts of justice 
and the dogana. The well-preserved court is entered through 
the Dogana Regia. 

In the neighbouring Via Alloro are the monastery delta <ian- 
zia (PL 28), the monks of which have acted a prominent part 
in every revolution, including that of I860, and the Palazzo 

Farther on, to the L, is the small church of S. Marin delta 
Catena (PL 47), erected in 1400 on the site of an earlier 
edifice. The facade , in which the ancient style predominates. 
exhibits the unusually deprensed form of arch frequently 
seen in S. Italy towards the close of the Oothic period. The 
Loggia overlooks the small harbour of La Cal<i. — Following the 
Toledo, we reach the Piazza di S. Spiritn, with the Conserratorio 

232 Route >:>. PALERMO. Museum. 

( Foundling Hospital, etc. ) of that name, founded in 1608. hevond 
which are the Porta Felice and the promenades skirting the coast. 

The finest of the other churches is S. Domenico (PI. '22'), 
in the piazza of that name, erected in 1640, and capable of ac- 
commodating 12,000 persons. It contains several good pictures 
by Pietro Novelli and Yincenzo Ainemolo. 

Near S. Domenico is the "Museum, formerly in the Uni- 
versity, but lately transferred to the suppressed monastery dei 
Filippini all' Olivella (PI. 63), near the Porta Macqueda (open 
daily, 10 — 3, except Sundays and Mondays, adm. 1 f r ; closed 
from Wednesday of Passion Week to Easter Tuesday inclusive). 

Antiquities. A small court with a colonnade is first entered, a door on 
the 1. side of which leads to the collection of vases and the picture-gal- 
lery. We then pass through more extensive cloisters , along the walls of 
which are placed Etruscan cinerary urns, to the Museum. A room is first 
entered containing two freely restored statues of Jupiter from Soluntum 
and a Cesar from Tyndaris, as well as several tomb-cippi and sarcophagi. 
Heyund this, to the r., is a room with busts, a statue of Marcus Aurelius, 
and other sculptures. The arrangement of all these is still uncompleted. 
A door to the 1. in the latter room leads to the principal saloon of the 
Museum, containing the celebrated ■ Metopae of Selinus, the most ancient 
specimens of Greek sculpture, with the exception of the lions of Mycene. 
(comp.Introd., p. xxxn). They belong to different periods. The oldest, dating 
from the first half of the 7th cent., still bear traces of the Oriental style from 
which Greek art derives its origin. 1. A Quadriga (combat of Peleus and 
(Enomaus) ; 2. Perseus slaying the Medusa ; 3. Hercules Melampygos with the 
Cercopes. These reliefs belonged to the central temple (C) of the W. hill of 
Selinus (p. 244), and were discovered in 1823. — 4. and 5. Fragments of 
temple F of the Neapolis of Selinus, representing, as is conjectured, a contest 
between the gods and giants, probably coeval with those from the temple of 
vKgina, now at Munich. 6 — LO. From the pronaos and posticum of temple 
E, and probably belonging to the 5th cent. : ::: 6. Heracles and Hippolyta ; 
■7. Zeus and Hera on Ida; :: 8. Diana and AcUeon ; 9. Athene and the 
giant Pallos; 10. Apollo and Daphne, erroneously so called. These were 
discovered by Cavallari in 1831. The nude portions of the female figures 
are inlaid in white marble. In 1865 the same investigator discovered 
another fragment, with the altar of Hera from temple E, a Greek in- 
scription, and remains of the statue of the goddess. — The two Greek- 
Phoenician sarcophagi from Cannita near Palermo (p. 239), placed near the 
entrance-door, should also be examined. — The door to the 1. leads into 
other rooms, in which there are temporarily placed an yEsculapius from 
Girgcnti, an archaic Venus, a Minerva of the same character, a small 
Marsyas of pavona/./etto, a y r oung satyr from Pompeii, Greek tomb-reliefs, 
and fragments of sculptures. 

The Picture Gallery (approached from the small entrance-court), 
although not extensive, merits a visit. Most of the pictures are from sup- 
pressed, churches and monasteries. Their arrangement is still uncom- 
pleted. Those in the Coeiuoou or the Second Flood: . being of inferior 
value, need not detain us long. The best are: Bafbalunijn, a pupil of Do- 
menichino, St. Cecilia: School of liubens, Holy Family, injured by clean- 
ing: Palma Vtrcluo, Holy Family; Skelch in colours and drawings from 
Novelli's fresco in Ihe Spedale Grande which is now obliterated : Spnytio- 
Ivtto, Pieta; Van Jhirk , Andromeda (completely painted over), and a. 
martyr (St. Ursula?); Ainemolo, SI. Conrad. — The PooM with Skyliuhts 
contains all the works of the native masters (p. 221): ('iimvlio. Madonna, 
with mosaic frame; numerous unknown altar-pieces of the 14th and I5(h 
cent., the chief of which is a Coronation of (he Madonna. It is curious 
to observe how long the Gothic style of framing these altar-pieces pre- 

Museum . PALERMO . <2'2 . Route . 2 33 

vailed. The latest, and also best, of the whole series bears the dale 1462. 
Next follows, Antonio Cresceiizio, Madonna enthroned, and surrounded by 
six saints and the donor. Ainemolo: Scourging of Christ, with the in- 
scription, 'expensis nationis Lombardorum, 1542"; six small scenes from 
the childhood and youth of Christ, including a charming Presentation in 
the Temple ^ a curious representation of the Madonna as the deliverer of 
souls from purgatory; predella scenes in connection with the St. Conrad 
in the corridor; and lastly the master-piece of this painter, the Descent 
from the Cross, sombre but harmonious in colouring, tender in sentiment, 
iind admirably executed. The Coronation of the Virgin attributed to An- 
tonello da Messina is of German origin; and the St. Thomas Aquinas, 
victorious over the heretic Averrhoes, and surrounded by a numerous con- 
gregation, is by Antonello da Saliba. The gallery contains a good collec- 
tion of the works of JVovelU, the last great Sicilian master, including his 
portrait by himself, Madonna enthroned, with saints, the Communion of 
Mary Magdalene, SS. Anna and Mary, and the Release of Peter from 
prison. Among Novelli's favourite and frequently recurring types are tall 
and almost exaggerated forms which strike the spectator, especially in the 
case of female figures, but in his delineation of characters advanced in 
life he rivals the best masters of the Neapolitan school. — The gem of 
the collection, a work of the highest merit, is preserved in a cabinet on 
the third floor along with several Italian and Netherlands pictures of no 
great value: a small -'Altar-piece with wings, or diptych, of the School of 
Van Kyck. This picture would not be unworthy of John van Eyck him- 
self, but the clear colouring and the miniature-like execution point to 
some later master (perhaps Gerhard David). When the shutters are closed 
the spectator is presented with a scene of Adam and Eve in a richly 
peopled Paradise. Adam's head is very naturalistic, but the figure is not 
inaccurately drawn. In the background is an angel driving the pair out 
at the gate of Paradise. On the wings being opened, we perceive in the 
central scene a Madonna in a red robe, enthroned on a broad Gothic 
choir-stall, with her flowing hair covered with a white cloth. In her lap 
is the Infant Christ; on her r. and 1. are angels singing and playing on 
instruments, beautiful and lifelike figures. On the 1. wing is represented 
St. Catharine, on the r. wing St. Dorothea, the former holding up a richly 
executed ring, the latter with white and red roses in her lap, and both 
with angels at their side. The delicate execution of the trinkets on the 
drapery of the female figures and the pleasing landscape in the background 
as far as the extreme distance are really admirable. This is one of the 
very finest works of the early Flemish school. It formerly belonged to 
the Duca di Malcagna, and was presented to the museum as a 'Durer\ 
The black case, covered with leather and adorned with Gothic ornaments, 
is probably coeval with the picture itself. 

The Room adjoining the last contains the celebrated 'Ram of Syra- 
cuse (the fellow to which disappeared in the Revolution of 1S48). Facing 
us: Hercules capturing the Arcadian stag, a group in bronze from Pom- 
peii. Along the sides of the room, six vases from Girgenti ; on the 
second on the 1., the Finding of Triptolemus. 

By the entrance-wall, to the 1., is a collection of vases of Lower Italy, 
to the r. terracottas and vases from Gela. Above these are two Pompeian 
pictures, a tragic and a comic scene. By the 1. window-wall is a cabinet 
of golden trinkets. The other cabinets contain reliefs and figures in terra- 
cotta, votive limbs, and vases, chiefly from Sicily. 

Private Collections are not numerous at Palermo. The Sep- 
timiana library of the Principe Trabia (Pal. Trabia, Via Macqueda 
387) contains valuable works on the history of Sicily. The ca- 
binet of antiquities contains several good Sicilian vases. The 
tine collection of Venetian glass is rarely shown (apply to the 
intendant). — Agostino Gallo , the historian of art , possesses a 
valuable collection of portraits of celebrated Sicilians. 

234 2,3. Route. PALERMO. Environs 

Of Mediaeval Architecture of the later period Palermo pos- 
sesses many interesting examples in secular buildings, scattered 
throughout the city. Besides the Chiaramonte (p. 231), Sclafani 
(p. 228), and Patella (p. 231) palaces, and the Gothic window of 
the arohiepiscopal palace (p. 229), the connoisseur should examine 
the remains of a palace near S. Antonio in the Via della Ver- 
gini (PI. D, 4), those in the Via del Protonotaro , the tower of 
the palace of the Duoa di Pietratagliata, and that of the Qnaranta 

* Walks. *La Marina, on the coast, between the Porta 
Felice and the public garden. La Flora, a favourite and fashion- 
able evening promenade in summer (concerts from May to 
September 9 — 12 p. m.), is planted with flowering trees (ery- 
thrina corallodendron and cercis siliquastrum), and has recently 
been extended and embellished. Then the Oiardino Inglese 
(PI. J, 4). Also the beautiful Oiardino Garibaldi, in the Piazza 
Marina (PI. C, f»). The Botanical Garden (PI. A, B, 5), adjoin- 
ing the Flora, containing many rare exotics, and the Garden of 
Acclimatisation in the Stradone di Mezzo Monreale are interesting 
both to botanists and non-scientific, visitors. 

23. Environs of Palermo. 

a. Monreale. 

La Cuba. La Zisa. S. Martina. 

Distance to Monreale about 5 M. Monotonous road as far as the 
Salita (carr. 2 — 2'|2 fi'.), where a carriage may generally be found for the 
return-journey. The ascent, of the hill thence is a pleasant walk of >|v lir. 
by the old road. Carriages for the excursion may also be hired outside 
the Porta Nuova, 5 fr., including a stay of l'|j — 'I hrs. The locandas at 
Monreale are poor; the least objectionable is that opposite the cathedral. 
Those who purpose spending several hours at Monreale and then proceeding 
to S. Martino (p. 230), about, 3 M. farther, will do well to take a supply of 
provisions in their carriage. Those who ride or walk from Monreale to 
S. Martino may send the carriage back to Boccadifalco (p. 236), directing 
the driver to wait there. Donkey 2'|2 — 3<|:2fr. Beggars and donkey-attendants 
in the town often excessively insolent. The excursion to S. Martino is 
hardly safe, in the present state of the country, without an escort- 
When the Porta Nuova is quitted, the Largo di S. Teresa or 
dell' Indipendenza (PI. C, 1) is entered. The perfectly straight 
prolongation of the Str. Toledo leads to Monreale. The road to 
the 1., the Str. Porrazzi, leads to Parco. On it is situated the 
f'asa de' Matti, a well-conducted lunatic asylum. 

Farther on, to the r. in the piazza, stands the Palace of the 
Due d'Aumale. Although the duke has not visited this mansion 
since 1860, the extensive garden is well kept, and should be 
visited by those whose stay at Palermo permits (trifling fee). 
On the road to Monreale, the extensive poor-house is situated 
on the r., and on the 1. the — 

of Palermo. MONREALE. 23. Route. 235 

*Cuba, now a barrack, but once a Saracenic chateau, which, 
as is conjectured from the illegible Arabic inscription on the 
parapet, was altered by William II. in 1181. The palace, in the 
interior of which are still preserved remains of handsome decora- 
tions in the Moorish style, was surrounded by an extensive park 
and fish-ponds. A pavilion once belonging to it is now on the 
opposite side of the street in the garden of the Cavaliere Napoli, 
and is called La Cubola (Decamerone v, 6). 

Farther on, on the 1. side of the road, is the Capuchin Mo- 
nastery, in the subterranean corridors of which are preserved the 
mummified bodies of wealthy inhabitants of Palermo, sumptuously 
decorated. This grotesque and melancholy spectacle should be 
seen by the curious. A pleasanter impression is produced by a 
visit to the charming *Villa Tasca, to the 1. of the road, where 
the Swiss cottage stands. Conte Tasca, one of the first syste- 
matic farmers of Sicily, possesses an experimental station here, 
and has surrounded his summer-residence with the most beautiful 
garden at Palermo (no fee ; visitors ring at the entrance to the 
flower-garden). A little farther, the road, constructed by the 
celebrated Archbishop Testa of Monreale, ascends by windings to 
the 'royal mount' (1231 ft.), on which in 1174 William II. founded 
a Benedictine abbey, and in 1170 — 76 erected the far-famed — 

** Cathedral of Monreale, around which a town of 15,561 
inhab. has sprung up since Monreale became the seat of the 
second archbishopric in the island. The church, in the form of 
a Latin cross, 333 ft. long and 132 ft. wide, possesses three 
apses, a nave, and two aisles. The entrance is flanked by two 
square towers. The magnificent portal possesses three admirable 
* bronze doors dating from 1186, the largest of them executed 
by 'Bonannus Civis Pisanus', the two others by Barisano, and 
adorned with reliefs from sacred history. The pointed arch of 
the nave is supported by eighteen columns of granite. The transept 
is approached by five steps. Four pillars support the pointed 
vaulting which is constructed quite in the Arabian style , and 
much depressed like that of the portal. 

The mosaics with which the walls of the church are entirely covered 
occupy a space of 60,896 sq. ft., and consist of three different classes: scenes 
from the Old Testament (prophecies of the Messiah), from the life of the 
Saviour, and from the lives of the apostles. The nave contains Old Testa- 
ment subjects down to the Wrestling of Jacob with the Angel, in two rows 
of twenty tableaux. Each aisle contains nine, and each transept fifteen 
scenes from the history of Christ. On the arches of the transept are 
subjects from the life of SS. Peter and Paul. In the tribune the bust of 
Christ (with the inscription, 7. Xq. nanoxgihoig) ; beneath it a Madonna in 
Trono with two angels and the Apostles at the side ; under these are 
fourteen saints. In the niches at the sides Peter and Paul. Above the 
royal throne is portrayed King William in the act of receiving the crown 
direct from Christ (not from the pope !) ; above the avchiepiscopal seat 
he is represented as offering a model of the cathedral to the Virgin. — 
Sarcophagi in the transepts contain the remains of William I. and his 
three suns Knuer (d. 1164), Henrv Id. 1179), and William II. The monu- 

236 Route -23. LA ZISA. 


ment of the latter in the r. aisle was erected in 1575. The I. transept 
contains line wood-carving in high-relief. 

The church was seriously injured by lire on 11th Nov., 
1811, but has been judiciously restored. The visitor should not 
omit to ascend to the roof of the cathedral for the sake of 
the magnificent *vie\v it affords. The garden of the monastery 
(reached by going round to the back of the cathedral) also 
commands a charming prospect; the atmosphere here in spring- 
is laden with the delicious fragrance of the orange-blossoms. 
Of the ancient Benedictine monastery, which AVilliam supplied 
with monks from La Cava, nothing remains save the celebrated 
"Cloisters, the pointed vaulting of which is adorned with mosaics 
and supported by 216 columns in pairs. The capitals are all 
different, the shafts also vary (date 1200). — In the modern 
monastery the marble staircase adorned with pictures by Velas- 
quez (not the Spanish master of that name) and Pietro Novello 
(Monrealese) are the principal objects of admiration. — The 
library contains a valuable collection of Arabic documents, ancient 
pictures , etc. , all of which are enumerated in detail in the 

From Monreale a steep path to the r. (Le Scale) ascends in 
1 hr. to the top of the hill , crowned by a now deserted fort 
(2558 ft.). After passing the culminant point, we descend to 
the ancient Benedictine monastery of S, Martino, founded by 
Gregory the Great. Magnificent *view. Handsome entrance- 
hall. The museum contains antiquities of no great value, but 
several well-executed vases, and paintings by Monrealese. The 
library possesses several beautifully illuminated missals. With 
this library is connected the reminiscence of the extraordinary 
historical forgeries of the Abate Giuseppe Vella, who had founded 
a history of Sicily on a forged Arabic MS., but was detected by 
the oriental linguist Hager of Vienna in 1794. 

From San Martino we descend to the picturesque valley 
of Boccadifalco , and thus return to Palermo. To the 1. is 
the Convento di Baida, now occupied by Franciscan Minorites, 
but founded by Manfred Chiaramonte for Cistercians. Here in 
the 10th cent, lay Buidhu, a Saracenic village which was connected 
with Palermo by a row of houses. The terrace affords a fine view. 
In the vicinity is the not easily accessible stalactite cavern Quattro 
Arce. The village of Alturello di Baida contains remains of 
Mimnermum, a place founded by Roger. Farther on, the piazza 
Olirussza is reached, where the * Villa Serradifalco (PI. G, 1), 
remarkable for its beautiful grounds and luxuriant vegetation, is 
situated. (The celebrated Villa Bulera, now demolished, was for- 
merly adjacent. ) 

In the vicinity, about 1 M. from the Porta Nuova, stands 
the Saracenic chateau *La Zisa (fiacre from the town 2 f'r.j, 

of Palermo. MONTE PELLEGRINO. 23. Route. 237 

the flat roof of which affords the finest *vie\v of Palermo. This 
edifice was founded by William I. on the site of a Saracenic 
palace, of which the fountain-enclosure and a vault with pigeon- 
holes in the upper storey are now the sole remnants. Beneath 
an archway decorated with honey-combed vaulting an abundant 
fountain flows over marble steps. It formerly emptied itself into 
a fish-pond with a pavilion in the centre. The Arabic inscription 
is of the Norman period. Of the house, the property of the 
Marchese San Giovanni, visitors see the fountain-vault and the 
platform only (fee '/i — 1 fr-)- One of the large neighbouring 
orange-gardens should be visited for the sake of seeing their 
luxuriant vegetation (trifling fee). 

b. Monte Pellegrino. The Favorita. 

'Monte Pellegrino, an indescribably beautiful mass of rock, consisting 
of grey limestone of very early formation, rises at the N. W. extremity 
of the gulf of Palermo. In a cavern in this mountain the remains of 
St. Rosalia (according to tradition, a niece of William II., who whilst in 
the bloom of youth lied hither from motives of piety) were discovered in 
1GG4, and conveyed to Palermo. Their presence at once banished the plague 
then raging, and from that time St. Rosalia has been the patron saint of 
the city. Chapels were erected and brilliant festivals instituted in her 
honour. The devout undertook pilgrimages to the mountain. A pathway 
supported by buttresses and arches leads to the sacred spot, which far 
better befits the humility of the saint than the sumptuous festivities 
which are celebrated to commemorate her retirement from the world. 1 


We quit Palermo by the Porta S. Giorgio (PI. F, 5), and reach 
the foot of the mountain by carriage (in ^2 nr -i l'/2 fr.J ; the 
ascent (1958 ft.) takes an hour more (donkey 2 fr.). The ex- 
cursion has of late been considered somewhat hazardous. To 
the r. as the city is quitted stands Fort Castellamare , half de- 
molished in 1810 ; then on the harbour to the 1. the spacious 
prison. On arriving at the foot of the mountain we perceive 
the Villa Belmonte to the r. , on an eminence by the sea , to 
which, if time permit, we may drive for the sake of the view 
it commands. 

The path at first ascends in steep zigzags , but afterwards 
becomes easier. Large herds of cattle , horses , and donkeys 
graze on the summit in spring. As lately as the 15th cent, the 
mountain was clothed with underwood. Hamilcar Barca culti- 
vated corn here, on the Eircta, when in B. C. 247 — 241 he settled 
on the mountain with his soldiers and their families in order 
to keep the Roman garrison of Panormus in check. Under 
an overhanging rock of the summit of the mountain , which 
is not easily accessible from the opposite side, is the Qrolto 
of St. Rosalia , where some pleasant hours may be spent, 
provided the noisy hounds of the quail-hunters do not happen 
to be shut up in the neighbouring yard. The grotto has been 
converted into a church by the addition of a vestibule (dwelling 

238 Route 23. BAGARIA. Environs 

of the -parroco' to the l.J. The water which constantly trickles 
down the sides is collected and carried off in leaden gutters. 
The small decorated cavern in which the holy maiden performed 
her devotions is shown by candle-light; in front of it a re- 
cumbent statue by the Florentine Gregorio Tedeschi , with 
sumptuously gilded robes. 'The head and hands of white marble 
are, if not faultless in style, at least so natural and pleasing 
that one cannot help expecting to see them move' (Goethe). 
On quitting the chapel we proceed to the 1., passing the dirty 
cottages, to the small * Temple (20 min. walk farther), com- 
manding the finest view towards the sea. The colossal statue 
of the saint is said to have been deprived of its head by 
lightning. Good walkers may now descend by goat-paths towards 
the S.W. direct to the Favorita; others will prefer to retrace 
their steps and descend by the same path. 

Between Monte Pellegrino and the mountains W. of Palermo 
lies a flat plain, partially separated from the sea on the N. by 
the Capo Gallo. The city is quitted by the Porta Macqueda, 
beyond which the Str. della Liberia (on the r. the monument 
of Ruggiero Settimo, the Sicilian nobleman and patriot, d. 1862, 
as honorary president of the Italian senate) leads to the Oinrdino 
Inglese, adorned with a bust of Garibaldi, and, passing a number 
of villas belonging to the nobility of Palermo, to the royal 
chateau of La Favorita (a 'permesso', procurable at the hotels, 
is necessary for the chateau itself, but not for the park). This 
magnificent country-residence was erected by Ferdinand IV. in 
the Chinese style, hung with innumerable little bells, and surroun- 
ded by grounds with winding walks planted with box. — Travellers 
interested in agriculture should now proceed to the Istituto 
Agrario, founded by Carlo Cutto, Principe di Castelnuovo, who 
acted a conspicuous part in the events of 1812. (After bequeath- 
ing a considerable sum to the man 'who should succeed in re- 
establishing the constitution of Sicily', he committed suicide by 
voluntary starvation.) 

c. Bagarla. Solanto. 

Railway to Bagaria (and Termini), three trains daily ; tares 1 fr. 50, 
1 fr. 10, or 80 c. — Carriage 8—10 fr. — The railway-station lies outside the 
Porta S. Antonino (PI. B, 3). Travellers starting by the first train may 
inspect the most interesting points of Solanto and Bagaria, and continue 
their journey by the next train to Termini (p. 263). 

A short distance from the town the railway crosses the 
Oreto ; beyond it, to the 1. below, is seen the lofty arch of 
the now abandoned Ponte del Ammiraglio, constructed in 1113 
by the admiral Georgios Antiochenos. Immediately adjoining it 
are situated the ruins of the most ancient Norman church in 
Sicily, San Giovanni dei Leprosi, founded by Roger. Here, 
in B. C. 251, the consul Metellus conquered the Carthaginians, 

of Palermo. SOLANTO. 23. Route. 239 

and captured 120 elephants. In the neighbouring bay Duqucsue 
annihilated the greater part of the united Dutch and Spanish 
fleets in 1673. Traversing the most fertile district of the coast 
at the base of Monte Griffone, in which the Saracens once cul- 
tivated the sugar-cane, the train stops at stations (5 M.) Fi- 
carazelli, (6'/4 M.) Fiearazzi, and — 

8 M. Bagaria, or Bayheria, a country-town containing groups 
of palatial villas of Sicilian nobles, abandoned after the pro- 
prietors had ruined themselves by celebrating festivals here in 
honour of Queen Caroline at the beginning of the present 
century. Of these the Palazzo Valguarnera alone merits a visit, 
for the sake of the magnificent view which it commands. The 
Villa Butera, Villa Palayonia, and others contain a few works 
of art in a fantastic; and quaint style. At (10 M.) stat. Sta. 
Flavia Phoenician tombs, which may be regarded as embryo 
catacombs, were discovered in 1864. (Journey hence to Termini 
and Lercara, see p. 262.) 

Omnibus from the station to the church in 20 min., fare 
'/'2 fr. ; thence to the 1. by a road leading from the church 
at a right angle. Then through the last house on the 1. to the 
E. hill of the promontory Catalfano , where the Phoenician 
stronghold Soloeis , or Soluntum , now *Solanto, once lay. The 
period of its destruction, probably by the Saracens, cannot now 
be determined. The ancient paved causeway, ascending the hill 
in zigzags, has been brought to light; to the r. and 1. are 
houses, among which is the so-called Gymnasium, a court with 
colonnade of two storeys (custodian '/ 2 — 1 fr-)- Admirable *view 
from the summit, the site of an ancient temple of Zeus, where 
the statue of Zeus now in the museum at Palermo was found. 
A house with mural paintings here deserves inspection. Towards 
the B., where the Tonnara di Solanto is situated, lay the 
harbour of the town. 

Good walkers may clamber down the steep hill, reach Bagaria 
by a direct footpath, and visit the villas there. From Bagaria 
to the station l l /. 2 M. 

Farther up on the brook Bagaria (the ancient Eleutherus), 1 M. 
to the E. of Portella di Mare, once lay a large Phoenician town, 
afterwards a Saracenic stronghold, called Kasr-Sdd. The modern 
village is Cannita , and the Greek-Phcenician sarcophagi of the 
museum of Palermo were found here. 

d. S. Maria di Gesi. 

Proceeding from the Porta S. Antonino direct towards the 
Monte Griffone, we reach the (23/ 4 M.) suppressed Minorite 
monastery of S. Maria di Gesii (fiacre l'/ 2 fr.). The *view of 
Palermo, with Monte Pellegrino in the background, is so pictur- 
esque that this point is a favourite resort of artists. The hill 

240 Route 2.3. USTICA. 

should be ascended at least as far as the crosses. Near the mon- 
astery , 164 ft. above the sea-level, is the Orotta de' Oiganti, 
where the remains of antediluvian animals (mammoth, etc.), 
formerly supposed to be bones of giants, were found. 

On the way back to Palermo, to the r. of the road, are the 
remnants of the Saracenic-Norman chateau La Favara, now Mare 
Dolce, the magnificence of which Arabian and Jewish travellers 
of the middle ages were never weary of describing, and where 
Frederick II. also held his court. To the 1., as the town is 
approached, extends the Campo di Santo Spiritn, where in 17H2 
the old cemetery was laid out (the new lies on the N. side of 
Monte Pellegrino). In 1173 Walter Offamilio had founded a 
Cistercian monastery here , and in its vicinity a century later, 
31st March, 1282, the massacre of the Sicilian Vespers began, 
during which the bell of S. Giovanni degli Eremiti was tolled. 

From Palermo an excursion may be made by steamboat (on two Sun- 
days of each month, fare 7'|'2 fr.) to the island of Ustica, 41 M. distant, 
and 10 M. in circumference. Its principal mountains are the Falcouieva 
on the E. and the Quadriga di Mezzo (3411 ft.) to the W. The island 
was colonised by the Plnenieians in ancient times, and was subsequently 
taken by the Romans. During the middle ages it was but thinly peopled'. 
As lately as 1762 the whole population was murdered or carried oil' by pi- 
rates. The number of inhabitants is now 2231. The cavernous forma- 
tions here are interesting to geologists. Fossil cunchylia are also found in 
the island. 

24. From Palermo to Segesta, Castelvetrano, and 

The most direct route to the ruins of Segesta and Selinunto is by Cala- 
tafimi, and thence by Salemi to Castelvetrano. 1st Day. By diligence (9 fr. 
6(1 c.l or periodica to Calatalimi (40'^ M.). 2nd Day. to Segesta, 4 M. from 
Cakttallmi, and back; then to Castelvetrano (27 M., dilig. 6 fr. 45 c. ). 3rd 
Day. To Selinunto and beyond it, see R. 25. Three-horse carr. from Palermo 
to Castelvetrano, where the carriage-road terminates, 60 — 70 fr. and a 
gratuity. — Those who contemplate visiting Segesta only, and returning to 
Palermo, may, if the steamboats suit, extend their excursion to Trapani 
and Monte S. Uiuliano (p. 240) : 1st Day, to CalataPimi ; 2nd Day, to Segesta 
and by diligence to Trapani (5 fr. 55 c); 3rd Day, to Monte S. Giuliauo ; 
4th Day, by steamer from Trapani to Palermo. Or in the reverse direction, 
by steamboat to Trapani and back by diligence. The steamers of the 
Florio Co. run once weekly from Palermo to Syracuse by Trapani. Those 
who desire to visit Segesta only cannot accomplish the journey by carriage 
without change of horses in less than three days. The distance is shorter 
via Alcamo (30 M.| and thence direct to Segesta (8'|a 31.1, but this route is 
generally considered hazardous. Carriage for 3 days (ill— 70 fr., and 3 — 5 fr. 

The road to Trapani leads by — 

(4 M.j Monreale, and crosses the beautiful valley of the Simeto 
with its luxuriant orange-groves, beyond which the small town 
of f'/trc.o becomes visible on the 1. and the slope of M. Caputo 
is ascended. After an ascent of 1 /-2 M- tne road turns to the W., 
enters a desolate rocky valley enclosed by precipitous mountains, 
which on all sides belong to the monks of S. Martino, and de- 

ALCAMO. 24. Route. 241 

scends to the small town of Borghetto (6000 inhab.). A fertile, 
well-irrigated tract is now traversed, in which near (liardinello 
the Due d'Aumale possesses extensive and admirably farmed 
estates (znppo). From Borghetto the road leads by a royal do- 
main (1.), and past the base of the Montayna delta Crnc.e, a red 
limestone-rock, to the country-town of — 

(17 M.) Sola di Partinico (Locanda della Bambina), with a 
population of 19,072. Beyond the mountain-chain which towers 
to the N. of Partinico (Mte. Belvedere and Mte. Orso), not far 
from the sea, is situated Carini, once the free Sicanian town of 
Hyc.cara, whence in 41") the Athenians are said to have carried 
off the afterwards so celebrated courtezan Lais , then a girl of 
12 years. Beyond Partinico the dreary village of Valguarnera is 
passed. The conical mountain to the 1. , adjoining M. Mitro 
( 3546 ft. J , is the Pizzo di Marabella. The road then lead-; 
through several ravines to — 

(30 M.J Alcamo [Albergo Italiano, in a side-street, opposite the 
cathedral, and Locanda della Fortuna, both tolerable), a town of 
Arabian origin, with 19,518 inhab. In 1223, after an insurrection, 
Frederick 11. substituted a Christian for the Saracenic population, 
but the town (853 ft. above the sea-level) still has a somewhat 
oriental appearance. Above it rises the Mte. Bonifato. or della 
Madonna dell' Autu (Alto) (2713 ft. J, whence a magnificent pro- 
spect of the Bay of Castellamare is obtained. The house pointed 
out here as that of Ciullo d'AIcamo, the earliest Sicilian poet, is 
in reality of much more re ent origin. 

From Alcamo the road descends into the valley of the Fiume 
Freddo, the Crimissus of the ancients, on the banks of which, 
nearer its source, Timoleon with 11,000 men defeated 70,000 
Carthaginians, whilst the latter were attempting to cross the river, 
B. G. 340. On the left bank of the mouth of the river lies 
Castellamare, which gives its name to the entire bay between the 
promontory of S. Vito on the W. and Rama on the B. It was 
once the seaport of Segesta , and now carries on a considerable 
trade with Italy (8986 inhab. J, but has the reputation of being 
a very hotbed of Sicilian brigandage. 

The road now ascends from the Fiume Freddo to — 

(40 M.J Calatafimi [Locanda di Matteo, poor; Albergo Ga- 
ribaldi alia Piazza Maggiore , very rustic ; bargaining necessary 
at both ; the cure' Niccolb Consentino may be applied to for in- 
formation). If we ascend the principal street , a good footpath 
diverging to the r. beyond the town will lead us to the summit 
of the castle hill. Fine *view hence of the temple, the town 
below, and the extensive mountainous landscape in the environs. 

A visit to (4 M. ) Segesta requires 4 — 5 hrs., guide necessary 
(2 — 3 fr., Niccolb Morsellino recommended; mule 2 1 /., — 3 fr.). 
The path is rugged, but extremely picturesque. It descends im- 
Baedkkf.r. Italy III. 5th Edition. 16 

242 Routt 'J. 1. SEGESTA. From Palermo 

mediately from the town to the N. into a sudden valley, watered 
by several brooks. Before us rises the almost perpendicular Mte. 
Barbaro , on the summit of which Segesta was situated. It is 
advisable to ascend to the 1. of the mountain by the course of 
the Fiumara Pispisa, to visit the temple beyond M. Barbaro first, 
and thence to ascend to the summit, from which the descent 
may either be made by the ancient approach to the town to 
the Fiumara, or again by the temple, and then to the r. round 
the mountain to Calatanmi. 

Segesta (Eyesta), one of the most ancient towns in the is- 
land, was not of Greek origin, and though completely Hellenised 
after the lapse of centuries, it was incessantly engaged in war 
with its Greek neighbours. 

The Greeks entertained the unfounded opinion that the Egestans were 
descended from the Trojans, who settled here near the warm springs of 
the Scamander ( Fiume Gaggera), and had combined with the Elymi so as 
to form a distinct people. During the Roman period the tradition accord- 
ingly anise that the town was founded by ^Eneas. The ancient town ex- 
perienced the most disastrous vicissitudes. Oppressed by the inhabitants 
of Selinus, the Egestans invited the Athenians to their aid, and after the 
defeat of the latter at Syracuse, they surrendered to the Carthaginians, 
who destroyed Selinus and Egesta also. After that period the temple 
remained uncompleted. The town, however, recovered, and hoped to throw 
off the Carthaginian yoke by seeking the co-operation of Agathocles; but 
the tyrant on his return from an expedition against Carthage massacred 
the ill-fated inhabitants on the banks of the Scamander in order to appro- 
priate their treasures, whilst others were sold as slaves. The town was 
then named Dicseopolis. During the first Punic War the inhabitants allied 
themselves with the Romans and changed the name of their town from 
the ill-omened Egesta (egestas) to Segesta. The Romans, out of vene- 
ration lor the ancient Trojan traditions, accorded them some assistance. 
Verr's despoiled the town of the bronze statue of Demeter, which had once 
been carried off by the Carthaginians and restored by Scipio Africanus. 
The ruins still in existence are the following : — 

The ** Temple , situated outside the town, on an eminence 
(904 ft. J above the Torrente Pispisa, is a peripteros-hexastylos 
of thirty-six columns, but was never completed. The columns 
are therefore unfluted, the steps of the basement unfinished, and 
the eella not begun. In other respects it is one of the best pre- 
served Doric temples in Sicily, and its simple but majestic out- 
lines in this desolate spot are profoundly impressive. Length, 
including the steps, 200, width 86 ft., height of columns with 
capitals 30 ft. and thickness 6 l fe ft., intercolumnia 8'^ ft. in width. 
As the architraves were beginning to give way they were secured 
where necessary with iron rods in 1865. From the temple we 
ascend by the custodian's house to the summit of M. Barbaro, 
the site of the town itself, and enter the Theatre, commanding 
a magnificent view : in the direction of the stage rises M. Inice 
(3491 ft.) in the background, farther to the 1. M. Sparagio 
(3704 ft.), to the r. is the so-called Bosco di Calatafirni, and 
lower down in the valley of the Scamander (Gaggera) are the 
remains of the Thermae Seyestanae, supplied by four different 

to Selinunto. CASTELVETRANO. 24. Route. 243 

warm springs which are passed on the route to Alcamo. The 
diameter of the theatre, which is hewn in the rock, is 208 ft., 
that of the stage 90 ft., and of the orchestra 54 ft. The twentieth 
row of seats adjoining the 'pracinctio' (or barrier between the 
different tiers) is furnished with backs. A few remains of houses 
with Roman and Greek mosaic pavements have recently been 

In returning from the temple we obtain a view of the Held 
(indicated by crosses), where Garibaldi gained the victory of 
15th May, 1860. 

From Calatafimi to Castelyetrano, 27 M. Continuing our 
journey, we first traverse the valley between Calatafimi and Vita, 
from which Garibaldi directed his attack on the 3000 Neapoli- 
tans posted on the heights under Landy. The route is mono- 
tonous and historically uninteresting. 

(44 M.) Vita. (48 M.) Salemi, a town with 13,020 inhab., 
commanded by a ruined castle. The unattractive scenery improves 
as we approach — 

(5972 M.) Castelvetrano (623 ft. J, Sicil. Casteddu Vetranu 
(Locanda delta Pantera, tolerable, charges according to bargain; 
*Caffe and Trattoria di Selinunto, in the Piazza), a provincial 
town with 18,797 inhabitants who are hereditary tenants of the 
fertile district around the town, the property of the dukes of 
Monteleone (of the family of Aragona-Pignatelli). The campanile 
of the church adjacent to the palace of Monteleone affords the 
best panorama of the surrounding plain. The church of £. Gio- 
vanni contains a statue of St. John by Oagini. 

From Castelvetrano to Selinunto (7'/2 M.), a ride of 2'/2 
hrs. (mule there and back 4 tari, i. e. 1 fr. 80 c, and 1 — 2 tari for 
food and gratuity). The Sciacca road is at first followed. A field- 
road then diverges to the r. to the ruined temples of the Neapolis 
on the W. hill. In order to reach the Acropolis the traveller 
should cross the sand-bank as near the sea as possible, as the 
valley between the Neapolis and Acropolis is marshy. 

A custodian is generally to be found at the Acropolis; previous en- 
quiry may be made at Castelvetrano; but his services may well be dis- 
pensed with. A supply of refreshments should be taken for the journey. 

Architects or others intending to make a prolonged stay at Selinunto 
may obtain accommodation at the country house near the 'Pileri dei Gi- 
ganti", by permission of Don Giovanni Viviani at Castelvetrano, the super- 
intendent of Selinunto. An introduction to Cav. Cavallari, the director 
of the excavations at Palermo, is also desirable. 

**Selinus, possessing the grandest ruined temples in Europe, 
was founded in 650 or 628 by colonists from Megara Hybljea 
under Pamniilus, and was the most western settlement of the 
Hellenes in Sicily. On an eminence by the sea, 100 ft. in 
height, to the E. of the river Selinus (Madiuni), Pammilus 
erected the Acropolis, behind which, more inland, the town it- 
self lay. On the opposite hill, separated by a marshy valley 


244 Route 24. 


(Gorgo di Cotone), the credit of having drained which is said to 
be due to the philosopher Empedocles, the Neapolis was founded 
in the 6th cent. The Selinuntians were still engaged in 
the construction of the temples of the latter when Hannibal 
Gisgon destroyed the town in 409. The conflicts between the 
Selinuntians and Egestans , whose territories were contiguous, 
afforded the Athenians, and afterwards the Carthaginians, a pre- 
text for interfering in the affairs of Sicily. Hannibal attacked 
the town with 100,000 men. Help from Syracuse came too 
late; 16,000 inhabitants were put to the sword, and o900 car- 
ried off to Africa as captives ; 2600 only effected their escape to 
Acragas. From that blow Selinus never recovered. Hermocrates, 
the exiled Syracusan patriot, founded a colony here in 407, but 
under the Carthaginian supremacy it never attained to prosperity. 
In the first Punic war it was finally destroyed. As the district 
is unhealthy in summer the town has remained deserted since 
that period. The temples alone were not entirely abandoned, 
for in the early Christian period cells were formed between the 
buttresses and occupied as dwellings. The Mohammedans termed 
the place Rahl-el-Asnam, or 'Village of the Idols', and here 
they resisted the attacks of King Roger. It cannot be exactly 
determined when the columns were overthrown. The temple 
G only appears to have been destroyed by human agency ; the 
ruin of the others was probably caused by an earthquake. The 
sculptures found here belonging to the temples are now in the 
museum at Palermo (comp. Introd., p. xxxm). 

On the W. Mil lie the ruins of four temples, which in the direction 
from S. to N. (according to Serradifalco) we shall designate hy the let- 
ters A, B, C, D, and those on the E. hill, also from S. to N., by the letters 
E, F, and G. The measurements are given approximately in English feet. 

Length of temple including steps 














Width of temple including steps 








Height of columns with capitals . 









Diameter of columns 

33| 4 




2*| 3 

Height of entablature (trabeazione) 




12>| 2 


15>| 3 



_ | 7i|, 



-8i| a 
















A. Peripteros-hexastylos, 14 columns on each side. 2 in the pronaos, 
2 in the posticum, and '2 pilasters. 

B. A small structure, ascribed Ut Hermocrates. 

TP.APANI. 25. Route. 245 

0. Hexastylos-peripteros, with 17 columns (in each side. The Metopse 
1, 2, and 3 in the museum at Palermo were found here. This 
temple was the most important of those on the Acropolis. In front 
of it terminates the Via Sacra which ascends the mountain, the 
gateway of which may still be traced. A portion of the ruined 
wall, however, appears to have been constructed at a later date 
(probably 407) with stones from the temples. It is supposed to 
have been dedicated to Hercules. 

D. Hexastylos-peripteros, with 15 columns on each side. Here the 
Metopre 6 — 10, 3 in the pronaos, and 2 in the posticum, were found 
by Cavallari in 1831. 

F. Hexastylos-peripteros, with 14 columns and double porticus. The 
objectless re-erection of one of the columns has lately been begun 
at an enormous expense. 

G. Octastylos-pseudodipteros-hypeethros, with 17 columns and double 
porticus, uncompleted. 

C was probably the oldest, G the most recent temple. It is un- 
known to what deities they were dedicated; hut E. appears to have been 
sacred to Hera from an inscription found in it in 1865 (beside the altar dis- 
covered there). G, on account of its size, was formerly attributed to Zeus 
Olympius, but an inscription recently found here appears to assign it to 

25. From Palermo to Segesta, Trapani, Marsala, 
and Castelvetrano. 

This route to Segesta and Selimmto requires two days more than the 
preceding ; but those whose time permits should not neglect this oppor- 
tunity of exploring the W. angle of Sicily, and especially the Monte S. 
Giuliano. Four days are requisite for the expedition : 1st, Calataflmi ; 2nd, 
Segesta, and thence to Trapani (23 M. ; dilig. daily except Frid., 5 fr. 
55 c.) ; 3rd, Ascent of Monte S. Giuliano (6 — 7 hrs. there and back), and 
then from Trapani to Marsala (19'|v> M. ; diligence daily except Sat., 4 fr. 
55c); 4th, by Mazzara and Campobello to Castelvetrano (22'|2 M. ; dili- 
gence daily, o fr. 40 c. ; also a periodica). The weekly Syracuse steamboat 
of the Florio line touches regularly at Trapani, and at Marsala and Maz- 
zara alternately. A three-horse carriage for the whole journey mav be 
hired for 100— i 10 fr., and 5—10 fr. gratuity. 

From Palermo to Calataflmi and Segesta , see K. '24. Farther 
on the country is very hilly. Halfway between Calataflmi and 
Trapani stands the solitary inn of • — 

(12M.) Colonnetta, or Canalotti. The surrounding wheat- 
ttelds belong to the inhabitants of Monte S. Oiuliano, the pre- 
cipitous mountain which rises to the r. after the mountains 
forming the peninsula of S. Vito are passed. Skirting the base 
of Mte. S. Giuliano, and passing extensive salt-works on each 
side of the road, we reach — 

(23 M.) Trapani (*Alber go delle Cinque Torri, Largo S. Nic- 
colo, also a restaurant; *Leon d'Oro, Strada Nuova, near the 
gate, Ii. 1 fr., small, dinner not supplied; Caffh delV L'nith Ita- 
liana, Corso), Drepanon, Drepana = sickle, so called from the 
form of the peninsula, now the seat of a prefect and bishop, 
with 26,334 inhabitants. 

In ancient times it was the harbour of Eiyx (Mte. S. Giuliano), but 
was converted into a fortress by Hamilcar Barca about the year 260, and 
peopled with the inhabitants of Eryx. In 249 the Carthaginian admiral 

246 Route 2.5. MONTE SAN GTULIANO. From Palermo 

Adherbal defeated the Koman fleet under the consul Publius Claudius off 
the harbour, and in 242 Drepana was besieged by the consul Lutatius 
Catulus, whose head-quarters were in the island of Columbaria (Colum- 
bara). On this occasion the Carthaginian fleet, laden with stores, on its 
route from JIaretimo to Favignana, was destroyed, March 241, in sight of 
the town, a victory which terminated the First Punic War. During the 
Roman period the town was unimportant. In the middle ages it pros- 
pered as a royal residence. In the JEneii Anchises is represented as 
having died here, and ^neas as having instituted games to his father's me- 
mory. The island described as the goal in the boat-race is now called 
Asinello. Another tradition is that John of Procida formed the conspiracy 
against Charles of Anjou on the Scoglio del Mai Consiglio. It is, however, 
an historical fact that Peter of Arragon, touching here, 30th Aug., 1282, 
on his return from Africa with his fleet, was hailed as the saviour of 
the town. 

Save a few mediaeval structures, Trapani contains nothing 
attractive. The public Library was founded by Ferdelli, a Nea- 
politan minister of war, a native of this place. The Lyceum, 
to the r. in the Corso, contains a natural history collection and 
a picture-gallery (t/ 2 fr.J. The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, on the 
r. side of the Corso, possesses a Crucifixion by Van Dyrk (4th 
chapel on the r.J, freely retouched. 

Pleasant walk to the Torre de' Legni, which is reached in 
10 min. (inclining to the r.) from the gate towards the sea, at 
the end of the Corso. 

Well-executed ornaments in coral and alabaster may be pur- 
chased at Trapani (coral, Michele Marceca; pietra dura. Carlo 
Guida; alabaster, Francesco Marino). 

Excursion to Monte S. Giuliano, very attractive, one of 
the finest in Sicily, half-a-day. The traveller had better ride 
or walk, as the road has been partially destroyed by a landslip 
(to the summit in 2>/ 2 hrs. ; donkeys and mules at the gate, 
2 — 2>/-> fr., attendant '/., — 1 fr. ; carriage with three horses 25 
— 30 fr.). 

*Monte San Giuliano, the Eryx of antiquity, is an isolated 
mountain, 2464 ft. in height, on the summit of which is situated 
a town with 10,542 inhab. (*Trattoria). The road traverses the 
plain already crossed by the traveller on the route to Trapani, 
on which, according to Virgil, ^Eneas celebrated his games. 
The modern water-conduit supplies the town. To the r. is the 
church of the celebrated Madonna di Trapani, erected in 1332. 
Here the road diverges , and pedestrians may ascend from it to 
the 1. by a steep footpath. The precipitous slopes are in some 
places beautifully clothed with wood ; midway the small but fer- 
tile Piano dei Cappuccini, to the r. of which rises the rock Pe- 
trale, 1. La Cintaria. At the entrance of the town stands the 
cathedral , from the campanile of which a line view may be 
enjoyed. The interior, restored in 15(55, contains an ancient 
fountain-coping of almost transparent marble. We now ascend 
through the town to the ivy-clad castle (two towers of which 

to Castelvetrrmo. MONTE S. GTUMANO. 25. Route. 247 

are used as a prison, porter 30 e. ). The rugged, rocky emi- 
nence on which it stands commands a noble prospect of the 
land and sea. To the W. Trapani at the spectator's feet, and 
the /Egadian Islands: Maretimo (ancient Hiera, with the Monte 
Falcone, 2'244 ft.) the most distant, to the 1. Favignana fTEgusa, 
1069 ft.) nearer, r. Levan/.o (Phorbantia), all of which have 
been the property of the Genoese family of the Pallavicini since 
the middle of the 17th cent. Towards the S. stretches the fer- 
tile plain of the coast, with Paceco, the 'town of cucumbers' ; 
in the background Marsala. Towards the E. tower the moun- 
tains of S. Vito (from W. to E. Sparagio, Laccie, Saughe, Santa 
Bannaba, lioeca. and Corvo), and the conical peninsula of Cofano 
extends into the sea, which bounds three sides of the mountain. 
In winter Cape Bon in Africa is occasionally visible, the island 
of Pantellaria (p. 336) frequently. In spring the whole district 
at the feet of the spectator is clothed with the most luxuriant 

On the summit once stood the shrine of Venus Evycina. On this moun- 
tain Phoenician settlers had formerly erected a temple to Aschera, whose 
worship was attended with the most impure rites. No hlood was permitted 
to How on her altar. Melkarth was also worshipped here; the Greeks 
therefore believed the temple to have been founded by Hercules, and 
Dorieus, hrother of Leonidas of Sparta, undertook, as a Heraclides, an ex- 
pedition to conquer this district, hut was defeated and slain by the Phoeni- 
cians and Egestans. During the First Punic War Jiamilcar Barca surprised 
the town and besieged the temple, which was bravely defended by the 
Celtic mercenaries in behalf of Home, but at the same time plundered by 
them. The Romans restored it, furnished it with a guard of 200 men, and 
bestowed on it the revenues of seventeen towns of Sicily (for Eryx, it 
was said, had also been founded by ^Eneas !). According to some the temple 
was founded by Daedalus, and Eryx by a son of Venus and Butes. The 
present name is derived from the tradition that, when the town was be 
sieged by King Roger, he beheld St. Julian putting the Saracens to flight. 

The only remains of the temple of Venus are the foundations 
within the precincts of the castle, the so-called Ponte del Diavolo. 
and the 'Fountain of Venus' in the castle-garden, an ancient re- 
servoir, 4 yds. in width, 8 yds. in length. Of the walls of the 
sacred city of Venus considerable portions still exist beneath the 
present wall, between the gates of Trapani and La Spada, con- 
sisting of huge blocks in layers of equal height. The wall was 
defended by eleven towers at unequal intervals. The entrance to 
the town was obviously between the Monte di Quartiere and the 
Porta la Spada, where in the interior of the town the walls of 
the approach can be traced towards the right. These walls are 
unquestionably of very great antiquity, although it cannot now 
be ascertained by what nation they were erected. The town 
itself, of which Hamilcar Barca once took possession, lay lower 
down on the table-land to the W., immediately above Trapani. 
but no trace of it now exists. 

From Trapani to Marsala, 19'/.> M. The road traverses a 
beautiful awl richly cultivated plain adjoining the const. ('26. VI.) 

248 Route 25. MARSALA. From Palermo 

La Xitta. (21 M.) Paceco, founded in 1609, is famed for its ex- 
tensive cultivation of cucumbers and melons. Beyond it the 
Biryi, the ancient Acithis, is crossed. Here in the plain of 
Falconari, Frederick II. of Sicily routed the united French and 
Neapolitan armies and took Philip of Anjou prisoner, 1st Dec, 
1299. This was the greatest of the tattles which took place 
during the wars after the Sicilian Vespers. To the r. is Lo 
Staynone, a bay bounded by a flat shore , with the islands of 
Borrone, Isola Longa, and nearer the coast Isola S. Pantaleone 
(see below). 

(42!/ 2 M.) Marsala (Locanda U Leone, near the cathedra], 
dirty ; Trinacria, tolerable ; "Trattoria of Francesco Porcelli, at 
the post-office, near the Porta Garibaldi ; *Caffk LUibeo, opposite 
the cathedral) is an important commercial town with 17,732 
(with suburbs 31,350) inhab. , well known for its wine, which 
is generally exported in a 'fortified' state. The principal mer- 
chants are the firms of Ingham, Florio, and Woodhouse, from 
any of whom the traveller is sure to meet with a kind reception. 
Their extensive and interesting establishments are situated on 
the shore to the S. of the town. Garibaldi with 1007 men. 
transported by the 'Piemonte' and 'Lombardo', landed here, on 
11th May, 1860, and marched to Calatafimi by Salemi. The town, 
a modern place, contains nothing noteworthy, except the cathe- 
dral and the harbour. The Municipio (last door on the r.) 
contains an antique animal-group from Motya, a tiger devouring 
a bull. 

Marsala occupies the site of the ancient Lilybaeum, a frag- 
ment of the town-wall of which is preserved near the Porta di 
Trapani. Other relics are the harbour to the N. , where the 
salt-works are now situated, and a few fragments of houses and 
walls on the coast of Capo Boeo (or LUibeo), the most western 
point of Sicily and the nearest to Africa. In the centre of a 
field on the promontory stands the church of S. Giovanni Bat- 
tista, with a subterranean spring in the Grotta della Sibilla 
(Cumana). The sibyl is said to have proclaimed her oracles 
through the medium of the water, which is still an object of 
superstitious veneration. 

Lilybecum was the principal fortress of the Carthaginians in Sicily. 
Pyrrhus besieged it unsuccessfully in 276, after which he quitted the island. 
In 249 — 241 the Romans in vain endeavoured to reduce it during one of 
the most remarkahle sieges on record. Under the Roman supremacy 
Lilybteum was a prosperous city ('splendidissima civitas'), and the seat of 
government for half the island of Sicily. From this point the Roman 
expeditions against Africa, and in modern times those of John of Austria, 
were undertaken. The present name of the town is of Saracenic origin, 
Marsa-Ali, harbour of Ali. Charles V. rendered the entrance to the har- 
bour more inaccessible by causing stones to be sunk, with a view to de- 
prive the barbarians of one of their favourite haunts. Since 1848 the Molo 
has been considerably extended, and is again receiving additions. 

to Casteivetranu. MAZZARA :>5. Route. 219 

On the small island of S. Pantaleo, or *V. I'aidalnoiw, about 6 31. to the 
X. of Marsala, situated in the shallow ' Utaytione' near the coast (boat 
thither l'roni Marsala 4 fr.), was anciently situated the Carthaginian em- 
porium of Motya. The foundations of old walls round the whole island, 
and remains of the gates, especially on the side next the land, with which 
the island was connected by an embankment, are still Iraceable. The latter 
still exists under water, and is used by the natives as a track for their 
waggons. In B. C. 397 the town was besieged and destroyed by Dionysius 
with 80,000 men and 6000 vessels, and the Carthaginian admiral Himilco 
totally routed. With a view to repair this loss the Carthaginiansfounded 

From Marsala to Mazzara, 11 M., the road is straight and 
monotonous. To the 1. are extensive quarries. A great part of 
this district is overgrown with reeds and the low fan-palm 
(charricerops humilis; Sicil. giumarre). 

(53'/2 M.) Mazzara (Locanda Garibaldi, beyond the river; 
Locanda di Mazzaro, tolerable ; Aiberyo Centrale, with trattoria ; 
Trattoria d' Italia), a town with 10,229 inhab., the residence of 
a bishop with a revenue of 200,000 fr., and of numerous monks 
and nuns, is surrounded by a quadrangular wall about 30 ft. in 
height, which is defended in the characteristic Italian style with 
square towers rising from it at intervals. Mazzara, originally 
a colony of the Selinuntians , was destroyed in 409. In 807, 
the Arabians landed at Bas-el-Belat (Punta di Granitola), 6 M. to 
the iS. of Mazzara, with the intention of conquering the island, 
part of which was called Vol di Mazzara down to 1817. The 
ruined fort at the S. W. angle of the town-wall was erected 
by Count Roger in 1072, who also founded the cathedral, which 
contains three ancient sarcophagi (Battle of the Amazons; Wild 
Boar Hunt; Rape of Persephone, freely restored), and a Trans- 
figuration over the high altar by Gagini. On the river Mazarun 
farther up, into the estuary of which the tide penetrates for a 
considerable distance, are situated grottoes in which the 'beati 
Pauli' (Pauliciani) once celebrated their services. The mansion 
of the Coute Buryio and the Capuchin church of the Madonna 
del I'aradiso contain two fine large oriental porcelain vases. 

Beyond Mazzara the road crosses the river Arena, and gra- 
dually ascends to (61 M.) Campobello, where we alight in order 
to visit (in 1 hr.) the *Rocea di Cusa, or quarries of Selinunto, 
situated to the right. The path is bad, but cannot be missed. 
It passes by the Baglio (wine-depot) of Messrs. Ingham and Florid, 
to the r. of the road. On the 1. side of the path lies a monolith, 
10 ft. in diameter, once destined to form part of a column, and 
supposed to have rolled down from the quarries on the r. about 
the year B. C. 409. The principal quarries are on the r. The 
places are distinctly seen where the masses of rock destined for 
the columns of temple G at Selinus (p. 244) were hewn cylindri- 
cally out of the strata. After a portion had been detached from 
the rock at the sides, it was loosened by means of wedges 

250 Route ?«. SCTACCA. From Castelvetrano 

driven in the direction of the cleavage of the strata. The spaces 
between the monoliths and the solid rock are so considerable as 
almost to lead to the belief that machines were used in the 
operation. The blocks appear to have been conveyed from the 
spot on rollers or tramways. 

65 M. Castelvetrano, see p. 243. 

Those who intend visiting Selinunto (p. 243) from Mazzara 
(15 M.. mule about 5 fr.) should procure a trustworthy guide, 
the route being difficult to And. By starting early. Castelvetrano 
may easily be reached the same evening. 

26. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti. 

G2'|2 SI. No carriage-road ; the journey between Selinnnto and Sciacca 
(28 M.) must therefore be made on horseback. From Sciacca to Girgenti 
by rowing-boat in about 4 lirs. (return-boats sometimes to be met with at 
a reduced fare), a shorter, pleasanter, and cheaper journey than the land 
route. The latter is a fatiguing ride of 39 M. to Girgenti , as no toler- 
able quarters for the night an- to be found between Sciacca and Molo di 
Girgenti, the harbour, 4 SI. from the town. The route is very attractive 
at places , and generally considered safe. If mules can be engaged on 
reasonable terms at Palermo for the entire journey, considerable annoyance 
at Castelvetrano will probably be avoided. For 3 mules with 3 attendants 
from Castelvetrano to Sciacca 30 fr. were recently paid; and tor 3 mules 
with one attendant from Sciacca to Girgenti 45 fr. It is proposed to prevent 
such extortion for the future by the introduction of a taritf. .A boat may 
also generally be found at Selinunto to convey travellers to Sciacca (Sir.), 
but cannot be reckoned upon with certainty. The Syracuse steamboat, 
touches at Sciacca (landing or embarcntion 1 fr.) once weekly . a pleasant 
means of conveyance to Girgenti if it should happen to suit the travellers 

If Castelvetrano be quitted early, it is possible to ride in 
one day by the ruins of Selinus to Sciacca (28 M. ; by the 
direct route from Castelvetrano about 24 M.). From the Acro- 
polis we again cross to the Neapolis , traverse wheat-lields and 
vineyards, and reach the Flume Belici (ancient Hypsas), which 
is crossed at a ford. The route then lies partly across the sand 
of the coast, partly through poorly cultivated land, to Sciacca. 
The town of Menfrici (Sicil. Memli; 397 ft.), with 9972 inhab., 
lies a few miles to the left. Near this town the stones out of 
which the Metopae of Selinus were hewn appear to have been 

Sciacca (La Pace, clean; Caffe &' Italia), with 14,292 inhab., 
situated on a bluff eminence (262 ft.) on the coast , occupies 
the site of the Thermae Selinuntinae of antiquity. Tommaso Fa- 
zello (d. 1570), the father of Sicilian history, was born here. 
For the sake, it is said, of acquiring an illustrious countryman, 
he describes Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, who was born at 
Thermie Himerenses (Termini), as a native of Sciacca. In the 
middle ages the town was a place of considerable importance, 
being a royal and not merely a baronial borough. Powerful nobles. 

to Girgenti. MONTE S. CALOGERO. :>fl. Route. 251 

however, also resided here, the ruins of whose castles are still 
to be seen in the town ; the most extensive of these are on the 
E. side of the town- wall. Here rise the ruins of the castles of the 
Luna and Perollo families, whose feuds, the so-called Casi di 
Sciacca, disturbed the tranquillity of the town for a whole 
century (1410 — 1529), a fact which serves to convey an idea of 
the condition of mediaeval Sicily. The Cathedral was founded 
by Julietta, the daughter of Roger I. The finest view is afforded 
by the tower of <S. MicheLe. The Casa, Starepinto and f'usn 
Triolo are interesting specimens of mediaeval architecture. The 
spacious modern palace, with a beautiful garden, at the E. gate, 
is the property of the Marchese San Giacomo. 

Monte S. Calogero (1279 ft.), an isolated cone, 3 31. to the E. of 
Sciacca, deserves a visit on account of the remarkable vapour-baths sit- 
uated there. In the valley between Sciacca and the mountain are the 
sources of the hot sulphur (133° Fahr.) and salt (88°) springs, which at- 
tract numerous patients in summer. The foundation of the vapour-baths 
(Le Sttife; temperature varying from 92° to 104°) was attributed to Dfedalus, 
and the mountain called in ancient times Mons Chronios. The grottoes, 
partially artificial, with unimportant inscriptions, such as the G>otla Taphano 
[delta Diana') and drlle PnlzeUe, are curious. In the middle ages the 
discovery of the efficacy of the baths was attributed to S. Calogero 
(•Mtkos-ytQiav)., and most of the* baths in Sicily are accordingly named after 
that saint, as in ancient times they were all believed to have been estab- 
lished by Dsedalus. The island of Pantellaria is most distinctly visible 
from the Monte S. Calogero. On 18th July, 1831, a volcanic island (/sola 
Ferdinandea), 4 31. in circumference, with a crater, rose from the sea 
between Sciacca and Pantellaria, but on 18th Jan., 1832, entirely disap- 
peared. In 1864 symptoms of a submarine eruption were again observed. 

From Sciacca to Girgenti a fatiguing ride of 37 1 ■> AT. (12 
hrs.). The Fiume Caltabelotta is crossed; to the 1. on a pre- 
cipitous height, on the r. bank of the river, 10 M. inland, 
rises Caltabelotta. About 1 M. to the S., on a loftier summit 
(2428 ft.), now occupied by the church of <9. Maria a Monte 
Vergine, lay Triocala, celebrated for its siege in the Second 
Servile War, B. C. 102. The view from this point is one of the 
finest in Sicily. On the 1. bank is the small town of Ribera. 
Farther on, the river Platani (the ancient Halycus) is crossed, for 
the sake of a halt at Monte Allegro (miserable locanda), after 
20'/2 M. of the journey have been performed. Monte Allegro 
consists of two villages, the older of which, situated on the 
mountain, has been deserted on account of the want of water; 
the newer is lower down. Near the village is a small lake, 
nearly ] /2 M. in diameter, impregnated with carbonate of soda. 

On the Capo Bianco (98 ft.), between the Platani and Monte Allegro, 
lie the ruins of Het'aclea Minoa. At first Maeara, a Sicanian town, stood 
here-, it then became a Cretan and Phoenician settlement (Rvs-Melkarth). 
the Greek Minoa (where the tomb of Minos is still pointed out). It sub- 
sequently became a Lacedsemonian colony under Euryleon, successor of 
I)orieus who was slain at Eryx, and received the name of Ih-rarlea Minoa. 
In 403 it was destroyed by the Carthaginians, then taken from them by 
Agathocles and Pyrrhus. During the First Punic War it again became a 
Carthaginian naval station. When it was finally destroyed is unknown. 
and very few fragments of it now exist. 

252 Route -Jfi. GIRGENTI. From Castelvetrano 

From Monte Allegro the bridle-path traverses a dreary tract, 
partly inland, and partly near the coast. Near Siculiana once lay 
the ancient Ancyra. After a ride of 15 M. the busy harbour 
of Molo di Girgenti (Locanda) or Porto Empedocle is reached, 
where the sulphur and corn-exporters have extensive magazines. 
IJaii/way hence to (4 M.) Girgenti hi 33 min. ; fares 1 fr. 10, 
80 or 45 c. (comp. p. 262). 

Girgenti. 'Locanda Gellia , R. 2 — o, L. and A. l'|.i fr. ; 'Albekgo 
Xuovo di Empedocle , similar charges; "Albekgo Centkale, Strada Atenea 
263, new and clean, R. from l'| 2 , L. and A. 3 | 4 fr., terrace on the roof 
with view of the sea ; Villa di Napoli ; Bella Venezia ; bargaining ne- 
cessary; Koma e Venezia, dear. 

Trattoria Gellia, opposite the Albergo Centrale; Cafe del Commercio, 
adjoining the Albergo Centrale. 

Micliele Pancucci, the custodian of the antiquities, is the best guide to 
the ruins (5 fr. per day), but not absolutely necessary. Models of the 
temples may be purchased of Gerlando Aletto (Piano del Barone). 

Diligence to Palermo daily (except Sat.), also to Catania via Caltani- 
setta and Castrogiovanni. The railway from Palermo to Girgenti will soon 
be completed. 

Girgenti, with 15,925 inhab. (or l?,l l J4 incl. the suburbs), 
the most richly endowed bishopric in Sicily , is the seat of a 
prefect, and the military head-quarters of the district. It has 
recently been provided with water-works, partly constructed from 
an ancient aqueduct. The four gates are the Porta del Molo, 
del Ponte, Biberia, and Panitteri. The sights may he visited in 
one day and a half. 

Acragas ( "A*pa) ag) , 'the most beautiful city of mortals' according 
to Pindar, was founded by colonists from Gela in 582. The Doric set- 
tlers, natives of Crete, introduced the worship of Athene of Lindus and 
also that of Zeus Atabyrius, i. e. the Moloch of Mt. Tabor. After having 
erected a temple to Zeus Polieus, 'the founder of cities', Phalaris, usurped 
the supreme power and ruled from 564 to 549, when he was deposed by 
the Eumenides Telemachus, and an oligarchy of sixty years now began. 
Phalaris had sacrificed human victims to Zeus Atabyrius in red-hot bulls 
of metal, a practice, which, in addition to his tyrannical government, had 
rendered him odious to the Greeks. In 488 Theron subverted the oligarchy, 
and extended the dominions of Acragas as far as the N. coast, where lie 
conquered Himera. Allied with his sonin-law Gelon , the tyrant of Syra- 
cuse, he defeated the Carthaginians at Himera 480 (p. 273), after which he 
devoted his attention to the improvement of Acragas. The town stood on 
a hill descending precipitously on the X. side, and sloping gently towards 
the coast on the S., bounded by the two rivers Acragas ( S. Biagio) and 
Hijpsas (Drago). It consisted of two parts: the Acropolis to the 1., where 
the modern town (1082 ft.) is situated, erroneously called Camiais by many, 
where the temple of Zeus Polieus stood; and the Eock of Athene (1104 ft.) 
(<p the v., with the ancient town extending downwards towards the sea, by 
the walls of which the ruined temples now stand. Besides these there was 
also a Neapolis (Plutarch), which was probably the seaport-town. Prisoners 
of war (of whom many of the citizens possessed as many as 500) each were 
compelled to excavate the subterranean canals; the temples were also erec- 
led at that period, and a large tish-pond constructed. This was the climax 
of the prosperity of Acragas. Theron's successors subsequent to 472 were 
in every respect iiis inferiors. They were at length banished, and from 
Acragas a democratic revolution spread throughout the whole of Sicily. 


A tartica cztta 

|B Torca o cittadeUa 

il numte Taro 
1 // tempio di friove PoUco 
( Santa Maria, dei Greet I 
la rape Atenea 
|3 (7 tempio di Cerere e rroserpina 
(Qtieaa cU San. Biaaio ) 

4 tinea, delle nuwa orientali 
eoatrutte a grandi nxariani 

5 inaresso alia cittd, 

6 d tempio dz (riunone Lacinia 

i^i-B-ph. Artj-rfalt von 

ti" finite antico 

7 Ip nuny meriiHanah taaliate 

in aran parte nella rocca 

8 il tempio deUa Concordia 

9 aland sepolrri softerranez 

10 3 tempio d EreoJe 

11 porta Aurea 

12 U sepotcro di Terone 

13 U tempio d ' Esadapio 

14 sepolchri antudn 

15 d tempio di Giave Ohmpiro 

lfi d tempio di Castor? e diTolkuce 

17 un antieo momansnta I Sine I 

18 piscina 

19 h amdotti Feaa 

20 # tempio <h' Volcano 
21 V oratorio di Falaride 
22 il ponte due ntorti 
2 3 J aara cmticbd 

24 sepolchri ardiehi 

25 (San&'oola favtoixi di faibruw 

26 porta del ponte 

27 convento di San Wto 

28 il Ihtomo 

to Girgenti. GIRGENTI. 2(5. Route. 253 

The constitution, however, established by Empedocles at Acragas appears 
to have been of a mixed character. The wealth of the citizens was 
enormous. 'They built', it has been said of them, 'as if they expected to 
live for ever'. The population has been stated at 800,000, but probably 
did not exceed '^th of that number. After the city had remained neutral 
during the war between Athens and Syracuse, it succumbed in 406 to the 
Carthaginian generals Hamilcar and Hiinilco and the treachery of its 
own leaders. The inhabitants fled during the night to Gela. Himilco 
caused the city to be plundered and the works of art to be sent to Car- 
thage. The temples were burned down (traces of the action of fire may 
be observed on 5fo. 6). Until the time of Timoleon the city remained a 
scene of devastation. That tyrant sent a colony thither, and the town 
again. prospered, at one time as an independent state, at another undei 
the Carthaginian supremacy. In the First Punic War the citizens, as the 
allies of Carthage, were in a position to furnish the Carthaginians with 
a contingent of 25,000 men , and in 262 the Romans besieged the city. 
The battle fought without the walls was not decisive, but was so favourable 
to the Romans, that the Carthaginians were compelled to withdraw 
their troops to Heraclea. The city was then plundered by the Romans, 
and shortly after by the Carthaginian general Karthalo also. In the Second 
Punic War the Carthaginians maintained themselves longest in this part 
of Sicily, and Acragas came into the possession of the Romans only 
through the treachery of the Xumidians. Thenceforward the town (Agri- 
gentuin) was a place of little importance. 

In order to visit the ruins, we quit the town by the Porta 
flel Ponte (PI. 26), and ascend by the suppressed Capuchin 
monastery of S. Vito to the * Rock of Athene , or Uupe 
Atenea (PI. 2). It has been supposed that a temple of Athene 
once stood here, but according to the most recent investigations 
this appears very doubtful. The depression between the town 
and the rock was, according to a local tradition, artificially formed 
by Empedocles to admit of the passage of the Tramontana and 
thus dispel the malaria. The view in every direction is magni- 
ficent. On the E. slope of the rook (689 ft.) are the fragments 
of a small Greek temple 'in antis', said to have been dedicated 
to Ceres and Proserpine (PI. 3). Beneath the Norman church of 
S. Biagio, at the base of the rock, is the Fontanel dei Creci. the 
mouth of an ancient channel 4 M. in length, which supplied 
Girgenti with water. 

We now proceed to the so-called ** Temple of Juno Lacinia 
(PI. 6), which is said to have contained the painting of Juno 
executed by Zeuxis from the live most beautiful virgins of 
Acragas as models. The temple (394 ft.) is magnificently situ- 
ated at the point where the town-wall, which consists of huge 
masses of rock, turns from E. to S. The approach, a few min. 
walk N. of the temple, by which the descent to the Fiume S. 
Riagio is made, is ancient. The temple is a peripteros-hexastylos 
with thirty-four columns of the most perfect period of the Doric 
style (about the year 500). The columns have twenty flutes, 
and their height is five times their diameter. Earthquakes 
have here completed the work of destruction : sixteen pillars 
only are left standing; those on the S. and E. sides have been 
disintegrated by exposure to the .Sirocco. In front of the 

25-1 Route -26. G1RGENTI. From Castelvetntno 

pronaos of the temple are two narrow terraces. To the W. an 
ancient cistern. In the town-wall are tombs. 

The so-called **Xemple of Concord (PI. 8) is one of the best- 
preserved ancient temples in existence, as in the middle ages it 
was converted into a church of S. Oregorio delle Rape. The 
arched openings in the wall of the cella belong to that period. 
The temple is a peripteros-hexastylos, more recent than that of 
Juno Lacinia, but still erected before the decline of the Doric 
style. Its thirty-four columns with the architrave and frontons 
are still standing. The incisions for beams are almost all of later 
origin. Stairs in the corners of the wall of the cella ascend 
to the summit. 

On the 1. of the road, between this and the following temple, 
is the Orotta de Frangipani, a dome-shaped tomb hewn in the 
rock, containing numerous separate loculi. 

Not far from the temple of Concord are the ruins of the so- 
called *Temple of Hercules (PI. 10), a peripteros-hexastylos of 
thirty-eight columns. Regarded in a different light it was an amphi- 
prostylos-hypaethros. Fragments of the entablature, with remains 
of painting, are preserved in the museum at Palermo. It is said 
to have contained the celebrated painting of Alcmene by Zeuxis. 
From this temple the infamous Verres attempted to steal the 
statue of Hercules by night, but the workmen employed by him 
were driven away by the pious Agrigentines. Adjoining the 
temple is the Porta Aurea (PI. 11), the town-gate towards the 
harbour, by which in 210 the Romans entered the town. A 
road to the Molo leads through this gate. Within the walls, 
about 10 min. walk from the gate, is the Norman church of 
S. Niccolb (PI. '25) ; near it a tolerable osteria. The neighbouring 
Oratorium of Phalaris (PI. 21), probably once a small Sacellum, 
was afterwards converted into a Norman chapel. The adjoining 
Panitteri garden contains the Corinthian entablature of an ancient 
circular building and remains of statues. 

To the 1., outside the gate, is the so-called Tomb of Tberon 
(PI. 12), which, like the temple of Castor and Pollux and the 
Oratorium of Phalaris, is of later Greek origin. According to 
Serradifalco, it is a cenotaph of the Roman period ('?). In a house 
between the Tomb of Theron and the confluence of the Acragas 
and Hypsas,. where the army of the Romans was posted during 
the siege, are preserved the fragments of an ancient edifice 
which appears to have been a 'templum in antis', perhaps iden- 
tical with the Temple of /Esculapius (PI. 13), containing the 
celebrated statue of Apollo by Myron, which once stood here. 

Beyond the Porta Aurea are situated the ruins of the **Temple 
of Zeus ( PI. 15), which was never completed. This vast struc- 
ture, extolled by Polybius and described by Diodorus, was erected 

to (Hrytnti. 


I'd. Route. 255 

between 480 and 400. It was a pseudo-pcripteros-hypaethros with 
thirty-seven huge half-columns, six at the entrance, seven at the 
E. extremity, and twelve on each side, each 20 ft. in circum- 
ference, with flutings broad enough to admit of a man standing in 
them, and the same number of pilasters in the interior. In the 
walls of the cella, although uncertain where, stood the colossal 
Telamones or Atlantes, one of which has been reconstructed, and 
measures '25 ft. They are supposed to have been situated above 
the pilasters as bearers of the trabeation. In the tympanum of 
the E. side was represented the contest of the gods with the 
giants, on the W. side the conquest of Troy. l>own to 1401 a 
considerable portion of the temple was still in existence, but it 
has gradually diminished, and in recent times was laid under 
contribution to aid in the construction of the Molo of Girgenti. 

Near this temple M. Cavallari has caused four Doric columns 
of a temple to be placed, which is commonly called that of 
Leda (PI. 16), from a statue of Leda found here. Fragments of 
the entablature bear distinct traces of stucco and colouring. It 
was a peripteros-hexastylos of thirty-four columns. Near it are 
the substructions of the so-called temple of Castor and Pollux. 

The dimensions of the temples (the numbers at the to prefer to the 
plan) are here given approximately in English feet: 

















64i |„ 










Breadth of cella 



22' | 2 



18i| 2 

Height of columns with capitals . 












5«j 3 

5i | 2 

T3| 4 



Height of entablature 



Ill a garden on the farther side of the valley, which is said 
to have once been occupied by the fish-pond (piscina) mentioned 
by Diodorus, are the remains of what is styled the Temple of 
Vulcan (PI. 20), whence a fine view of the temples opposite 
is obtained. Of the spring of oil mentioned by Pliny not a trace 
has been discovered. The Hippodrome was probably situated N. of 
the temple of Vulcan. 

Hemains of the celebrated Cloacae of Phaeax still exist in the 
Piscina, but have not yet been sufficiently explored. The Ca- 
tacombs, or subterranean quarries and caverns below the present 
town are probably of more remote origin. They are visited from 
the entrance to the church del Purgatorio. 

256 Route 28. GIRGENTI. 

The loftily situated Cathedral (1082 ft. ; PL 28), begun in 
the 14th cent., now presents a combination of almost every archi- 
tectural style. The best part is the unfinished tower. The 
interior is modernised. In the N. aisle , between the two first 
columns, is preserved a celebrated marble sarcophagus (shown 
by the sacristan), with representations in relief of the myth of 

On one side Hippolytus hunting and in the act of slaying a hoar. On 
one end Pheedra pining for love, behind her the nurse who unveils her; 
before her young girls playing on the guitar; Cupid discharges his shafts 
from beneath, which Phiedra appears to ward off with her left hand. On 
the other side the nurse divulges to Hippolytus the love of his step-mother ; 
he turns sorrowfully aside. On the fourth side Hippolytus in a recumbent 
position ; behind him the sea-monster. The first and fourth sides are in- 
ferior to the others. The whole is probably a copy, executed during the 
Roman period, from a fine ancient work. 

An acoustic peculiarity in the cathedral is noteworthy. A person 
standing on the steps of the high-altar can distinguish every word spoken 
on the threshold of the principal W. entrance, although the distance is 
upwards of 90 ft. In the N. transept, to the 1., a Madonna by Guido 

The Archives of the cathedral (in the tower) comprise collections of 
documents from the Norman period of Sicilian history; Sicilian popular 
songs of 1680; a letter, the authorship of which is attributed to the devil, 
date 167G ; a fine ancient vase from a tomb of (Hrgenti, etc. 

From the cathedral we proceed to the neighbouring church 
of S. Marin dei Greet (closed, custodian '/., fr.), which contains 
fragments of the Temple of Jupiter Polieus (PI. 1). It was a 
peripteros-hexastylos, but its dimensions are unknown. Its re- 
mains are the most ancient in Girgenti. 

A Museum of antiquities found at Girgenti, especially of vases, 
at present under the supervision of the Kindaco, has recently 
been established. 

The most interesting mediaeval structures are the portal of 
San Giorgio and the Palazzo liuonadonna. 

After a day has been devoted to the examination of the ruins 
outside the town, the following morning may be spent in visiting 
the objects of interest in the town itself, and the afternoon in 
riding to the mud-volcano of Maccaluba, or the traveller may 
prefer to proceed as far as Palma. 

To the N. of Girgenti, 6 31. distant (donkey 2 — 3 fr.), and 3 31. to the 
W. of the road to Palermo, rises the small mud-volcano Maccaluba, a hill 
138 ft. in height (859 ft. above the sea), consisting of clay and limestone. 
It is covered with a number of small cones 2 — 3 it. high, from the fissures 
of which hydrogen is emitted with considerable noise. Mud and stones 
are occasionally hurled into the air to a great, height. In winter after 
continued rain the cones lose their shape. This excursion is recommended 
to the notic of the scientific. 


27. From Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, 
Terranova, Modica ( Vol d'Ispivaj, and Palazzolo. 

From Cirgenti to .Syracuse the traveller may select one of the three 
following principal routes: 1st. Through the interior by Callanisetta, 
Castrogiovauni. and Catania by carriage (R. 29) i 2nd. The. coast-route 
on horseback ; 3rd. By the steamboat, once weekly, which touches at 
Licata and Terranova, stopping 1 hr. at each of these places, a voyage of 
16 hrs. ; embarcation or landing 1 i'r. — The coast-route requires ^'J-j — 5 
days: 1st, Palma, 13 M. (or Licata , 24>j 2 M.); 2nd, Terranova, 28 M. 
(.Vittoria 33i| 2 jr.); 3rd, Modica, 34 M. (Palazzolo 34 Jf.); 4lh, Palazzolo, 
W M. (Syracuse 28 JI.); 5th, Syracuse, 28 M. — From Vittoria a carriage- 
road and diligence-communication (18 fr. 9U c.) to Syracuse, by Uagusa. 
Modica, and Nutn, 79 M. Also from Palazzolo diligence (6 fr. GO c.) to 
Syracuse, 28 M. Private conveyances are more easily procured at Vittoria 
and Jlodiea than at Palazzolo. In order to avoid a long and fatiguing 
ride, as well as an unattractive and often unsafe portion of the route, 
the traveller should if possible avail himself of the steamer from Girgenti 
to Terranova. Travellers staying at Syracuse may r thence, visit the most 
interesting parts of this district (Palazzolo, Val' d'lspica, etc.) in 3 days., 
without undertaking the above route. — For the journey from Cirgenti 
to Licata 34 fr. were recently paid for three saddle horses, one sumpter- 
horse, and two attendants. 

The road from Uirgenti to Palma descends from the Acropolis 
into the ancient city, intersects the valley of the .*. Biayio, and 
ascends to the table-land , where , on a height (1217 ft. J to the 1., 
is situated Furnrn (12,829 inhab. ), with a picturesque chateau of 
the Chiaramonti of the 14th cent. On the summit of a hill 
(1942 ft.) farther to the 1. rises Xuro (10,253 inhab.), also pos- 
sessing a castle of the Chiaramonte family. Traversing pasture- 
land, within a few miles from the sea, which is concealed by a 
low chain of hills, we soon enter the fertile valley of — 

(13 .M.) Palma. The town contains nothing to detain the 
traveller, and a halt is seldom made here unless for the night 
( Vittoria, landlord Sicolo Sortino). 

From Palma the road traverses a beautiful valley with gigantic 
almond-trees (the almonds of Palma are the largest in Sicily), 
and leads to Licata, situated on the Ft time Salso , the ancient 
Himera MeridiomtlU . 

(24'/.2 M.J Licata (La Bella Sicilia. in the principal street), 
with i4,33S inhab., occupies the site of the town which, after the 
destruction of Gela in 2SI), the Tyrant Phintias of Acragas erected 
and named after himself. It lies at the base of a hill, Poyyio 
di S. Anyelo, named Ev.vo;j.o; by the Greeks, because Phalaris once 
sacrificed his human victims here. 

It was an ancient Phoenician-Carthaginian fortilication, garrisoned by 
the Carthaginians during their war with Agathoeles in 310, whilst the 
latter was posted on Monte della Cuardia on the opposite side of the river. 
Agathoeles was defeated chiefly owing to the skill of the Balearic slingers. 
Here in 2ob' Kegulus, before his expedition to Africa, vanquished the Car- 
thaginian llect in one of the greatest naval battles on record, in which 
not fewer than 30U,tlOU men were engaged. Carthalo, favoured by a storm, 
destroyed a large fleet of Itoman transports on this coast in 249. 

BAKDKKER. 111 ".tl> I.'.l:t:..., j ~ ( 

2")8 Rniile -T TERRANOVA. I'rom Oinjenti 

Licata (Aliiata) is the chief commercial town on the S. 
coast of Sicily. Extensive sulphur-exportation. The Messrs. 
Legler, or one of the other large firms, may be applied to in 
case of emergency. 

For the journey from Licata to Terrauova (17 M.) 25 fr. 
were recently paid for three saddle-horses and a sumpter-horse, 
including attendant. For a boat 25 fr. in also charged, in- 
cluding a certificate of health , which the boatmen procure 
(5 fr."). The bargain should be made in the evening, and the 
start made early next morning, as the wind is apt to veer, or 
become too high, towards noon. The road, traversing a sterile 
district , at one place skirts the coast, at another is separated 
from it by hills. As far as the chateau of Falconara, a modern 
residence of Baron Bordinaro, wheat-fields are traversed, and the 
road is bordered with large aloes. High above Falconara rises 
Butera (1319 ft.), a town with 5141 inhab., which in 853 was 
besieged by the Saracens for five months before it succumbed, and 
was one of their Sicilian possessions which they retained longest 
(down to 1089). The next cultivated tract is reached near 
Terrauova, the Campi Geloi of Virgil. The plain here is chiefly 
planted with cotton. The height on the r. immediately before 
Terrauova is reached (Capo Soprano) was the ancient Necropolis, 
where numerous vases have recently been found. 

('41 '/^M.) Terranova (l)omenico Guttilla, in the Corso ; Venice; 
charges at both according to agreement), a seaport with 13,974 
inhab., founded by the Emp. Frederick II., intersected by the 
long Corso from W. to S., contains little to interest the trav- 
eller. Sign. Carlo Navarra possesses a collection of fine ancient 
vases found in the neighbourhood. 

Near Terranova are the remains of Gela, where the dramatist 
.Eschylus died, B. C. 456. 

Gela, founded in 690 by a Dorian colony under Antiphemus of Ithodes 
and Entimus of Crete, so rapidly attained to prosperity that in 582 it was 
itself in a position to send forth a colony to found Acragas. After a 
period of aristocratic government, Hippocrates obtained the supreme 
power. Under his rule Gela rose to the zenith of its prosperity (49S — 
-191). His successor Gelon transferred the scat of government of the 
Deinomenides to Syracuse, carrying with him one-half of the population 
of Gela. The remainder he left under the rule of his brother Hiero. 
In 405 Gela was captured and destroyed by the Carthaginians under Ha- 
milcar. The description given by Diodorus (xin.) proves that the town 
lay to the E. of Terranova, beyond the Fiume of Terranova or (Ada. The 
remains of a Doric temple are still standing about i| 2 31. to the E. of the 
town (Piazza del Molino a Vcnto) ; 300 paces farther is the river. Here 
stood the temple of Apollo, whose celebrated statue was sent by Hamilcar 
to Tyre, where it was found by Alexander the Great. Here also the 
camp of the Carthaginians was pitched. Timoleon re-erected the town 
and peopled it with colonists. Agathocles subsequently caused 5000 of 
the inhabitants to be put to Ibe sword, and Phintias , the Tyrant of 
Acragas, totally destroyed the town, B. <J. 280, Since that period it has 
disappeared from the pages of history. 

to Syracuse. MODIOA. 27. Route. "ifiD 

I-' hum Tekkanova tu I'alazzulo the direct road leads by 1 13 31.) Bis- 
rari and (It 31.) i'/iiaramoitfe, two small towns containing nothing worthy 
of note. As the road, moreover, is bad, most travellers will prefer the 
circuit by Modica, for the sake of seeing the Veil cTlspica, especially as 
the new road is nearly completed. 

The route from Terranova (mule to Vittoria 5 fr., besides 
food for the attendant) runs near the coast, till the rivers Gela 
and Dirillo (ancient Achates') have been crossed (bridges in course 
of construction), and afterwards joins the high road to — 

(58 M.) Vittoria (Albergo di Michele Santonocito, with trat- 
toria , good wine ; Locanda deli Unione) , a town with about 
16,000 inhab. 

The archaeologist is recommended to take the route from Vittoria to 
Modica by Scoolieti, the port of Vittoria, and past the site of the ancient 
Camarilla (19 31.). Camarina was founded by Syracuse in 509. and destroyed 
in 553 for attempting to assert its independence , but was re-ereeted 
by Hippocrates of Gela after the battle of the llelorus (Telluro or Abisso). 
Celon again depopulated the town, but it was a second time colonised by 
Gela in 461. In 439 it was sacked by the Syracusans. and during the war 
with Athens remained neutral. In 405 Dionysius on his retreat compelled 
ihe inhabitants to follow him, and the town was destroyed by the Carthagini- 
ans. In 339 it was re-colonised by Timoleon, but soon afterwards fell into 
the hands of the Romans. In A. D. 853 it was entirely destroyed by Abbas-ibn- 
Fahdl. Camarina was about 31. in circumference, and lay In the r. of 
the river Camarana (ancient Ilipparis), at the point where the chapel of 
the Madonna di Camarana now stands on a sandhill, 100 ft. in height. 

From Camarina we then proceed to (5>|2 31.) 8. Croce (poor inn), and 
(11 31.) Scicli (Locanda del Carmine; Loc. de 1 Carceri), a town with 10,231 
inhab.. on the site of the ancient Syracusan colony Casmenae, founded in 
644. From Scicli to 3Iodica diligence daily, 1 fr. ; from Modica to Koto 
see p. 262. 

From Vittoria to Modica (and beyond it) diligence daily, ex- 
cept Sundays, fare f) fr. 40 c; carriage 17 — 20 fr. 

The road from Vittoria to Modica leads by — 

(62 M.) Cdmiso, a miserable country-town with 15, 8U3 inhab., 
where was once situated the celebrated fountain of Diana , the 
water of which refused to mingle with wine when drawn by 
women of sullied reputation. Beyond Comiso the road, bordered 
with large carob-trees, ascends the hill through shadeless fields. 
Descending to the valley, we perceive to the left — 

(75 M.) (poor inns, the best at Kagusa Inferiore), 
a country-town with 22,000 inhab., most romantically situated, 
probably the ancient Hybla Heraea. It consists of Ragusa Supe- 
riore and Inferiore, each possessing its own administration, post- 
office, etc. The whole of the environs belong to Raron Arezzo 
di Donnafugata, who possesses a cotton-factory here. The neigh- 
bouring rocks contain numerous grottoes. Count Bernardo Cabrera 
(d. 1423), who boldly attempted to possess himself of the crown 
of Sicily, is interred in the church of the Capuchins. 

(S4'/2 M) Modica (*Locanda Bella Italia, with trattoria; L- 
candu of Maestro Giorgio, near the Sotto Prefettura; Locanda 
Xuora. etc.). with 27. 44^ inhab., the capital of the ancient 
county of that name, is situated in a rocky valley, consisting 


260 Route -27. VAL D'ISPICA. From Girgenti 

of two ravines which unite in the town. The height between 
the two valleys affords a survey of the three different arms of 
the town, which itself contains nothing worthy of mention. 

From Modica by the Val d'Ispica to Palazzolo, a journey of 
one day (2 mules 15 fr., and 1 fr. for the attendant), which 
should be commenced at sunrise ; provisions necessary. It is 
not necessary, as the guides sometimes assert, to return from 
the Val d'Ispica to Modica, in order to proceed to Palazzolo; nor 
could that circuit be easily accomplished in a single day. The 
road from Modica to Spaced forno is quitted beyond the road 
which descends to Soicli , and we proceed to the 1. by a very 
rough road to the (6 M.) remarkable and picturesque *Vul 
d'Ispica, a rocky ravine (3 M. in length, in the limestone rook 
of which subterranean dwellings and tombs have been dis- 

The banks of Hie Mediterranean appear to have been peopled during 
a pre-historic period by a race who excavated their dwellings in the 
rocks, and deposited their dead in rocky niches (didieri). Caverns of this 
description have been discovered in Sardinia, the Balearic Islands, in the 
Cyrenaica, and in Etruria. They occur in Sicily in considerable numbers 
in the S. E. angle of the island only, between Terranova and Syracuse; 
a few, however, have been found near Caltabelotta (di San Cono) and 
between Bronte and Maletto dei Giganti. They may perhaps be attributed 
to the Sicanians. At Sparano, a spot between Noto and Palazzolo, a 
Druidical relic, a kind of Celtic dolmen, or, as others call it, a i'/o'ioi; 
has been discovered, which appears to favour the view that the Sicanians 
were of Celtic origin (?). The grottoes of the Val d'Ispica are the most 
numerous and present the greatest variety. Some of them were manifestly 
used as habitations. They either consist of different stories, connected 
in the interior by circular apertures, or of single chambers, the entrances 
to which in the rock are more than the height of a man above the 
ground. Rings hewn in stone which are seen here probably served some 
purpose of domestic economy. Other archaeologists believe these grottoes 
merely to have formed the Necropolis of some ancient city, and not to 
have been employed as dwellings until late in the Christian period. 

At the N. K. outlet of the valley rises the so-called Castello 
d'Ispica, a rock completely honeycombed by grottoes. Other 
grottoes deserving mention are the Spelonca Grossa, Grotta del 
Corvo, and dei Vento. About 10 min. from the entrance, about 
half-way up the hill on the 1., stands a house where wine 
may be procured. Near it a rocky path ascends to the bridle- 
path which leads to — 

Palazzolo Acreide (Locanda Centrale), one of the most inter- 
esting towns of Sicily, with 89H7 inhab. The custodian Sal- 
r a tore M one Lit (fee '2 — o fr.J keeps the keys of the theatre, etc., 
and shows the principal objects of interest in 4 — 5 hrs. Those 
who begin the walk at daybreak may proceed on the same 
day by diligence to Syracuse. Dr. G. Italia-Nieastro is the most 
learned arch;eologist in the place. 

Av.pai (Arabian el Akriit, afterwards Plareolum, Balensul, 
now Puliizzolo) was founded by the Syraeusans in (>0i on the 
sito. it would appear, of a Phijpiiiriau settlement, and belonged 

It) Sijriirusc. 

IWLAZZMI.n. ->:. Route. *2()1 

to the dominions of their city until the latter was conquered by 
Marcellus. The town apparently escaped destruction until the 
wars of the Saracens. The Acropolis and older portion of the 
town stood on the hill which rises above the modern town, and 
were accessible on the E. side only. This eminence is doubtless 
of volcanic origin, as volcanic products are found between the 
limestone rocks. (The whole district abounds in such formations, 
which are most apparent on the route from Vizzini to Buccheri 
and Buscemi.") The top affords a fine view in every direction. 
The approach from the E. was protected by latomire. Tombs 
of all periods have been discovered here , some being of Greek 
origin with reliefs, others apparently of the Christian period. Then 
the so-called Tempio Ferale ; aqueducts; a small Theatre, looking 
to the X.. where on an eminence above a deep ravine the 
-mall town of Buscemi is visible. The theatre is of late Greek 
origin, and contains twelve tiers of seats for 600 spectators. Ad- 
jacent to it is the Odeon, or, according to others, a bath-estab- 
lishment. To the S. of the Acropolis rises the Monte Pineta, 
with numerous mortuary chambers, the so-called Didieri. — In 
the Contriiiin del Santicelli. a valley l 1 /.) M. to the S. of Pineta, 
are the remarkable bas-reliefs, unfortunately mutilated, of the 
'Santoni'. They appear to have appertained to a burial-place; 
on most of them the figure of a goddess (supposed to be Cybele) 
may be distinguished. Not far from this spot is an extensive 
burial-ground, Acrocoro detto della Torre, where some hundreds 
of sarcophagi have been opened. Many of them contained well 
preserved skulls. From E. to W. the skeletons of women were 
found to have been interred, from N. to S. those of men. A 
Phoenician inscription was also found here. — The collection of 
ancient vases, etc. of Baron Judica (Palazzo Judica), who superin- 
tended the excavations on the Acropolis, is in a deplorably 
neglected condition, and interesting to the scientific only. 

From Palazzolo to Syracuse, 28 M. (diligence daily about 
10 a. m., fare 3 fr. 15 c). The road traverses monotonous fields, 
sterile land, and clumps of wood (di Madredonna and Giambra). 
Jhiuli, another wood to the E., is said to be still infested by 
wolves. A short distance beyond Monte Grosse, the first post- 
station, Syracuse becomes visible in the distance. The road leads 
through the small town of S. Paolo, then through Florldia. 
Below Floridia. on the r. side of the road is a ravine which 
the Athenians on their return from Syracuse under Nicias found 
obstructed, thus compelling them to turn towards the S. The 
towns to the 1. are C'assaro and Ferla. Farther towards the N. 
Sorlhio, on an eminence. About -i M. below Floridia. on a 
height to the 1. lies Belvedere, adjoining which are the ruins 
of Euryaius, the most W- fort of the Epipol* of Syracuse. 

•2(V2 Route -27 NOTO. 

From 3Ioi»ica to Syracuse by Noto. 

The diligence-road to No to traverses an uninteresting district. (11 M.) 
Spacfaforno, with 7539 inhab. ; (15 310 Rosolini. 

1 23' 31.) Noto (Aqiiila tVOro, opposite the Dominican monastery, to the v., 
tolerable; Villa di lloma), a pleasant and wealthy town with 14,619 inhab., 
contains handsome palaces of the provincial aristocracy. The fertile dis- 
trict belonging to the town comprises an area of 60 sq. 31. The present 
town was founded in 1703 near the site of Xelmn, which was destroyed 
hy an earthquake in 1693, and had been founded by the Sikelian prince 
Ducetius (about B.C. 450) on the site of a still more ancient town. Traces 
of the latter existed down to the 16th cent, between Noto and Palazzolo, 
in the vicinity of the spot where Count Ruggiero founded the Benedictine 
abbey of S. Lucia (Bauli). Of the second Noto the ruins are still visible, 
4'J2 31. from the present town. — About 431. to the S. of Koto, between the 
rivers Falconara (Asinaros) and Telluro (Heloros), stands La Pizzttta, a frag- 
ment of a Greek column, about 30 ft. in height. It is said to be a remnant 
of the monument erected by the Syracusans in the bed of the Asinarus 
after the sanguinary defeat of the Athenians under Nicias(July, 413). 

An excursion may be made from Noto by a carriage-road to (15 31.) 
Pacehino and the rugged promontory of Passero ( Pachynvm) with its islands, 
harbours (Po>lo d L'lixse, Porto Palo), tunny-fisheries (tonnare), and the 
remains of the ancient city of Hel